- Timeline of golf history (1851–1945)
Timeline of golf history 1353-1850, Timeline of golf history 1945-1999and Timeline of golf 2000-present."
Prestwick Golf Clubis founded.
Royal Curragh Golf Clubis founded at Kildare, the first golfclub in Ireland. Pau Golf Clubis founded, the first on the Continent.
A rule change is enacted that, in match play, the ball must be played as it lies or the hole be conceded. It is the last recorded toughening of the rules structure.
"The Golfer's Manual", by "A Keen Hand" (
H. B. Farnie), is published. It is the first book on golf instruction.
The Prestwick Club institutes the first Championship Meeting, a foursomes competition at St. Andrews attended by eleven golf clubs. George Glennie and J.C. Stewart win for Blackheath.
The format of the Championship Meeting is changed to individual match play and is won by Robert Chambers of Bruntsfield.
Allan Robertsonbecomes the first golfer to break 80 at the Old Course, recording a 79.
King James VI Golf Clubis founded in Perth, Scotland.
The first Amateur Championship is won by George Condie of Perth.
Death of Allan Robertson, the first great professional golfer.
The Prestwick Club institutes a Professional Championship played at Prestwick; the first Championship Belt is won by
Willie Park, Snr.
The Professionals Championship is opened to amateurs, and the
The Open Championshipis born. The first competition is won by Old Tom Morris.
The North Devon Golf Club is founded at
Ladies' Golf Club at St. Andrewsis founded, the first golf club for women.
The Liverpool Golf Club is founded at Hoylake, later Royal Liverpool.
Young Tom Morris, age 17, wins the first of four successive Open Championships. His streak would include an 11-stroke victory in 1869 and a 12-stroke victory in 1870 (in a 36-hole format). His 149 in the 1870 Open over 36 holes is a stroke average that would not be equalled until the invention of the rubber-cored ball.
Young Tom Morris wins his third consecutive Open Championship, thus winning permanent possession of the Belt.
Royal Adelaide Golf Clubis founded, the first golf club in Australia.
The Open Championship is reinstituted when Prestwick, St. Andrews and the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers offer a new trophy, with the Open Championship to be hosted in rotation by the three clubs.
Young Tom Morris wins his fourth consecutive Open Championship.
Royal Montreal Golf Clubis formed, the first club in Canada.
The Open Championship is held for the first time at the Old Course.
Young Tom Morris dies at age 24. He did not emotionally recover from the death of both his wife and their daughter in childbirth earlier that year.
Vesper Country Club is formed in Tyngsboro, MA.
The first University Match is played at Wimbledon, won by Oxford.
Royal Belfast is founded.
The use of moulds is instituted to dimple the gutta-percha ball. Golfers had long noticed that the guttie worked in the air much better after it had been hit several times and scuffed up.
Bob Ferguson of Musselburgh, losing The Open in extra holes, comes one victory shy of equalling Young Tom Morris' record of four consecutive titles. Ferguson ends up later in life penniless, working out of the Musselburgh caddy-shack.
Oakhurst Golf Clubis founded at White Sulphur Springs. The first hole at The Homestead survives from this course and is the oldest surviving golf hole in America. The Amateur Championshipis first played at Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake.
Royal Cape Golf Clubis founded at Wynberg, South Africa, the first club in Africa. A.J. Balfouris appointed Chief Secretary (Cabinet Minister) for Ireland; his rise to political and social prominence has an incalculable effect on the popularity of golf, as he is an indefatigable player and catalyzes great interest in the game through his writing and public speaking.
"The Art of Golf" by
Sir Walter Simpsonis published.
Foxburg Country Clubis founded in Foxburg, Pennsylvania, the oldest golf course in the United States in continuous use in one place.
St. Andrew's Golf Clubis founded in Yonkers, New York, the oldest surviving golf club in America.
John Ball, an English amateur, becomes the first non-Scotsman and first amateur to win The Open Championship.
Bogey is invented by Hugh Rotherham, as the score of the hypothetical golfer playing perfect golf at every hole. Rotherham calls this a "Ground Score," but Dr. Thomas Brown, honorary Secretary of the Great Yarmouth Club, christens this hypothetical man a "Bogey Man," after a popular song of the day, and christens his score a "Bogey." With the invention of the rubber-cored ball golfers are able to reach the greens in fewer strokes, and so bogey has come to represent one over the par score for the hole.
The Golfing Union of Ireland is founded on 12th October 1891 and is the oldest Golfing Union in the world.
Shinnecock Hills Golf Clubis founded on Long Island.
Warkworth Golf Club is founded in Northumberland, designed by Old Tom Morris
Glen Arven Country Club golf course established in Thomasville, Georgia USA; the oldest course still in use in Georgia.
Gate money is charged for the first time, at a match between Douglas Rollard and Jack White at Cambridge. The practice of paying for matches through private betting, rather than gate receipts and sponsorships, survives well into the 20th Century as a "Calcutta," but increasingly gate receipts are the source of legitimate prize purses.
The Amateur Golf Championship of India and the East is instituted, the first international championship event.
Ladies' Golf Unionof Great Britain and Ireland is founded and the first British Ladies Amateur Golf Championshipwon by Lady Margaret Scottat Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club.
The Irish Ladies' Golf Union is founded and is the oldest Ladies Golf Union in the world.
Chicago Golf Clubopens the United States' first 18-hole golf course on the site of the present-day Downers Grove Golf Course. The Chicago Golf Club moved to its current location in 1895.
Victoria Golf Club is formed and remains the oldest course west of the Mississipi on its original site.
The Open is played on an English course for the first time and is won for the first time by an Englishman, J.H. Taylor.
United States Golf Associationis founded as the Amateur Golf Association of the United States. Charter members are the Chicago Golf Club, The Country Club, Newport Country Club, St. Andrew's Golf Club, and Shinnecock Hills Golf Club.
Tacoma Golf Club is founded, the first golf club on the US Pacific Coast.
U.S. Amateur Championshipis instituted, with Charles B. Macdonaldwinning the inaugural event. The first United States Open is held the following day, with Horace Rawlinswinning.
July 6, 1895 -
Van Cortlandt ParkGolf Course opens - the first public golf course in America.
The pool cue is banned as a putter by the USGA.
U.S. Women's Amateuris instituted. Mrs. Charles S. Brown (née Lucy N. Barnes) [cite web|url=http://turf.lib.msu.edu/GolfJournal/ttg/2000/july/through_the_green.asp|title=Two USGA Acquisitions Inspire Celebration|month=July | year=2000|publisher=USGA|accessdate=] is the first winner. Harry Vardonwins his first British Open.
The first NCAA Championship is held. Louis Bayard, Jr. is the winner.
"Golf", America's first golfing magazine, is published for the first time.
Freddie Tait, betting he could reach the
Royal Cinque Ports Golf Clubclubhouse from the clubhouse at Royal St George's Golf Club- a three mile distance - in forty shots or less, puts his 32nd stroke through a window at the Cinque Ports club.
The Haskell ball is designed and patented by Coburn Haskell. It is the first rubber-cored ball.
The term "birdie" is coined at Atlantic C.C. from "a bird of a hole."
Western Openis first played at Glenview G.C., the first tournament in what would evolve into the PGA Tour. Walter Traviswins the first of his three U.S. Amateur Championships.Harry Vardon wins the U.S. Open, the first golfer to win both the British and U.S. Opens.
Golf is placed on the Olympic calendar for the 2nd Games at
The PGA - Professional Golfers' Association (Great Britain & Ireland) is established.
Walter Travis wins his second U.S. Amateur, and becomes the first golfer to win a major title with the Haskell ball, the first rubber-cored golf ball. When
Sandy Herdwins the British Open and Laurie Auchterloniethe U.S. Open the next year with the Haskell, virtually all competitors switch to the new ball.
Sunningdale, a course built amidst a cleared forest, opens for play. It is the first course with grass grown completely from seed. Previously, golf courses were routed through meadows, which frequently created drainage problems as the meadows were typically atop clay soil.
The first course at the Carolina Hotel (later the Pinehurst Resort & CC) in
Pinehurst, North Carolina, is completed by Donald Ross. Ross will go on to design 600 courses in his storied career as a golf course architect.
Walter Travis publishes his first book, "Practical Golf", a tome that received a rave review in the "New York Times".
England and Scotland inaugurate an Amateur Team competition, with Scotland winning at Hoylake.
The first grooved-faced irons are invented.
1903 Walter Travis becomes the first three-time U.S. Amateur Champion.
Oakmont Country Clubis founded in Oakmont, Pennsylvania, designed by Henry Fownes. It is widely regarded as one of the finest examples of penal-style golf architecture.
Walter Travis becomes the first American to win the British Amateur using the center-shafted, Schenectady putter.
Golf makes its second and final Olympic appearance at the Olympic Games in
Women golfers from Britain and the United States play an international match, with the British winning 6 matches to 1.
The first dimple-pattern for golf balls is patented by William Taylor in England.
"The Complete Golfer" by Harry Vardon is published. It promotes and demonstrates the Vardon or overlapping grip.
Goodrich introduces a golf ball with a rubber core filled with compressed air. The "Pneu-matic" proves quite lively, but also prone to explode in warm weather, often in a golfer's pocket. The ball is eventually discontinued; at this time the Haskell ball achieves a dominance of the golf ball market.
Arnaud Massybecomes the first golfer from Continental Europe to win The Open Championship.
Mrs. Gordon Robertson, at Princes Ladies GC, becomes the first female professional.
"The Mystery of Golf" by Arnold Haultain is published.
The golf magazine "The American Golfer" is launched by Walter Travis.
A dispute over the format of the competition leads to the cancellation of the golf tournament at the
1908 Summer Olympics.
The USGA rules that caddies, caddymasters and greenkeepers over the age of sixteen are professional golfers. The ruling is later modified and eventually reversed in 1963.
The R & A bans the center-shafted putter while the USGA keeps it legal - marking the beginning of a 42-year period with two official versions of The Rules of Golf.
Steel shafts are patented by Arthur F. Knight.
John McDermott becomes the first native-born American to win the U.S. Open. At 17 years of age, he is also the youngest winner to date.
John Ball wins his eighth British Amateur championship, a record not yet equalled.
Francis Ouimet, age 20, becomes the first amateur to win the U.S. Open, defeating favorites Harry Vardon and Ted Ray in a play-off.
The first professional international match is played between France and the United States at
La Boulie Golf Club, France.
Formation of The Tokyo Club at Komozawa kicks off the
Japanese golf boom.
The Open Championship is discontinued for the duration of the First World War.
The PGA of America is founded by 82 charter members and the
PGA Championshipis inaugurated. Jim Barnesis the first champion.
miniature golfcourse opens in Pinehurst, North Carolina.
Francis Ouimet is banned from amateur play for his involvement with a sporting goods business. The ruling creates a stir of protest and is reversed in 1918.
The PGA Championship and the U.S. Open are discontinued for the duration of the First World War.
The R & A assumes control over The Open Championship (British Open) and The Amateur Championship (British Amateur).
Pebble Beach Golf Linksopens as the Del Monte G.L. in Pebble Beach, California.
The USGA founds its famed Green Section to conduct research on turfgrass.
The first practice range is opened in Pinehurst, North Carolina.
"The Professional Golfer of America" is first published which, today known as "PGA Magazine", is the oldest continually-published golf magazine in the United States.
A golf tournament is scheduled for the
1920 Summer Olympicsin Antwerp but it is ultimately cancelled.
The R & A limits the size and weight of the ball.
Walter Hagenbecomes the first native American to win The Open Championship. He subsequently becomes the first professional golfer to open a golf equipment company under his own name.
Walker CupMatch is instituted. Two direct descendants of Walker Cup founder George Herbert Walkerwould become President of the United States—his grandson George H. W. Bush, the 41st President, and his great-grandson George W. Bush, the 43rd President.
The Prince of Wales is elected Captain of the R & A.
Texas Openis inaugurated, the second-oldest surviving PGA Tour event. Pine Valley Golf Clubopens in New Jersey.
The West and East courses at
Winged Foot Golf Clubin Mamaroneck, New York open for play, designed by A.W. Tillinghast. Joyce Wetheredwins her record fifth consecutive English Ladies' Championship.
The USGA legalizes steel shafted golf clubs. The R & A does not follow suit until 1929, widening the breach in The Rules of Golf.
The first fairway irrigation system is developed in
Deep-grooved irons are banned by both the USGA and the R & A.
Jess Sweetserbecomes the first native-born American to win the British Amateur.
Bobby Jones wins the British Open.
Gate money is instituted at the British Open.
Walter Hagen defeats Bobby Jones 12 and 11 in a privately sponsored 72-hole match in Florida.
Los Angeles Openis inaugurated, the third-oldest surviving PGA Tour event. It is also the first tournament to offer a $10,000 purse.
Ryder CupMatches are played between Britain and the United States.
Creeping bentgrass is developed for putting greens by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Cypress Point Clubopens, designed by Alister MacKenzie.
Walter Hagen wins The Open Championship for the fourth time.
Seminole Golf Club opens in
Palm Beach, Florida, from a design by Donald Ross.
Bobby Jones completes the original Grand Slam, winning the U.S. and British Amateurs and the U.S. and British Opens in the same year. Since Jones is an amateur, however, the financial windfall belongs to professional
Bobby Cruickshank, who bets on Jones to complete the Slam, at 120-1 odds, and pockets $60,000. Jones, perhaps satisfied that he has achieved all he can in the game, retires from competition aged 28 to practice law full-time (and to found a new club that would become known as Augusta National).
The Minehead Club makes Captaincy elective. They had been the last club to award the Captaincy to the winner of the annual competition.
The Duke of York (later King George VI) is elected Captain of the R & A.
Shinnecock Hills Golf Clubopens its modern course on Long Island, New York.
Bob Harlow is hired as manager of the PGA's Tournament Bureau, and he first proposes the idea of expanding "The Circuit," as the Tour is then known, from a series of winter events leading up to the season ending
North and South Openin spring, into a year-round Tour.
Billy Burke defeats George Von Elm in a 72-hole playoff at Inverness to win the 1931 U.S. Open, in the longest playoff ever played. They were tied at 292 after regulation play, and both scored 149 in the first 36-hole playoff. Burke is the first golfer to win a major championship using steel-shafted golf clubs.
The USGA increases the minimum size of the golf ball from 1.62 inches to 1.68 inches, and decreases the maximum weight from 1.62 ounces to 1.55. The R & A does not follow suit. The lighter, larger "balloon ball" is universally despised and eventually the USGA raises the weight back to 1.62 ounces.
Curtis CupMatch is held at Wentworth in England.
The concave-faced wedge is banned.
Gene Sarazenis credited with the introduction of the sand-wedge. Sarazen wins both the British and U.S. Open titles in 1932, becoming only the second man (after Bobby Jones) to achieve the feat. Walter Hagenwins a fifth Western Open. At the time, and until the 1950s, the Western Open was considered among the most important tournaments, behind only the National Opens and the PGA Championship (of which Hagen won eleven in total) in status.
The Prince of Wales reaches the final of the Parliamentary Handicap Tournament.
Augusta National Golf Club, designed by Alister MacKenzie with advice from Bobby Jones, opens for play.
Craig Wood hits a 430 yard (393 m) drive at the Old Course's fifth hole in the British Open; this is still the longest drive in a major championship. Wood loses a playoff for the championship to
Denny Shute. Gene Sarazenfinishes third, and later in the year wins the PGA Championship. Hershey Chocolate Company, in sponsoring the Hershey Open, becomes the first corporate title sponsor of a professional tournament.
The first Masters is played.
Horton Smithis the first champion. In this inaugural event, the present-day back and front nines were reversed. Olin Dutrawins the U.S. Open by a shot from Gene Sarazen. Henry Cottonwins his first British Open, at Royal St. George's, and shoots a 65 in his second round, a feat that was commemorated by the "Dunlop 65" golf ball. Sid Brews, winner of the South African, French and Dutch Opens in 1934, enjoys his best finish at a British Open, in second place.
The official U.S.
PGA Touris created, built around events like the major championships, Western Open and Los Angeles Opens which pre-dated it. Paul Runyanis the first official Money List leader. Glenna Collett Varewins the U.S. Women's Amateura record sixth time.
Pinehurst #2 is completed by Donald Ross, generally described as his masterpiece.
Gene Sarazendouble-eagles the par-5 15th hole to catch the leaders at The Masters. His "Shot Heard Round the World" propels him to victory, and due to the coverage of his feat, propels both the game of golf and Augusta National to new heights of popularity.
Johnny Fischer becomes the last golfer to win a major championship (the
U.S. Amateur) with hickory-shafted clubs. Harry Cooperfinishes second at both the Masters and the U.S. Open, where he breaks the all-time tournament record only for Tony Maneroto better it. Cooper would finish in the top four of major championships eleven times in his career without winning one.
Bing CrosbyPro-Am is inaugurated in San Diego. A few years later it moves to the Monterey Peninsula, where it remains to this day. Henry Cottonwins his second British Open at Carnoustie, from a field that includes the entire U.S. Ryder Cup side, including Snead, Nelson, Hagen, Sarazen and Guldahl.
The British amateurs score their first victory over the United States in the
Walker CupMatch at the Old Course. Ralph Guldahlretains his U.S. Open crown, becoming only the fourth man to win back-to-back titles.
The Palm Beach Invitational becomes the first tournament to make a contribution to charity-$10,000.
The 14-club rule is instituted by the USGA.
Byron Nelsonwins the U.S. Open after a 3-man playoff aainst Craig Wood and Denny Shute. Sam Snead, needing a 5 at the last hole to win the championship, takes 8, and misses even making the playoff. The U.S. Open would remain the only major championship Snead never won.
The British Open and Amateur are discontinued for the duration of the Second World War.
The U.S. Open is discontinued for the duration of the war. A world-wide shortage of rubber, a vital military supply, creates a shortage and huge price increase in golf balls.
Sam Sneadmanages to complete an entire four-day tournament playing one ball, but the professional circuit is severely curtailed.
The U.S. government halts the manufacture of golf equipment for the duration of the war.
The PGA Championship is cancelled for the year, and The Masters is discontinued for the duration of the war.
The PGA expands its tour to 22 events despite the absence of many of its star players due to military service.
Byron Nelsonwins 18 tournaments in a calendar year to set an all-time PGA Tour record-including a record 11 in a row and a record 19 consecutive rounds under 70. His total prize earnings during his 11-win streak, $30,000, is less than last place money for the PGA Tour Championship by 1992.
Tam O'Shanter Openoffers a then-record purse of $60,000.
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