Hyperpigmentation Classification and external resources ICD-10 L81.0-L81.4 ICD-9 709.0 DiseasesDB 24638 MeSH D017495
Hyperpigmentation may be caused by sun damage, inflammation, or other skin injuries, including those related to acne vulgaris. People with darker Asian, Mediterranean or African skin tones are also more prone to hyperpigmentation, especially if they have excess sun exposure.
Many forms of hyperpigmentation are caused by an excess production of melanin. Hyperpigmentation can be diffuse or focal, affecting such areas as the face and the back of the hands. Melanin is produced by melanocytes at the lower layer of the epidermis. Melanin is a class of pigment responsible for producing color in the body in places such as the eyes, skin, and hair. As the body ages, melanocyte distribution becomes less diffuse and its regulation less controlled by the body. UV light stimulates melanocyte activity, and where concentrations of the cells are denser than surrounding areas, hyperpigmentation is effected. Can also be caused by using skin lightening lotions.
Hyperpigmentation is associated with a number of diseases or conditions, including:
- Addison's disease and other sources of adrenal insufficiency, in which hormones that stimulate melanin synthesis, such as melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), are frequently elevated.
- Cushing's disease or other excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production, because MSH production is a byproduct of ACTH synthesis from proopiomelanocortin (POMC).
- Acanthosis nigricans – hyperpigmentation of intertriginous areas associated with insulin resistance.
- Melasma, also known as chloasma – patchy hyperpigmentation often found in pregnant women.
- Linea nigra – a hyperpigmented line found on the abdomen during pregnancy.
- Peutz-Jeghers syndrome – an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperpigmented macules on the lips and oral mucosa and gastrointestinal polyps.
- Exposure to certain chemicals such as salicylic acid, bleomycin, and cisplatin.
- Smoker's melanosis
- Celiac disease
- Cronkite-Canada syndrome
- Tinea fungal infections such as ringworm
- Haemochromatosis - a common but debilitating genetic disorder characterized by the chronic accumulation of iron in the body.
- Mercury poisoning - particularly cases of cutaneous exposure resulting from the topical application of mercurial ointments or skin-whitening creams.
- Aromatase deficiency
- Nelson's syndrome
Hyperpigmentation can sometimes be induced by dermatological laser procedures.
- ^ "Hyperpigmentation". Dermatalogic Disease Database. American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic_diseases/hyperpigmentation.html. Retrieved 2006-03-08.
- ^ Hyperpigmentation (Age Spots) Hyperpigmentation, Chloasma & Melasma, KAVI.
Pigmentation disorders/Dyschromia (L80–L81, 709.0) Hypo-/
leucismLoss of melanocytesLoss of melanin/
amelanismCross syndrome · ABCD syndrome · Albinism–deafness syndrome · Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis · Phylloid hypomelanosis · Progressive macular hypomelanosisLeukoderma w/o
hypomelanosisVasospastic macule · Woronoff's ring · Nevus anemicusUngrouped
Hyper-ReticulatedDermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis · Pigmentatio reticularis faciei et colli · Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura · Reticular pigmented anomaly of the flexures · Naegeli–Franceschetti–Jadassohn syndrome · Dyskeratosis congenita · X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder · Galli–Galli disease · Revesz syndromeDiffuse/
Lentigo/Lentiginosis: Lentigo simplex · Liver spot · Centrofacial lentiginosis · Generalized lentiginosis · Inherited patterned lentiginosis in black persons · Ink spot lentigo · Lentigo maligna · Mucosal lentigines · Partial unilateral lentiginosis · PUVA lentiginesMelasma · Erythema dyschromicum perstans · Lichen planus pigmentosus · Café au lait spot · Poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte · Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans) · Riehl melanosisLinearOther/ungroupedAcanthosis nigricans (Acral acanthotic anomaly) · Freckle · Familial progressive hyperpigmentation · Pallister–Killian syndrome · Periorbital hyperpigmentation · Photoleukomelanodermatitis of Kobori · Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation · Transient neonatal pustular melanosisOther
pigmentsiron: Hemochromatosis · Iron metallic discoloration · Pigmented purpuric dermatosis (Schamberg disease, Majocchi's disease, Gougerot–Blum syndrome, Doucas and Kapetanakis pigmented purpura/Eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis, Lichen aureus, Angioma serpiginosum) · Hemosiderin hyperpigmentationother metals: Argyria · Chrysiasis · Arsenic poisoning · Lead poisoning · Titanium metallic discoloration
DyschromatosesDyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria · Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria This medical sign article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.