Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt

Photographic portrait from 1914
Birth name Gustav Klimt
Born July 14, 1862
Baumgarten, Austrian Empire
Died February 6, 1918(1918-02-06) (aged 55)
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Nationality Imperial Austrian
Field Painter
Movement Symbolism, Art Nouveau
Works Judith and the Head of Holofernes, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I, The Kiss, Danaë
Influenced Egon Schiele

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects. Klimt's primary subject was the female body,[1] and his works are marked by a frank eroticism—nowhere is this more apparent than in his numerous drawings in pencil (see Mulher sentada, below).[2]


Life and work

Early life and education

Egon Schiele, Gustav Klimt in a light Blue Smock, 1913

Gustav Klimt was born in Baumgarten, near Vienna in Austria-Hungary, the second of seven children—three boys and four girls.[3] All three sons displayed artistic talent early on. His father, Ernst Klimt, formerly from Bohemia, was a gold engraver.[4] Ernst married Anna Klimt (née Finster), whose unrealized ambition was to be a musical performer. Klimt lived in poverty for most of his childhood, as work was scarce and economic advancement was difficult for immigrants.

In 1876, Klimt was awarded a scholarship to the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule), where he studied until 1883, and received training as an architectural painter.[4] He revered the foremost history painter of the time, Hans Makart. Klimt readily accepted the principles of a conservative training; his early work may be classified as academic.[4] In 1877 his brother Ernst, who, like his father, would become an engraver, also enrolled in the school. The two brothers and their friend Franz Matsch began working together; by 1880 they had received numerous commissions as a team they called the "Company of Artists", and helped their teacher in painting murals in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.[4] Klimt began his professional career painting interior murals and ceilings in large public buildings on the Ringstraße including a successful series of "Allegories and Emblems".

In 1888, Klimt received the Golden order of Merit from Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria for his contributions to murals painted in the Burgtheater in Vienna.[4] He also became an honorary member of the University of Munich and the University of Vienna. In 1892 both Klimt's father and brother Ernst died, and he had to assume financial responsibility for his father's and brother's families. The tragedies affected his artistic vision as well, and soon he would veer toward a new personal style. In the early 1890s, Klimt met Emilie Flöge, who, notwithstanding the artist's relationships with other women, was to be his companion until the end of his life. Whether his relationship with Flöge was sexual or not is debated, but during that period Klimt fathered at least 14 children.[5]

Vienna secession years

Klimt became one of the founding members and president of the Wiener Sezession (Vienna Secession) in 1897 and of the group's periodical Ver Sacrum ("Sacred Spring"). He remained with the Secession until 1908. The group's goals were to provide exhibitions for unconventional young artists, to bring the best foreign artists' works to Vienna, and to publish its own magazine to showcase members' work.[6] The group declared no manifesto and did not set out to encourage any particular style—Naturalists, Realists, and Symbolists all coexisted. The government supported their efforts and gave them a lease on public land to erect an exhibition hall. The group's symbol was Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of just causes, wisdom, and the arts—and Klimt painted his radical version in 1898.

In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of the Great Hall in the University of Vienna. Not completed until the turn of the century, his three paintings, Philosophy, Medicine and Jurisprudence were criticized for their radical themes and material, which was called "pornographic".[7] Klimt had transformed traditional allegory and symbolism into a new language which was more overtly sexual, and hence more disturbing.[7] The public outcry came from all quarters—political, aesthetic, and religious. As a result, they were not displayed on the ceiling of the Great Hall. This would be the last public commission accepted by the artist. All three paintings were destroyed by retreating SS forces in May 1945. His Nuda Verita (1899) defined his bid to further shake up the establishment. The starkly naked red-headed woman holds the mirror of truth, while above it is a quotation by Schiller in stylized lettering, "If you cannot please everyone with your deeds and your art, please a few. To please many is bad."[8]

A section of the Beethoven Frieze

In 1902, Klimt finished the Beethoven Frieze for the 14th Vienna Secessionist exhibition, which was intended to be a celebration of the composer and featured a monumental, polychromed sculpture by Max Klinger. Meant for the exhibition only, the frieze was painted directly on the walls with light materials. After the exhibition the painting was preserved, although it did not go on display until 1986. The face on the Beethoven portrait resembled the composer and Vienna Court Opera director Gustav Mahler, with whom Klimt had a respectful relationship [9].

During this period Klimt did not confine himself to public commissions. Beginning in the late 1890s he took annual summer holidays with the Flöge family on the shores of Attersee and painted many of his landscapes there. Klimt was largely interested in painting figures; these works constitute the only genre aside from figure-painting which seriously interested Klimt.[10] Klimt's Attersee paintings are of a number and quality so as to merit a separate appreciation. Formally, the landscapes are characterized by the same refinement of design and emphatic patterning as the figural pieces. Deep space in the Attersee works is so efficiently flattened to a single plane, it is believed that Klimt painted them while looking through a telescope.[11]

Golden phase and critical success

The Kiss 1907–1908. Oil on canvas. Österreichische Galerie Belvedere.

Klimt's 'Golden Phase' was marked by positive critical reaction and success. Many of his paintings from this period used gold leaf; the prominent use of gold can first be traced back to Pallas Athene (1898) and Judith I (1901), although the works most popularly associated with this period are the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907) and The Kiss (1907–1908). Klimt travelled little but trips to Venice and Ravenna, both famous for their beautiful mosaics, most likely inspired his gold technique and his Byzantine imagery. In 1904, he collaborated with other artists on the lavish Palais Stoclet, the home of a wealthy Belgian industrialist, which was one of the grandest monuments of the Art Nouveau age. Klimt's contributions to the dining room, including both Fulfillment and Expectation, were some of his finest decorative work, and as he publicly stated, "probably the ultimate stage of my development of ornament."[12] Between 1907 and 1909, Klimt painted five canvases of society women wrapped in fur. His apparent love of costume is expressed in the many photographs of Flöge modeling clothing he designed.

As he worked and relaxed in his home, Klimt normally wore sandals and a long robe with no undergarments. His simple life was somewhat cloistered, devoted to his art and family and little else except the Secessionist Movement, and he avoided café society and other artists socially. Klimt's fame usually brought patrons to his door, and he could afford to be highly selective. His painting method was very deliberate and painstaking at times and he required lengthy sittings by his subjects. Though very active sexually, he kept his affairs discreet and he avoided personal scandal.

Klimt wrote little about his vision or his methods. He wrote mostly postcards to Flöge and kept no diary. In a rare writing called "Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait", he states "I have never painted a self-portrait. I am less interested in myself as a subject for a painting than I am in other people, above all women...There is nothing special about me. I am a painter who paints day after day from morning to night...Who ever wants to know something about me... ought to look carefully at my pictures."[13]

Later life and posthumous success

Adele Bloch-Bauer I, which sold for a record $135 million in 2006. Neue Galerie, New York.

In 1911 his painting Death and Life received first prize in the world exhibitions in Rome. In 1915 his mother Anna died. Klimt died three years later in Vienna on February 6, 1918, having suffered a stroke and pneumonia due to the influenza epidemic of 1918.[14][15][16] He was buried at the Hietzing Cemetery in Vienna. Numerous paintings were left unfinished.

Klimt's paintings have brought some of the highest prices recorded for individual works of art. In November 2003, Klimt's Landhaus am Attersee sold for $29,128,000,[17] but that was soon eclipsed by prices paid for other Klimts.

In 2006, the 1907 portrait, Adele Bloch-Bauer I, was purchased for the Neue Galerie New York by Ronald Lauder for a reported US $135 million, surpassing Picasso's 1905 Boy With a Pipe (sold May 5, 2004 for $104 million), as the highest reported price ever paid for a painting. On August 7, 2006, Christie's auction house announced it was handling the sale of the remaining four works by Klimt that were recovered by Maria Altmann and her co-heirs after their long legal battle against Austria (see Republic of Austria v. Altmann). Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer II was sold at auction in November 2006 for $88 million, the third-highest priced piece of art at auction at the time.[18] The Apple Tree I (ca. 1912) sold for $33 million, Birch Forest (1903) sold for $40.3 million,[19] and Houses in Unterach on Lake Atter (1916) sold for $31 million. Collectively, the five restituted paintings netted over $327 million.[20] A routine Attersee painting fetched $40.4 million at Sotheby's in November 2011 [21].

The city of Vienna, Austria will have many special exhibitions commemorating Klimt's 150th birthday in 2012.

Klimt's Folios

Das Werk Gustav Klimts

The only folio set produced in Klimt's lifetime, Das Werk Gustav Klimts was initially published by H.O. Miethke (of Gallerie Miethke, Klimt's exclusive gallery in Vienna) from 1908 to 1914 in an edition of 300 and was supervised by the artist himself. Fifty images depicting Klimt's most important paintings (1893-1313) were reproduced using collotype lithography, mounted on a heavy, cream-colored wove paper with deckled edges. Thirty-one of the images (ten of which are multicolored) are printed on Chine-collé, while the remaining nineteen are incredibly high quality halftones prints. Each piece was marked with a unique signet - designed by Klimt himself - which was impressed into the wove paper in gold metallic ink. The prints were issued in groups of ten to subscribers, in unbound black paper folders embossed with the artist's name. Due to the delicate nature of collotype lithography, as well as the necessity for multicolored prints (a feat difficult to reproduce with collotypes) and Klimt's own desire for perfection, the series that was published in mid 1908 was not completed until 1914.

Each of the fifty prints were categorized among five themes:

  1. Allegorical (which included multicolored prints of The Golden Knight, 1903 and The Virgin, c.1912)
  2. Mythical/Biblical (Pallas Athena, 1898; Judith and The Head of Holofernes, 1901; and Danaë, c.1908)
  3. Portraits (Emilie Flöge, 1902)
  4. Erotic-Symbolist (Water Serpents I and II, both c.1907-08 and The Kiss, c.1908)
  5. Landscapes (The Sunflower, c. 1906.)

The monochrome collotypes as well as the halftone works were printed with a variety of colored inks ranging from sepia, blue, and green.

Franz Joseph I of Austria was the first person to purchase Das Werk Gustav Klimts in 1908.

Fünfundzwanzig Handzeichnungen

Fünfundzwanzig Handzeichnungen was released the year after Klimt's death and collected 25 drawings, many of which were erotic in nature and just as polarizing as his painted works. Published in Vienna in 1919 by Gilhofer & Ranschburg, the edition of 500 features twenty-five monochrome and two-color collotype reproductions nearly indistinguishable from the drawings they originated from. While the set was released a year after Klimt's death, some art historians suspect he was involved with pre-production due to the printing's meticulous nature (Klimt had overseen the production of the plates for Das Werk Gustav Klimts, making sure each one was to his exact specifications, a level of quality carried through in Fünfundzwanzig Handzeichnungen.) The first ten editions contained an original drawing by Klimt as well.

Many of the works contained in this volume depict erotic scenes of nude women, some of whom are masturbating alone or are coupled in sapphic embraces. When a number of the original drawings were exhibited to the public at Gallerie Miethke in 1910 and the International Exhibition of Prints and Drawings in Vienna in 1913, they were met by critics and viewers who were not shy about their hostility towards Klimt's contemporary perspective. There was an audience for Klimt's erotic drawings however: 15 of his drawings were selected by Viennese poet Franz Blei for his translation of Hellenistic satirist Lucian's Dialogues of the Courteseans. The book, limited to 450 copies, provided Klimt the opportunity to show these more lurid depictions of women and avoided censoring thanks to a minute group of affluent (mostly male) audience.

Gustav Klimt An Aftermath

Composed in 1931 by editor Max Eisler and printed by the Austrian State Printing Office, Gustav Klimt An Aftermath was intended to complete the lifetime folio Das Werk Gustav Klimts. The folio contains 30 colored collotypes (fourteen of which are multicolored) and follows a similar structure found in Das Werk Gustav Klimts, replacing the unique Klimt-designed signets with gold-debossed plate numbers. 150 sets were produced in English, with 20 of them (Nos. I-XX) presented as a "gala edition" bound in gilt leather. The set contains detail images from previously released works (Hygeia from the University Mural Medicine, 1901; a section of the third University Mural Jurisprudence, 1903) as well as unfinished paintings (Adam and Eve; Bridal Progress.)


Selected works

  • University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings
  • Palais Stoclet mosaic in Brussels
  • Fable (1883)
  • Idylle (1884)
  • The Theatre in Taormina (1886–1888)
  • Auditorium in the Old Burgtheater, Vienna (1888)
  • Portrait of Joseph Pembauer, the Pianist and Piano Teacher (1890)
  • Ancient Greece II (Girl from Tanagra) (1890–1891)
  • Portrait of a Lady (Frau Heymann?) (1894)
  • Music I (1895)
  • Love (1895)
  • Sculpture (1896)
  • Tragedy (1897)
  • Music II (1898)
  • Pallas Athene (1898)
  • Flowing water (1898)
  • Portrait of Sonja Knips (1898)
  • Fish Blood (1898)
  • Schubert at the Piano (destroyed)(1899)
  • After the Rain (Garden with Chickens in St Agatha) (1899)
  • Nymphs (Silver Fish) (1899)
  • Mermaids (1899)
  • Philosophy (1899–1907)[22]
  • Nuda Veritas (1899)
  • Portrait of Serena Lederer (1899)
  • Medicine (Hygieia) (1900–1907)
  • Music (Lithograph) (1901)
  • Judith I (1901)
  • Buchenwald (Birkenwald) (1901)
  • Gold Fish (To my critics) (1901–1902)
  • Portrait of Gertha Felsovanyi (1902)
  • Portrait of Emilie Flöge (1902)
  • Beech Forest (1902)
  • Beech Forest I (1902)
  • Beethoven Frieze (1902)[23][24]
  • Beech woods (1903)
  • Hope (1903)
  • Pear Tree (1903)
  • Life is a struggle(1903)
  • Jurisprudence (1903–1907)[25]
  • Water Serpents I (1904–1907)
  • Water Serpents II (1904–1907)
  • The Three Ages of Woman (1905)
  • Portrait of Margaret Stonborough-Wittgenstein (1905)
  • Farm Garden (Flower Garden) (1905–1906)
  • Farm Garden with Sunflowers (1905–1906)
  • The Stoclet Frieze (1905–1909)
  • Portrait of Fritsa Reidler (1906)
  • Sunflower (1906–1907)
  • Hope II (1907–1908)
  • Danaë (1907)
  • Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907)
  • Poppy Field (1907)
  • Schloss Kammer on the Attersee I (1908)
  • The Kiss (1907–1908)
  • Lady with Hat and Feather Boa (1909)
  • The Tree of Life (1909)
  • Judith II (Salomé) (1909)
  • Black Feather Hat (Lady with Feather Hat) (1910)
  • Schloss Kammer on the Attersee III (1910)
  • The Park (1910)
  • Death and Life (1911)
  • Farm Garden with Crucifix (destroyed)(1911–1912)
  • Apple Tree (1912)
  • Forester's House, Weissenbach[disambiguation needed ] on Lake Attersee (1912)
  • Portrait of Mada Primavesi (1912)
  • Semi-nude seated, reclining (1913)
  • Semi-nude seated, with closed eyes (1913)
  • Portrait of Eugenia Primavesi (1913–1914)
  • Lovers, drawn from the right (1914)
  • Portrait of Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt (1914)
  • Semi-nude lying, drawn from the right (1914–1915)
  • Portrait of Friederike Maria Beer (1916)
  • Houses in Unterach on the Attersee (1916)
  • Death and Life (1916)
  • Garden Path with Chickens (destroyed)(1916)
  • The Girl-Friends (destroyed)(1916–1917)
  • Woman seated with thighs apart, drawing (1916–1917)
  • The Dancer (1916–1918)
  • Leda (destroyed) (1917)
  • Portrait of a Lady, en face (1917–1918)
  • The Bride (unfinished) (1917–1918)
  • Adam and Eve (unfinished) (1917–1918)
  • Portrait of Johanna Staude (unfinished) (1917–1918)


According to the writer Frank Whitford : " Klimt of course, is an important artist - he's a very popular artist - but in terms of the history of art, he's a very unimportant artist. Although he sums up so much in his work, about the society in which he found himself - in art historical terms his effect was negligible. So he's an artist really in a cul-de-sac."[26]

  • Klimt's work had a strong influence on the paintings of Egon Schiele, whom he would collaborate with to found the Kunsthalle (Hall of Art) in 1917, to try and keep local artists from going abroad.
  • National Public Radio reported on January 17, 2006 that "The Austrian National Gallery is being compelled by a national arbitration board to return five paintings by Gustav Klimt to a Los Angeles woman, the heir of a Jewish family that had its art stolen by the Nazis. The paintings are estimated to be worth at least $150 million."[27]
  • Klimt's work has spawned many reinterpretations, including the works of Slovak artist Rudolf Fila.
  • Couturier John Galliano found inspiration for the Christian Dior Spring-Summer 2008 haute couture collection in Klimt's work.
  • Romanian poet Sebastian Reichmann has published in 2008 a book called Mocheta lui Klimt (Klimt's Carpet). As the author says in an interview[28] and even in one of the poems from the book, the title was inspired by a carpet from a train he often attended, carpet that reminded him of Klimt's paintings. Also, the front cover depicts an Art Nouveau-styled passage from Bucharest.
  • South Korean novelist Kim Young-ha frequently refers to Klimt, particularly Judith, in his first novel I Have The Right To Destroy Myself. One of the main characters in this novel is referred to by the other characters as Judith because of her resemblance to Klimt's painting and is thus also known primarily as Judith to the reader.
  • Several of Klimt's most famous works from his golden period inspired a Japanese animation title sequence for the series Elfen Lied, in which the art is recreated to fit with the series' own characters and is arranged as a montage with the song "Lilium". The opening to the anime Sound of the Sky is also largely inspired by Klimt's works.

The Painting Gold Coin

The painting coin, featuring Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt and his work have been the subjects of many collector coins and medals. The most recent and prominent one is the famous 100 euro Painting Gold Coin, issued on November 5, 2003. The obverse depicts Klimt in his studio with two unfinished paintings on easels.

Exhibitions Commemorating Klimt's 150th Birthday in 2012

In addition to the permanent exhibitions on display, the city of Vienna, Austria will celebrate the 150th birthday of Klimt with special exhibitions all over the city. Also, guided walking tours through the city will allow people to see some of the buildings where Klimt worked.

See also


  1. ^ " The most important element of his fame is his reputation as a master of eroticism". Fleidel, Gottfried: "Gustav Klimt 1862-1918 The World in Female Form.", p. 14. Benedikt Taschen, 1994.
  2. ^ Sabarsky, Serge, et al., Gustav Klimt: Drawings, p. 18. Moyer Bell Limited, 1983. ISBN 0-918825-19-9
  3. ^ Fliedl, Gottfried, page 230, 1994.
  4. ^ a b c d e Sabarsky, p. 7.
  5. ^ John Collins, Klimt: Modernism In The Making, Harry N. Abrams, 2001, p.99, ISBN 978-0-8109-3524-2
  6. ^ Frank Whitford, Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990. p.69.
  7. ^ a b Sabarsky, p. 9.
  8. ^ Frank Whitford Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990, p.52.
  9. ^
  10. ^ In recognition of his intensity, the locals called him "Waldschrat", Forest Demon. Koja, Stephan, et al.: Gustav Klimt Landscapes, page 27. Prestel, 2002.
  11. ^ Anselm Wagner: "Klimt's Landscapes and the Telescope", Gustav Klimt Landscapes, pages 161-171. Prestel, 2002.
  12. ^ Frank Whitford Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990, p.103
  13. ^ Frank Whitford Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990, p.18
  14. ^ see timeline and life history Retrieved December 12, 2010
  15. ^ Gilles Neret, Gustav Klimt: 1862-1918, Taschen, 1999, p.84. ISBN 3-8228-5980-X
  16. ^ Alessandra Comini, Gustav Klimt, George Braziller, 2001, p.5. ISBN 0-8076-0806-8
  17. ^ Nina Siegal,, Retrieved February 4, 2007.
  18. ^ Christopher Michaud, Christie's stages record art sale, Reuter's, November 9, 2006. Retrieved November 9, 2006.
  19. ^ Kinsella, Eileen: "Gold Rush", Artnews, page 111. January 2007.
  20. ^ Kinsella, Eileen, page 112, January 2007.
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^[dead link]
  26. ^ Whitford, speaking on The Kiss: The Private Life of a Masterpiece, BBC TV
  27. ^ Burbank, Luke Austria to return paintings to Jewish heir, National Public Radio, 17 January 2006.
  28. ^ "cartea romaneasca / catalog / carte". Retrieved 2010-02-28. 


External links

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