- Symbolism (arts)
Precursors and origins
Symbolism was largely a reaction against Naturalism and Realism, anti-idealistic movements which attempted to capture reality in its gritty particularity, and to elevate the humble and the ordinary over the ideal. These movements invited a reaction in favour of
spirituality, the imagination, and dreams; the path to Symbolism begins with that reaction. [Balakian, Anna, "The Symbolist Movement: a critical appraisal". Random House, 1967, ch. 2] Some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before moving in the direction of Symbolism; for Huysmans, this change reflected his awakening interest in religion and spirituality.
In literature, the movement has its roots in "
Les Fleurs du mal" ("The Flowers of Evil", 1857) by Charles Baudelaire. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarméand Paul Verlaineduring the 1860s and '70s. In the 1880s, the esthetic was articulated through a series of manifestoes and attracted a generation of writers. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire greatly admired and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images.
Distinct from the movement in literature, Symbolism in art represents an outgrowth of the darker, gothic, side of
Romanticism; but where Romanticism was impetuous and rebellious, Symbolist art was static and hieratic.
The Symbolist Manifesto
Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture more absolute truths which could only be accessed by indirect methods. Thus, they wrote in a highly metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. The
Symbolist manifesto("Le Symbolisme", "Le Figaro", 18 Sept 1886) was published in 1886 by Jean Moréas. Moréas announced that Symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description," and that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal":
:"Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes ; ce sont là des apparences sensibles destinées à représenter leurs affinités ésotériques avec des Idées primordiales."
::(In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideals.) [Jean Moreas, [http://www.ieeff.org/manifestesymbolisme.htm Le Manifeste du Symbolisme] , "
Le Figaro", 1886]
The Symbolist poets wished to liberate techniques of versification in order to allow greater room for "fluidity", and as such were aligned with the movement towards
free verse, a direction very much in evidence in the poems of Gustave Kahnand Ezra Pound. Symbolist poems sought to evoke, rather than to describe; symbolic imagery was used to signify the state of the poet's soul. Synesthesiawas a prized experience; poets sought to identify and confound the separate senses of scent, sound, and colour. In Baudelaire's poem "Correspondences" which also speaks tellingly of "forêts de symboles" — forests of symbols —
:"Il est des parfums frais comme des chairs d'enfants,
Doux comme les hautbois, verts comme les prairies,
— Et d'autres, corrompus, riches et triomphants,
Ayant l'expansion des choses infinies,
Comme l'ambre, le musc, le benjoin et l'encens,
Qui chantent les transports de l'esprit et des sens."::
(There are perfumes that are fresh like children's flesh,
sweet like oboes, green like meadows
— And others, corrupt, rich, and triumphant,
having the expansiveness of infinite things,
like amber, musc, benzoin, and incense,
which sing of the raptures of the soul and senses.)
and Rimbaud's poem "Voyelles":
:"A noir, E blanc, I rouge, U vert, O bleu : voyelles. . ."::(A black, E white, I red, U green, O blue: vowels. . .)
— both poets seek to identify one sense experience with another.
Paul Verlaine and the "poètes maudits"
But perhaps of the several attempts at defining the essence of Symbolism, none was more influential than
Paul Verlaine's 1884 publication of a series of essays on Tristan Corbière, Arthur Rimbaud, and Stéphane Mallarmé, each of whom Verlaine numbered among the "poètes maudits", "accursed poets."
Verlaine argued that in their individual and very different ways, each of these hitherto neglected poets found
geniusa curse; it isolated them from their contemporaries, and as a result these poets were not at all concerned to avoid hermeticismand idiosyncratic writing styles. [ Paul Verlaine, " [http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Les_Po%C3%A8tes_maudits Les Poètes maudits] "] Verlaine's concept of the "poète maudit" in turn borrows from Baudelaire, who opened his collection " Les fleurs du mal" with the poem " Bénédiction", which describes a poet whose internal serenity remains undisturbed by the contempt of the people surrounding him. [ Charles Baudelaire, " [http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/B%C3%A9n%C3%A9diction Bénédiction] "] In this conception of genius and the role of the poet, Verlaine referred obliquely to the aestheticsof Arthur Schopenhauer, the philosopher of pessimism, who held that the purpose of art was to provide a temporary refuge from the world of blind strife of the will. [Delvaille, Bernard, "La poésie symboliste: anthologie", introduction. ISBN 2-221-50161-6]
Schopenhauer's aestheticsreflected shared concerns with the Symbolist programme; they both tended to look to Art as a contemplative refuge from the world of strife and Will. From this desire for an artistic refuge from the world, the Symbolists took characteristic themes of mysticismand otherworldliness, a keen sense of mortality, and a sense of the malign power of sexuality. Mallarmé's poem "Les fenêtres" [Stephane Mallarmé, [http://cage.ugent.be/~dc/Literature/Mallarme/Mal08.html "Les fenêtres"] ] expresses all of these themes clearly. A dying man in a hospital bed, seeking escape from the pain and dreariness of his physical surroundings, turns toward his window; turns away in disgust from:
:". . . l'homme à l'âme dure
Vautré dans le bonheur, où ses seuls appétits
Mangent, et qui s'entête à chercher cette ordure
Pour l'offrir à la femme allaitant ses petits,"
::". . . the hard-souled man,
Wallowing in happiness, where only his appetites
Feed, and who insists on seeking out this filth
To offer to the wife suckling his children,"
and in contrast, he "turns his back on life" ("tourne l’épaule à la vie") and he exclaims:
:"Je me mire et me vois ange! Et je meurs, et j'aime
— Que la vitre soit l'art, soit la mysticité —
A renaître, portant mon rêve en diadème,
Au ciel antérieur où fleurit la Beauté!"
::"I marvel at myself, I seem an angel! and I die, and I love
--- Whether the glass might be art, or mysticism ---
To be reborn, bearing my dream as a diadem,
Under that former sky where Beauty once flourished!"
The Symbolist movement has frequently been confused with Decadence. Several young writers were derisively referred to in the press as "decadent" in the mid 1880s. Jean Moréas' manifesto was largely a response to this polemic. A few of these writers embraced the term while most avoided it. Although the æsthetics of Symbolism and Decadence can be seen as overlapping in some areas, the two remain distinct.
A number of important literary publications were founded by Symbolists or became associated with the movement; the first was "
La Vogue" founded in April 1886. In October of that same year, Jean Moréas, Gustave Kahn, and Paul Adambegan " Le Symboliste". One of the most important Symbolist journals was " Le Mercure de France", edited by Alfred Vallette, which succeeded "La Pléiade"; founded in 1890, this periodical lasted until 1965. Pierre Louÿsfounded " La conque", a periodical whose Symbolist leanings were alluded to by Jorge Luis Borgesin his story "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote". Other Symbolist literary magazines included " La Revue blanche", " La Revue wagnérienne", " La Plume" and " La Wallonie". Rémy de Gourmontand Félix Fénéonwere literary critics associated with the Symbolist movement. Drama by Symbolist authors formed an important part of the repertoire of the " Théâtre de l'Œuvre" and the " Théâtre des Arts".
The Symbolist and Decadent literary movements were satirized in a book of poetry called "
Les Déliquescences d'Adoré Floupette", published in 1885 by Henri Beauclairand Gabriel Vicaire. [Henri Beauclair and Gabirel Vicaire, [http://www.bmlisieux.com/archives/deliqu01.htm "Les Déliquescences d'Adoré Floupette"] (1885)]
In other media
In the visual arts
Symbolism in literature is distinct from Symbolism in art although the two overlapped on a number of points. In painting, Symbolism was a continuation of some mystical tendencies in the Romantic tradition, which included such artists as
Caspar David Friedrich, Fernand Khnopffand John Henry Fuseliand it was even more closely aligned with the self-consciously dark and private Decadent Movement.
There were several, rather dissimilar, groups of
Symbolist paintersand visual artists, among whom Gustave Moreau, Gustav Klimt, Odilon Redon, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Fantin-Latour, Edvard Munch, Félicien Rops, and Jan Tooropwere numbered. Symbolism in painting had an even larger geographical reach than Symbolism in poetry, reaching Mikhail Vrubel, Nicholas Roerich, Victor Borisov-Musatov, Martiros Saryan, Mikhail Nesterov, Leon Bakstin Russia, as well as Frida Kahloin Mexico, Elihu Vedder, Remedios Varo, Morris Graves, David Chetlahe Paladin, and Elle Nicolaiin the United States. Auguste Rodinis sometimes considered a Symbolist in sculpture.The Symbolist painters mined mythology and dream imagery for a visual language of the soul, seeking evocative paintings that brought to mind a static world of silence. The symbols used in Symbolism are not the familiar emblemsof mainstream iconographybut intensely personal, private, obscure and ambiguous references. More a philosophy than an actual style of art, the Symbolist painters influenced the contemporary Art Nouveaumovement and Les Nabis. In their exploration of dreamlike subjects, symbolist painters are found across centuries and cultures, as they are still today; Bernard Delvaille has described René Magritte's surrealism as "Symbolism plus Freud". [Delvaille, Bernard, "La poésie symboliste: anthologie", introduction. ISBN 2-221-50161-6]
Symbolism had some influence in
musicas well. Many Symbolist writers and critics were early enthusiasts of the music of Richard Wagner, a fellow student of Schopenhauer.
The Symbolist aesthetic had a deep impact on the works of
Claude Debussy. His choices of "libretti", texts, and themes come almost exclusively from the Symbolist canon. Compositions such as his settings of "Cinq poèmes de Baudelaire", various art songs on poems by Verlaine, the opera" Pelléas et Mélisande" with a libretto by Maurice Maeterlinck, and his unfinished sketches that illustrate two Poe stories, " The Devil in the Belfry" and " The Fall of the House of Usher", all indicate that Debussy was profoundly influenced by Symbolist themes and tastes. His best known work, the " Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune", was inspired by a poem by Mallarmé, "L'après-midi d'un faune".
Aleksandr Scriabin's compositions are also influenced by the Symbolist aesthetic.
Arnold Schoenberg's " Pierrot Lunaire" takes its text from German translations of the Symbolist poems by Albert Giraud, showing a link between German expressionism and Symbolism.
Symbolism's cult of the static and hieratic adapted less well to narrative fiction than it did to poetry.
Joris-Karl Huysmans' 1884 novel" À rebours" (English title: "Against Nature") contained many themes which became associated with the Symbolist esthetic. This novel in which very little happens is a catalogue of the tastes and inner life of Des Esseintes, an eccentric, reclusive antihero. The novel was imitated by Oscar Wildein several passages of " The Picture of Dorian Gray". Paul Adamwas the most prolific and most representative author of Symbolist novels. "Les Demoiselles Goubert" co-written with Jean Moréasin 1886 is an important transitional work between Naturalism and Symbolism. Few Symbolists used this form. One exception is Gustave Kahnwho published "Le Roi fou" in 1896. Other fiction that is sometimes considered Symbolist is the cynical misanthropic (and especially, misogynistic) tales of Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly. Gabriele d'Annunziowrote his first novels in the Symbolist vein.
The same emphasis on an internal life of dreams and fantasies have made Symbolist theatre difficult to reconcile with more recent tastes and trends.
Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam's drama " Axel" (rev. ed. 1890) is a definitive Symbolist play; in it, two Rosicrucian aristocrats fall in love while trying to kill each other, only to agree to mutually commit suicide because nothing in life could equal their fantasies. From this play, Edmund Wilsontook the title "Axel's Castle" for his influential study of the Symbolist aftermath in literature.
The later works of the Russian playwright
Anton Chekhovhave been identified as being deeply influenced by Symbolist pessimism. Both Constantin Stanislavskiand Vsevolod Meyerholdexperimented with symbolist modes of staging in their theatrical experiments.
In the English speaking world, the closest counterpart to Symbolism was
Aestheticism; the Pre-Raphaelites, also, were contemporaries of the earlier Symbolists, and have much in common with them. Symbolism had a significant influence on Modernismand its traces can be seen in a number of modernist artists, including T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, Conrad Aiken, Hart Crane, and William Butler Yeatsin the anglophone tradition and Rubén Daríoin Hispanic letters. The early poems of Guillaume Apollinairehave strong affinities with Symbolism. Edmund Wilson's 1931 study "Axel's Castle" focuses on the continuity with Symbolism and a number of important writers of the early twentieth century, with a particular focus on Yeats, Eliot, Paul Valéry, Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein. Wilson concluded that the Symbolists represented a dreaming retreat into:
:". . .things that are dying—the whole belle-lettristic tradition of Renaissance culture perhaps, compelled to specialize more and more, more and more driven in on itself, as industrialism and democratic education have come to press it closer and closer."
As the movement was losing its forward movement in France, after the turn of the twentieth century it became a major force in Russian poetry. The Russian Symbolist movement, steeped in the
Eastern Orthodoxyand the religious doctrines of Vladimir Solovyov, had little in common with the French movement of the same name. It was the starting point of the careers of several major poets such as Alexander Blok, Andrei Bely, and Marina Tsvetaeva. Bely's novel "Petersburg" (1912) is considered the greatest monument of Russian symbolist prose.
Romania, Symbolists directly influenced by French poetry were first influential in the 1880s, when Alexandru Macedonskireunited a group of young poets around his magazine " Literatorul". Polemicizing with the established " Junimea" and overshadowed by the influence of Mihai Eminescu, Symbolism was recovered as an inspiration during and after the 1910s, when it was voiced in the works of Tudor Arghezi, Ion Minulescu, George Bacovia, Ion Barbu, Mateiu Caragialeand Tudor Vianu, and held in esteem by the modernist magazine " Sburătorul".
The Symbolist painters were an important influence on
expressionismand surrealismin painting, two movements which descend directly from Symbolism proper. The harlequins, paupers, and clowns of Pablo Picasso's " Blue Period" show the influence of Symbolism, and especially of Puvis de Chavannes. In Belgium, where Symbolism had penetrated deeply, so much so that it came to be thought of as a national style, the static strangeness of painters like René Magrittecan be seen as a direct continuation of Symbolism. The work of some Symbolist visual artists, such as Jan Toorop, directly impacted the curvilinear forms of art nouveau.
Many early motion pictures, also, contain a good deal of Symbolist visual imagery and themes in their staging, set designs, and imagery. The films of German Expressionism owe a great deal to Symbolist imagery. The virginal "good girls" seen in the films of
D. W. Griffith, and the silent movie"bad girls" portrayed by Theda Bara, both show the continuing influence of Symbolist imagery, as do the Babylonian scenes from Griffith's "Intolerance". Symbolist imagery lived on longest in the horror film; as late as 1932, a horror film such as Carl Theodor Dreyer's "Vampyr" shows the obvious influence of Symbolist imagery; parts of the film resemble "tableau vivant" re-creations of the early paintings of Edvard Munch. [Jullian, Philippe, "The Symbolists". (Dutton, 1977) ISBN 0-7148-1739-2]
Caspar David Friedrich(1774-1840)
Gérard de Nerval(1808-55)
Edgar Allan Poe(1809-49)
Dante Gabriel Rossetti(1828-82)
* Isidore Ducasse, comte de Lautréamont (1846-70)
(listed by year of birth)
Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam(1838-89)
Rémy de Gourmont(1858-1915)
Henri de Régnier(1864-1936)
* Vyacheslav Ivanov (1866-1949)
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis(1875-1911)
Josip Murn Aleksandrov(1879-1901)
Influence in English literature
English languageauthors that influenced, or were influenced by Symbolism include:
Algernon Charles Swinburne(1837-1909)
William Butler Yeats(1865-1939)
*John Gray (1866-1934)
T. S. Eliot(1888-1965)
Clark Ashton Smith(1893-1961)
ymbolist visual artists
George Frederic Watts(1817-1904)
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes(1824-1898)
John William Waterhouse(1849-1817)
*Arthur Symons.The Symbolist Movement.IN.Literature!"'
*Balakian, Anna, "The Symbolist Movement: a critical appraisal". Random House, 1967
*Delvaille, Bernard, "La poésie symboliste: anthologie". ISBN 2-221-50161-6
*Houston, John Porter and Houston, Mona Tobin, "French Symbolist Poetry: an anthology". ISBN 0-253-20250-7
*Jullian, Philippe, "The Symbolists". ISBN 0-7148-1739-2
*Lehmann, A.G., "The Symbolist Aesthetic in France 1885-1895". Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1950, 1968.
*"The Oxford Companion to French Literature", Sir Paul Harvey and J. E. Heseltine, eds., (Oxfo rd, 1959) ISBN 0-19-866104-5
*Praz, Mario, "The Romantic Agony". ISBN 0-19-281061-8
*Wilson, Edmond, [http://www.archive.org/details/axelscastle030404mbp "Axel's Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870-1930"] (
Internet Archive). ISBN 978-1598530131 ( Library of America)
* [http://www.poetes.com/textes/ver_poemau.pdf "Les Poètes maudits"] by Paul Verlaine Fr icon
*The Symbolist Gallery at [http://www.artmagick.com/default.aspx ArtMagick] : http://www.artmagick.com/gallery/symbolism.aspx
* [http://www.tendreams.org/19thcentury.htm 19th century section of Ten Dreams Galleries]
* [http://serdar-hizli-art.com/modern_painting/symbolism.htm Symbolism] Gustave Moreau, Puvis de Chavannes, Odilon Redon
* [http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/modlangfrench/28/ Literary Symbolism] Published in "A Companion to Modernist Literature and Culture" (2006)
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