- Nepal Bhasa
"Newari" redirects here. For other uses, see Newari (disambiguation).Not to be confused with Nepali language.
Nepal Bhasa नेपाल भाषा Spoken in Nepal Region South Asia Ethnicity Newa people Native speakers 840,000 (date missing) Language familySino-Tibetan
- Nepal Bhasa
DialectsDolakhaeSindhupalchok Pahri Writing system Devanagari, Kutakshari script, Ranjana script, Prachalit script, Brahmi script, Gupta script, Bhujimol script, Golmol script Official status Official language in Nepal
India (in Sikkim)
Regulated by Nepal Bhasa Academy
Nepal Bhasa Parishad
Language codes ISO 639-2 new ISO 639-3 new This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा, Nēpāl bhāṣā, also known as Newah Bhaye and Newari) is one of the major languages of Nepal, and is also spoken in India, particularly in Sikkim where it is one of the 11 official languages. Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of about 3% of the people in Nepal (see the list of languages of Nepal). It is spoken mainly by the Newars, who chiefly inhabit the towns of the Kathmandu Valley. Although Nepal Bhasa is classified as a Sino-Tibetan language, it has been greatly influenced by the Indo-Aryan languages.
The language is spoken by roughly around a million people in Nepal according to 2001 census; a few thousand people outside Nepal also speak the language. In terms of speakers, it ranks similar to Jumli, another language spoken mainly in western Nepal.
- In Nepal: Kathmandu valley i.e. (Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan City, Bhaktapur Municipality, Kirtipur Municipality, Thimi Municipality), Dolakha, Banepa, Dhulikhel, Bhimphedi (Makwanpur), Panauti, Palpa, Trishuli, Nuwakot, Bhojpur, Biratnagar, Baglung, Bandipur, Birgunj, Hetaunda and other chief cities.
- In India: Sikkim, West Bengal
- In Tibet: Khasa
With an increase in emigration, various bodies and societies of Nepal Bhasa-speaking people have emerged in countries like the United States, the UK, Australia and Japan.
History and development
Little is known about the origins of Nepal Bhasa except that the language has evolved with continued influences from Nepali, Tibetan, Kirati, Maithali, Pali, Sanskrit, Khas, Hindi and other languages of the region. The language largely replaced Sanskrit as the official language of medieval Nepal as the language used in the shilalekh or stone scripture.
Nepal Bhasa can be classified into old era and new era language. Although there is no specific demarcation between the two, mid-Rana regime of Nepal i.e. around 966 to 1061 N.S. is taken as the period of demarcation between the two.
Modern Nepal Bhasa is the most Indianized of the Tibeto-Burman languages. It has had many centuries of contact with neighboring Indic languages.
The earliest known (dated) document in Nepal Bhasa is called "The Palmleaf from Uku Bahal" which dates back to 1114 AD (235 NS).
Nepal Bhasa: छीन ढाको तृसंघष परिभोग। छु पुलेंग कीत्य बिपार वस्त्र बिवु मिखा तिवु मदुगुन छु सात दुगुनव ल्है।
chīna ḍhākō tr̥saṃghaṣa paribhōga, chu pulēṃga kītya bipāra vastra bivu mikhā tivu maduguna chu sāta dugunava lhai.
which is a general discussion of business transactions. This document dates from the Licchavi period. Hence, it can be inferred that although the official language of the period was Sanskrit, Nepal Bhasa was already in use.
The language continued growing in the Medieval period, and enjoyed royal patronage. Noted royal writers include Mahindra Malla, Siddhinarsingh Malla, Jagatprakash Malla etc. An example of the language used in that period is provided by lines of Mooldevshashidev written by Jagatprakash Malla
- धु छेगुकि पाछाव वाहान
- तिलहित बिया हिङ लाहाति थाय थायस
(dhu chēguki pāchāva vāhāna : tilahita biyā hiŋa lāhāti thāya thāyasa)
which is a description of Shiva, and the use of a tiger skin as a seat for Shiva.
The language replaced Sanskrit as the administrative language during this period.
Nepal Bhasa faced a setback after the unification of Nepal in the 18th century, as the language of the hill people became the court language. Nepal Bhasa was replaced as the language of administration by Nepali after the advent of the Shah dynasty. Furthermore, the literature and scripts of the language were put into the shadow during the 104 years of aristocratic "Rana rule" (1846–1950 AD). During this time, legal documents written in Nepal Bhasa were declared unenforceable and any evidence in Nepal Bhasa was declared null and void. There was no state support thereafter. It was forbidden to create literature in Nepal Bhasa, and writers were sent to jail.
During the autocratic Panchayat rule of King Mahendra, which followed the coup d'état that deposed the democratically elected bodies of Nepal, a new policy of "Ek Bhasa, Ek Rashtra" (One language, one nation) was enforced. This policy made Nepali language the only state language, and the other languages were in shadow as "ethnic" or "local" languages. The implementation of this policy made Nepali the state language. The continued primacy of the language over 30 years made Khas or Nepali language the lingua franca as well. Oher languages, including Nepal Bhasa, were cast aside, as the population could not use it for official, educational or legal purposes.
The period between 1908 to 1940 is considered as the renaissance era of Nepal Bhasa. During this period, people like Pandit Nisthananda Bajracharya, Siddhidas Mahaju, Jagat Sundar Malla, Yogbir Singh Kansakar, Shukraraj Shastri, Dharmaditya Dharmacharya started writing, translating, educating, and restructuring the language.
The publication of a modern grammar, reader, and children's story books by Shukraraj Shastri, translation of the ancient epic Ramayan, writing about the morals and ethics by Siddhidas Mahaju, "education in mother tongue" movement by Jagat Sundar Malla and other literary activities in the era marked the renaissance. Also, research on the language began in this period. It was proven that this language was a Sino-Tibetan language and not Indo-Aryan language (as was believed) in this era. Also, the renaissance marked the revival of the word "Nepal Bhasa" to name the language rather than the Khas imposed term "Newari".
Some of the lines of Siddhidas Mahaju (N.S. 987 – N.S. 1050) read as follows
- सज्जन मनुष्या संगतनं मूर्ख नापं भिना वै
- पलेला लपते ल वंसा म्वति थें ल सना वै
(sajjana manuṣyā saṃgatanaṃ mūrkha nāpaṃ bhinā vai / palēlā lapatē la vaṃsā mvati thēṃ la sanā vai)
which state that even a moron can improve with the company of good people just like even a drop of water appears like a pearl when it descends upon the leaves of a lotus plant.
Modern Nepal Bhasa
A lot of writers and thinkers have contributed to the modern form of Nepal Bhasa. These include Chittadhar "Hridaya", Durga Lal Shrestha etc..
During the Panchayat era, under the slogan of एक देश, एक भाषा नीति "One nation, One language", Nepal Bhasa and other languages of Nepal were prevented from being broadcast on Radio Nepal or other government media. As the Government did not allow private broadcasting in Nepal, this prevented the language from mass media. Also, the term Newari was used to address the language instead of Nepal Bhasa, which met fierce criticism and resistance. This marked the beginning of Nepal Bhasa movement. Instead of using mass media, people started producing audio cassettes. Also, the first Nepal Bhasa movie Silu marked the beginning of movies in Nepal Bhasa. The Nepal Bhasa movement aimed to end the "One nation, one language" policy. Some lines from the famous poet Durga Lal Shrestha of this era are as follows-
:घाः जुयाः जक ख्वइगु खः झी
- स्याःगुलिं सः तइगु खः
- झी मसीनि ! झी मसीनि !
- धइगु चिं जक ब्वैगु खः
The restoration of democracy marked the privatization of media. Various concerned people and organizations are working on the development of Nepal Bhasa by themselves. Nepal Bhasa has several newspapers, a primary level curriculum, several schools, several F.M. stations (selected time for Nepal Bhasa programs), regular TV programs and News (in Image TV Channel), Nepal Bhasa Music Award (a part of Image Award), several websites (including Nepal Bhasa wikipedia) etc.
Even after the restoration of democracy and the Loktantra revolution, the state owned media address the language as Newari. Also, after the Supreme court banned the use of Nepal Bhasa and any other language of Nepal in any administrative activities, Nepal Bhasa movement merged with other languages movements to fight for the right of language.
The main dialects are :-
Dolkhali (Dolakha)Main article: Dolakhae dialect
This is the most preserved form of language and resembles the old Nepal Bhasa.
Sindhupalchowk Pahri (Pahri, Pahari)
This dialect has similar vocabulary as the Yala subdialect of Yen-Yala-Kyepu dialect. However, the language is spoken with a Tamang language tone.
now-a-days,in this district tamang cast lives than other cast's people. in new Nepal's constitution assembly the largest party of Nepal proposed in tamsaling rajya for this district in their federation module..
This dialect is used in Chitlang, a place south of Kathmandu valley in Makawanpur district.this is one of the biggest newari basti at chitlang. Balami cast is stay in there. Recently a new committee named "Balami Samaaj" has been established to give a new identity rather than Newar but as the government has categorized balami in newar, this attempt fails.
Also known as ञ-यल-क्येपु भाय् Ña-Yala-Kyēpu Bhāy, this is the most dominant form of language and very close to the standard form of language used in academics and media. It is also the most widely used dialect. Variations are seen in the use of the words, specially nouns, amongst the Buddhists and Hindus. The pronunciation also differ from place to place. E.g.: the people in Kathmandu pronounce ल "water" as la while the people in Bhaktapur say na, which means "muddy water" for the people of Kathmandu.
Also known as Khvapa Bhāy ख्वप: भाय्, this dialect is more archaic than the standard. Variations exist in the use of this form of language in Bhaktapur, Banepa, Panauti and Dhulikhel.
In addition to these dialects, there are a few sub-dialects spoken in Kathmandu valley and other parts of Nepal. These are spoken in surrounding villages of Kathmandu, Patan, Bhaktapur, Lubhu, Chitlang and Dolakha. The dialect spoken in Bandipur is the oldest form of Khwapa Bhaaye. The dialect spoken in Chainpur, Bhojpur, Terathum, Palpa is related to Kathmandu and Patan. The dialect spoken in Ridi, Baglung, Arughat (Gorkha) is closer to Bhaktapur. (Bhaktapur is also known as Bhadgaon.)
The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels, diphthongs, anusvara and visarga, stops and nasals (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details):
- a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
- ṃ ḥ
- k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ñ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
- y r l v; ś ṣ s h
Writing systems and grammar
The earliest form of written grammar were developed by Shukraj Shastri and Nisthananda Bajracharya. Shastri studied Sanskrit, English and Hindi grammar before creating his masterpiece called Nepal Bhasa Wyakarana, which is based largely on that of Sanskrit but with great study of Nepal Bhasa as well.
Nepal Bhasa has been written in a variety of abugida scripts. The scripts which have been used to write this language are:
- Brahmi script
- Gupta script
- Prachalit script
- Ranjana script
- Devanagari script
Over the centuries, Nepal Bhasa has been written in many scripts, all of which are descended from the Brahmi script. All the scripts proceed from left to right, and include two separate sets of characters – a vowel set and a consonant set. Devanagari is the most widely-used script at the present, as it is the official script of Nepal as well as is used widely in neighbouring India. Ranjana script was the most widely-used script for Nepal Bhasa in ancient times, and is experiencing a sort of a revival due to recent cultural awareness. The Prachalit script, being similar to Devanagari, is also in use. The Brahmi and Golmol scripts are rarely used in present.
In overall writing system of Nepal Bhasa, there are four form of alphabets:
- Vowels called Ma Akha
- Consonants called Ba Akha
- Complex consonants called China Akha
- Numericals called Lyaa Akha
The vowels, called MaAkha (माआखः) used in Nepal Bhasa are
Orthography अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ Roman a aa i ii u uu e ai o au am aha ru Ru lru lRuu IPA /ə/ /ɑː/ /i/ /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /eː/ /əi/ /oː/ /əu/ /əⁿ/ /əʰ/ /ru/ /ruː/ /lru/ /lruː/
Even though ऋ, ॠ, ऌ, ॡ are present in Nepal Bhasa, they are rarely used. Instead, some of the experts are suggesting to include अय्(aya)and आय्(aaya) in the list of vowels.
The consonants, called BaAkha(बाआखः), used in Nepal Bhasa are:
क ख ग घ ङ k
च छ ज झ ञ ch
/cɕ/ or /ts/
j or z
/ɟʝ/ or /dz/
jh or zh
/ɟʝʱ/ or /dzʱ/
ट ठ ड ढ ण t
त थ द ध न t
प फ ब भ म p
ph or f
/pʰ/ or /f/
य र ल व y
v or w
/v/ or /w/
श ष स ह s
क्ष त्र ज्ञ ksh
The use of ङ and ञ was very common in the old form of language. However, in the new form, specially in written, the use of these characters has diminished. The use of ण, त, थ, द, ध, न, श, ष, क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ (in darker color above) are limited by the new Grammar books to the loan words only.
Besides the consonants mentioned above, some complex consonants called China Akha (चिना आखः) are also used. These China Akha represent the Sino-Tibetan characteristics of the language. The most used of these complex consonants, which by some are considered individual letters, are :
The numericals used in Nepal Bhasa have ten digits from 0-9. The numericals used in Ranjana script are as follows (from 0 to 9)
The same numericals in Devnagari are:
In Devanāgarī ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Main article: Nepal Bhasa literature
Nepal Bhasa literature has a long history. It has the fourth-oldest literature of the Sino-Tibetan languages (the first, second and third being Chinese, Tibetan and Burmese respectively).
Dramas are traditionally performed in open Dabu (stage). Most of the traditional dramas are related to deities and demons. Masked characters are central to such dramas. Music forms an important part of drama. Most of them are narrated with the help of songs sang at intervals. The drama as such resembles dance in many cases. The theme of most of the drama is to create a social wellbeing with morals illustrating the rise, turbulence and fall of evil. There are fixed dates in the Nepal Sambat (Nepal Era) calendar for performance of specific drama. Most of the dramas are carried out by specific Guthis.
Poetry writing constituted a pompous part of medieval Malla aristrocracy. Many of the kings were well renowned poets. Siddhidas Mahaju and Chittadhar Hridaya are two great poets in the language.
This is a relatively new field of literature compared to other fields. Most of the fiction were written in poetry form till the medieval era. So, almost all of prose fiction belong to the modern Nepal Bhasa. Collective short stories in Nepal Bhasa are more popular than novels.
The art of verbal story telling is very old in Nepal Bhasa. There are a variety of mythical and social stories that have aided in establishing the norm of Kathmandu valley. Stories ranging from the origin of Kathmandu valley to the temples of the valley and the important monuments have been passed down verbally in Nepal Bhasa and very few are present in written form. However, with an increase in literacy rate and an awareness amongst the people, those stories have been penned down. Stories on other topics have also taken root.
Nepal Bhasa and Newar community
Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of Newars. Newars form a very diverse community with people from the Mongolian, Aryan and—according to some—even Dravidian races. Newars follow Hinduism and Buddhism, and are subdivided into 64 castes. The language therefore plays a central unifying role in the existence and perpetuation of Newar community. The poet Siddhidas Mahaju concluded that the Newar community and its rich culture can only survive if Nepal Bhasa survives (भाषा म्वासा जाति म्वाइ).
Relative to many other languages of Nepal, Nepal Bhasa enjoyed promotions in various areas since Kathmandu become the capital of the country, as the Newar community rose in ranks throughout the government, royal courts and businesses.
Nepal Bhasa faced a decline during the Shah era when this language was replaced by Khas Kura (later renamed Nepali) as the national language and after the introduction of the "One nation, one language" policy of King Mahendra. The then Royal Nepalese Government spent a lot for Sanskrit education and a Sanskrit University was approved during those times—although Sanskrit is virtually not spoken by anyone in Nepal—because Khas Kura's roots lie in Sanskrit. There were very few resources available then for even primary-level education in Nepal Bhasa. There were no programs broadcast in Nepal Bhasa in the state radio, Radio Nepal. Even after programs in Nepal Bhasa began to be broadcast, the language was referred to as "Newari", a term considered derogatory by Newars. Even today, there are no programs in Nepal Bhasa in the state television, Nepal Television, although it broadcasts a Bollywood Hindi movie every Saturday (although it is used as lingua franca in Terai, Hindi is mother tongue of less than 1% population in Nepal) and often Pakistani serials (in Urdu) as well. The Supreme Court of Nepal has also banned any use of Nepal Bhasa even for trivial matters in official purposes of any part of Nepal. These factors have led to a resentment among Newar community and a feeling of "second class" citizen in one's own state.
This fact has been used for political advantages by many parties of Nepal. Many slogans are translated into Nepal Bhasa, although very few important documents of political parties are ever translated into Nepal Bhasa.
This language is a SOV (subject–object–verb) language. For instance, "My name is Bilat (Birat)" is "Jigu Na'aa Bilat Khaa'a " which word by word translation becomes, "My(Jigu) Name(Na'aa) Bilat is(Khaa'a)".
In case of Newari language, Wh-questions are rather "G-questions" with "when/which" being replaced by "Gublay/Gugu" respectively. There is an additional "Guli" which is used for "How much/How many". A S-word "Soo" is used for "who". "Chhoo/Schoo (with a silent 's')" is used for "What", and "Gathey" is used for "How".
i. Suffix- "Chaa" and "Ju" are two popular suffixes. "Chaa" is added to signify "junior" or "lesser". But when added to a name, it is used derogatorily. For example, kya'ah-chaa means nephew where "chaa" is being added to kya'ah(son). When added to name like Birat for "Birat-chaa", it is being used derogatorily. The suffix "ju" is added to show respect. For example, "Baa-ju" means "father-in-law" where "ju" is added to "Baa(father)". Unlike "chaa", "ju" is not added to a first/last name directly. Instead, honorific terms like "Bhaaju" is added for males and "Mayju" for females. Example, "Birat bhaaju" for a male name (Birat) and "Suja Mayju" for a female name (Suja).
ii. Prefix – "Tap'ah" is added to denote "remote" or "distant" relative ('distance' in relationship irrespective of spatial extent). A distant (younger) brother (kija) becomes "tap'ah-kija". "Tuh" is added to denote "higher". Father (baa)'s senior brother is referred to as "Tuh-baa".
Some common phrases and terms in Newari and Nepali
English Nepal Bhasa
Khas Bhasa (Nepali) Hello ज्वजलपा Jvajalapā! Namaste What is your name? छिगु नां: छु खः ? Chigu nāṁḥ chu khaḥ? Tapa'ee'ko naam k' ho? My name is ___ जिगु नां: ___ ख: Jigu nāṁ: ___ khaḥ. Mero naam ___ ho Happy New Year न्हूदँया भिंतुना Nhūdaṁyā bhintunā Na'ya barsh'a ko'o shubkamana Thank You शुभाय् Śubhāy Dhandyabad Welcome लसकुस Lasakusa! Swagat chha Yes खः Khaḥ Ho No मखु Makhu Ho'eena Okay ज्यु Jyu Thik chha Not Okay मज्यु Majyu Thik chha'ee'na Friend पासा Pāsā Saathi Organization गुथि Guthi Sansthan House छें Chēṁ Ghar Human मनु Manu Manaw Medicine वास: Vāsaḥ Owkhati/ Owsadhi News बुखं Bukhaṁ Samachar Dance प्याखं Pyākhaṁ Naach Man मि:जं Miḥjaṁ Manchhe Woman मि:शा Miḥśā Aa'ee'maa'ee Gentleman भाजु Bhāju Mahodaya Madam म्येजु Myēju Mahodaya Young Man ल्याम: Lyāmaḥ Yuwa'a Young Lady ल्यासी Lyāsī Yuwa'ati Song म्ये Myē Geet Stage दबली, दबू: Dabalī, dabūḥ munch Palace लाय्कू Lāykū Durbar Office ज्यास: Jyāsaḥ Karyalaya Shop पस: Pasah Pasal Courtyard चूक Cūka Chowk Brain न्ह्यपु Nhyapu Dimag Heart नुगः Nugaḥ Mutu Water लः, ना Laḥ, Nā Pani Rain वा Vā Warsha'aa Wife's parents place Suhsuh Suhsurali I don't understand Nepal Bhasa जित: नेपाल भाषा मवः Jitaḥ Nēpāl bhāṣā mavaḥ Ma'laee Nepal Bhasa aa'un'da'een'a Earthquake Bho'khabo Bhukampa
English Devanagari Roman script Khas Bhasa (Nepali) Mother मां Māṁ Aa'maa Father अबु Abu Ba'aa Grandmother अजी Ajī Ba'jya'ee Grandfather अजा Ajā Baaj'ey Brother (Elder) दाजु Dāju Dai Brother (younger) किजा Kijā Bhai Sister (elder) तता Tatā Didi Sister (younger) कें Kēṁ Bahini Uncle (Mother's brother) पाजु Pāju Mama Uncle (Father's brother) त: बा / क: का Taḥbā (elder brother), Kaḥkā (younger brother) Thool-buwa (elder brother) / Kaka (younger brother) Uncle (Father's sister's husband) पाजु Pāju Phoophajyu Aunty (Father's sister) निनी Ninī Phoophoo Aunty (Mother's sister) त:मा Taḥmā Thool-ama (elder sister)/Kanchhi amaa (younger sister) Aunty (Father's elder brother's wife) त: मा Taḥmā Thooli-ama Aunty (Father's younger brother's wife) काकी Kākī Kaki Aunty (Mother's brother's wife) मल्जु Malju Maijyu Son काय: Kāyaḥ Chhora Daughter मयाह: Mayāhaḥ Chhori Nephew (Brother's son) कय:चा Kayaḥcā Bhatija Niece (Brother's daughter) मयाह: चा Mayāhahcā Bhatiji Nephew (Sister's son) भिन्चा Bhincā Bhanja Niece (Sister's daughter) भिन्चा Bhincā Bhanji Grandchild छ्ये Chyē Nati/Natini (male/female) Daughter-in-law ब्हऔ Bḥa'au Buhari Son-in-law जीलाजं Jīlājaṁ Jwaeen (nasalised 'n') Wife's parents ससः बा Sasaḥ bā (Father) / Suh'suhmaa (Mother) Suhsurobaa (Father) / Saasoo (Mother) Husband's parents ससः मा Sasaḥma (Mother) Suhsura (Father) / Saasoo (Mother)
Meaning Devanagari Roman Cooked Rice जा: Jāh Rice जाकि Jāki Poha (Beaten Rice) वजी Vajī Meat (Buff / Chicken / Lamb / Pork) ला: (मेइ ला / खाई ला / दुकुचिउ ला / फाई ला) Lāh (mei lah / khai lah/ dukuchiu lah / fai lah) Dry Meat (Jerky) सुकुला: Sukulāh Yogurt धौ Dhau
Devanagari Roman Ingredient य: मरी Yah Marī Rice Flour, Meat, Chaku (sweet) or Maa(pulses) or Muu(pulses) चट्टाँ मरी chatanmari Rice Flour त: खा Tah Khā Terrin of Buffalo meat स:न्या: खूना Sahnyāh khūnā Terrin of buffalo meat and tiny fresh water fish से ला: Sēlāh Buffalo lungs छोय् ला: Chōy lāh Meat (mainly Buffalo, Duck), chiles, onion, oil वारा Vārā Maa (pulses) or Muu (pulses) सम:य बजी Samah ya bajī Bāra, (bolied) Egg*, fresh water fish, pulses, Beaten Rice, Fried Beaten Rice, Ginger etc. थ्व: Tvah type of alcohol एला: Ēlāh Strong alcohol
- Duck egg for special occasion (rituals, sagun/sagā, birthday)
English Devanagari Roman script Khas Bhasa (Nepali) Ant ईमू Īmū Kamila Buffalo Mehn (nasalised "n") Rang'o/Bhaise Bull Dohn (nasalised "n") Goru Cat भैचा Bhaicā Biralo Cockroach Bili Sāngla Cow Sahn (silent "n") Gai Crow को Kō Kag Dog खिचा Khicā Kukur Duck हें Hēṁ Hahns (slightly nasalised 'n') Eagle Emaa Cheel Earthworm Dumbi Gadeaula Snakes Ta:ha Sarpa Elephant Kisi Hatti Fish न्याँ Nyām̐ Machha Hen/Chicken खा: Khāh Kukhura Horse सल: salah ghoda Kite Bhutimali Changaa Monkey माक: Mākah Badar Mouse छू: Chūh Musa Owl Bhulukha Latokosero Pigeon वखूँचा Vakhūm̐cā Parewa Pig फा Phā Sungur Sparrow चखू: Cakhūh Bhangero (nasalised 'n') Toad/Frog बय्याँ Bayyām̐ Bhyaguta
English Devanagari Roman script Khas Bhasa (Nepali) White तूयु Tuyu Seto Black हाकू Haku Kalo Red ह्याँगू Hyau'n (nasalised 'n') Rato Green Wau'n (nasalised 'n') Hariyo Blue Wo'chu'n (nasalised 'n') Nilo Yellow Mhasu'n (nasalised 'n') Pahelo Brown Siyugu (nasalised 'n') Khairo
(From the review article on "Dictionary of classical Newari compiled from manuscript sources." With the huge financial support of Toyota foundation, Japan, Nepal Bhasa Dictionary Committee. Cwasā Pāsā. Kathmandu: Modern Printing Press, Jamal 2000, pp. XXXV, 530. ISBN 99933-31-60-0")
Words Origin (orig. word) Meaning La:h (ल:) Pali (Jala:h) Water Kaa:sa Pali Bronze Kaji Arabic leader Khaapaa (खापा) Pali Door (Original meaning in Pali was "door panel") Kimi (कीमी) Sanskrit (Krmi) Hookworm Adha:vata Persian Malice Ka:h Pali (Kana) Blind (Original meaning in Pali was "one-eyed") Dya:h Pali (Dev) Deity Nhya:h Pali (Na:sika) Nose Mhu:tu Pali (Mukhena) Mouth Khicha: (खिचा) Pali (Kukkura) Dog
- Languages of Nepal
- Languages of Bhutan
- ^ "A Report, Home Department, Government of Sikkim, Gangtok". http://sikkim.gov.in/asp/AnnualReport/Annual%20Report(Home%20Deptt).doc. Retrieved 19 May 2011. Page 12.
- ^ "Linguistic Lineage for Jumli". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=jml. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- ^ Shrestha, Bal Gopal (2005). "Ritual and Identity in the Diaspora: The Newars in Sikkim". Bulletin of Tibetology. http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/bot/pdf/bot_2005_01_03.pdf. Retrieved 21 March 2011. Page 26.
- ^ Ethnologue entry
- ^ Pulangu Nepalbhasa Wangmaya-muna by Kashinath Tamot
- ^ Malla, Kamal P. "The Earliest Dated Document in Newari: The Palmleaf from Uku Bahah NS 234/AD 1114". Kailash. http://www.kpmalla.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/kailash_16_0102_02.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011. Pages 15-25.
- ^ Mooldevshashidev by Jagatprakash Malla, edited by Saraswati Tuladhar
- ^ Levy, Robert I. (1990) Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-1038-4. Page 15.
- ^ Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Pal, Pratapaditya (1985) Art of Nepal: A Catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520054073. Page 19.
- ^ Hutt, Michael (December 1986). "Diversity and Change in the Languages". CNAS Journal (Tribhuvan University). http://www.thlib.org/static/reprints/contributions/CNAS_14_01_01.pdf. Retrieved 20 March 2011. Page 10.
- ^ Tumbahang, Govinda Bahadur (September 2009). "Process of Democratization and Linguistic (Human) Rights in Nepal". Tribhuvan University Journal. http://tujournal.edu.np/index.php/TUJ/article/viewFile/18/16. Retrieved 1 March 2011. Page 8.
- ^ Lienhard, Siegfried (1992). Songs of Nepal: An Anthology of Nevar Folksongs and Hymns. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. ISBN 81-208-0963-7. Page 4.
- ^ शुक्रराज अस्पताल स्मारिका २०५७, Page 52, नेपालभाषाको पुनर्जागरणमा शुक्रराज शास्त्री by सह-प्रा. प्रेमशान्ति तुलाधर
- ^ नेपालभाषाया न्हूगु पुलांगु म्ये मुना ब्वः१
- ^ Ethnologue
- ^ Nepal Bhasa Wyaakarana by Shukraraj Shastri, Page "gha"
- ^ Nepal Bhasa Wyaakarana (Page 2) by Tuyubahadur Maharjan, published by Nepal Bhasa Academy
- ^ Nepal Bhasa Wyaakarana (Page 3) by Tuyubahadur Maharjan, published by Nepal Bhasa Academy
- Michael Noonan, Recent Language Contact in the Nepal Himalaya (PDF).
- Newari/Ranjana script page on Omniglot
- Online Nepal Bhasa dictionary
- Collection of Nepal Bhasa Idioms & Phrases
- type in Nepali Unicode and Nepal bhasha
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