- James T. Aubrey, Jr.
right|thumb|James T. Aubrey, circa 1959
James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. (December 14, 1918 – September 3, 1994) was an American television and film executive. President of the
CBS television networkduring the early 1960s, he put some of television's most enduring series on the air, including " Gilligan's Island" and " The Beverly Hillbillies". Under Aubrey, CBS dominated American television the way General Motors and General Electricdominated their industries. " The New York TimesMagazine" in 1964 called Aubrey "a master of programming whose divinations led to successes that are breathtaking."Robinson, Leonard Wallace. "After the Yankees What?: A TV Drama." " The New York TimesMagazine". November 15, 1964.]
Despite his successes in television, Aubrey's abrasive personality and oversized ego – "Picture
Machiavelliand Karl Roveat a University of Colorado football recruiting party" wrote "Variety" in 2004Grossman, Andrew. "The Smiling Cobra." Variety VLife." June–July 2004. 68–73, 78. (Profile of Aubrey)] – led to his firing from CBS amid charges of improprieties. "The circumstances rivaled the best of CBS adventure or mystery shows," declared "The New York Times" in its front-page story on his firing, which came on "the sunniest Sunday in February" 1965. After four years as an independent producer, Aubrey was hired by financier Kirk Kerkorianto preside over Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's near-total shutdown in the 1970s, during which he slashed the budget and alienated producers and directors but brought profits to a company that had suffered huge losses. Aubrey resigned from MGM after four years, declaring his job was done, and then vanished into almost total obscurity for the last two decades of his life.
Sherry Lansing, a close friend of Aubrey's for two decades, told the " Los Angeles Times" in 1986:
Jim is different. He does his own dirty work. Jim is one of those people who are willing to say, "I didn't like your movie." Directness is disarming to people who are used to sugar-coating. It's tough for people who need approval to see somebody who doesn't. Myths and legends begin to surround that kind of person.
La Salle, Illinois, James Thomas Steven Aubrey was the eldest of four sons of James Thomas Aubrey, Sr., an advertising executive with the Chicago firm of Aubrey, Moore, and Wallace; and his wife, the former Mildred Stever. He grew up in the affluent Chicago suburb of Lake Forest and attended Phillips Exeter Academyin Exeter, New Hampshire, and Princeton University. All four boys went to Exeter and Princeton; his brother Stever became a successful advertising man at J. Walter Thompson before heading the F. William Freeagency. "My father insisted on accomplishment," Aubrey recalled in 1986. In college, Aubrey was a star on the football team, playing left end. He graduated in 1941 with honors in English and entered the United States Army Air Forces. During his service in World War II, Aubrey rose to the rank of major and taught military flying to actor James Stewart, who was a licensed civilian pilot. [cite web|url=http://www.jimmy.org/memories/content/demandingrole.html|work=jimmy.org|title=Jimmy Stewart: His Most Demanding Role Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] "Dethroned King of Air; James Thomas Aubrey Jr." " The New York Times". March 1, 1965. 52.] ["Princeton Confers 624 Degrees Today." " The New York Times". June 17, 1941. 19.]
While stationed in southern California, he met
Phyllis Thaxter(born November 20, 1921), [cite web|url=http://imdb.com/name/nm0857187 |work=imdb.com|title=Phyllis Thaxter Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] an actress signed to MGM, whom he married in November 1944. Thaxter's best known role was as Clark Kent's mother, Martha, in the 1978 film "Superman". They had two children, Susan Schuyler "Skye" Aubrey (born circa 1946) and James Watson Aubrey (born circa 1953). The marriage ended in divorce in 1962. [" [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,839404-1,00.html The Regency Firing] ", " Time Magazine", March 12, 1965. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.]
Aubrey was "6-foot 2-inch with an incandescent smile" with "unrevealing polar blue eyes" said "The New York Times Magazine" in 1964. The next year "Life Magazine" described him as "youthful, handsome, brainy, with an incandescent smile, a quiet, somewhat salty wit and, when he cared to turn it on, considerable charm. He was always fastidiously turned out, from his Jerry the Barber haircut to his CBS-eye cuff links." One producer said, "Aubrey is one of the most insatiably curious guys I know."
Enters broadcasting in radio
After Aubrey was discharged from the Air Force, he stayed in southern California; before his marriage, he intended to return to Chicago. In Los Angeles, he sold advertising for the Street and Smith and Condé Nast magazine companies. His first broadcasting job was as a salesman at the CBS radio station in Los Angeles, KNX-AM, and soon went to the network's new television station, KNXT-TV. Within two years Aubrey had risen to be the network's West Coast television programming chief. There he met
Hunt Stromberg, Jr., and they developed the popular western " Have Gun, Will Travel". They sent their idea to the network's chief of programming, Hubbell Robinson, and as Oulahan and Lambert put it, "the rest is TV history." Aubrey was promoted to manager of all television network programs, based in California, until he went to ABC in 1956.
Goes to ABC
On December 16, 1956,
American Broadcasting Companypresident Oliver E. Treyzannounced Aubrey would immediately become the network's head of programming and talent.Adams, Val. "Second Sponsor to Drop Winchell." " The New York Times". December 17, 1956. 42.] ABC, the weakest of the three networks, was a perennial also-ran with a weak roster of affiliates and programs, something comparable to the early days of the Fox Network. Aubrey later said "at that time, there was no ABC. The headquarters was an old riding stable. But I went because [ABC chairman] Leonard Goldensonin effect said, 'Look, I don't know that much about TV, I'm a lawyer.' And he let me have autonomy."
As vice president in charge of programs (a title he gained before March 1957), he brought to the air what he recalled as "wild, sexy, lively stuff, things that had never been done before," shows such as "Maverick", a western with
James Garner, and " 77 Sunset Strip", a detective show with Efrem Zimbalist Jr.(However, by the time "Strip" went on the air in October 1958, Aubrey had already left the network.) Oulahan and Lambert said Aubrey scheduled "one lucrative show after another ... and for the first time the third network became a serious challenge to NBC and CBS." Among the successes he scheduled were " The Donna Reed Show", a domestic comedy; " The Rifleman", a western with Chuck Connors; and " The Real McCoys", a rural comedy with Walter Brennanand Richard Crenna.
Despite his success at ABC, Aubrey saw a limited future at the network and asked to return to CBS, doing so on April 28, 1958, initially as assistant to
Frank Stanton, president of CBS, Inc., the holding company which owned the network. ( Thomas W. Moorewould take his ABC job.) Aubrey was made vice president for creative services in April 1959, replacing Louis G. Cowan, whom CBS promoted to network president.
Aubrey was named executive vice president on June 1, 1959, a newly created post that was the number-two official at the network. His responsibilities encompassed general supervision of all departments of the CBS Television Network. [Shepard, Richard F. "C.B.S.-TV Names No. 2 Executive." "
The New York Times". May 23, 1959. 49.] On December 8, 1959, Cowan resigned, having been damaged from his connection to the quiz show scandals. (He created the show " The $64,000 Question" and owned the company which produced it for the network, though Cowan denied he knew anything about the rigging of the program.) Cowan's letter of resignation to Stanton declared, "you have made it impossible for me to continue." Aubrey was named president the same day and elected to the board of directors on December 9. [Adams, Val. "Head of C.B.S.-TV Quits in Dispute." " The New York Times". December 9, 1959. 1.]
Aubrey was president of the CBS Network for the next five years, and made it tremendously successful, substantially increasing ratings and doubling the company's profits. In the 1963–64 season, all twelve of the top daytime programs and fourteen of the top fifteen prime-time shows were on CBS – the lone evening exception was
NBC's " Bonanza", ranked number two. After he was fired, journalists Richard Oulahan and William Lambert wrote in a "Life Magazine" profile:
In the long history of human communications, from tom-tom to
Telstar, no one man ever had a lock on such enormous audiences as James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. during his five-year tenure as head of the Columbia Broadcasting System's television network ... He was the world's No. 1 purveyor of entertainment.
William S. Paley, Aubrey's boss.] His formula was characterized by a CBS executive as "broads, bosoms, and fun," resulting in such shows as " The Beverly Hillbillies" and " Gilligan's Island", despised by the critics – and CBS chairman William S. Paley– but extremely popular with viewers. While Aubrey had a great feel for what would be successful with viewers, he had nothing but contempt for them. "The American public is something I fly over," he said. [Morrow, Lance. " [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,947266,00.html Goodbye To 'Our Mary'"] . " Time Magazine, March 14, 1977. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] His former boss at ABC, Oliver E. Treyz, said at programming "Jim Aubrey was one of the most effective ever, from the standpoint of delivering what the public wanted and making money. He was the best program judge in the business."
Aubrey said in 1986 of Paley and his programming choices:
I'd gone to CBS, and I'd become convinced "Beverly Hillbillies" was going to work. Bill Paley wasn't convinced. Bill has this great sense of propriety. Putting aside the Sarnoffs and all the other great names of broadcasting, Paley stood – stands – head and shoulders above everyone else. He had this blasting genius of instinctively looking at a show and knowing if it should be on the air. He could also be ruthless and distant ... But Bill was intuitive about both the business and creative sides of TV. And he genuinely disliked "Beverly Hillbillies." I put it on the schedule anyway.
"The hucksters' huckster,"
David Halberstamlabeled him, "whose greatest legacy to television was a program called "The Beverly Hillbillies", a series so demented and tasteless that it boggles the mind"Halberstam, David. " The Powers That Be." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979. ISBN 0-394-50381-3] Columnist Murray Kemptondescribed "The Beverly Hillbillies" as, "a confrontation of the characters of John Steinbeckwith the environment of Spyros Skouras," the extravagant chairman of Twentieth Century Fox. But regardless of what anyone said about "Hillbillies", the public loved it. The Nielsen ratings showed 57 million were watching the show – one in three Americans.
When Skouras was forced out of Fox by the company's board of directors in July 1962, Aubrey was widely mentioned to be his successor, but he openly denied he had any intention of leaving CBS. ["Aubrey of C.B.S. Discounts Rumors He Will Head Fox." "
The New York Times". July 21, 1962. 11.]
Influence on the competition
CBS's dominance was so great that when the fall schedules were announced, ABC and NBC would wait until CBS announced its plans before making their own announcements, effectively making Aubrey programmer for all three networks. CBS had great success with rural-themed programs such as the "Hillbillies", "
The Andy Griffith Show", " Mr. Ed", " Green Acres," and " Petticoat Junction". Yet another CBS hit Paley hated was " The Munsters", part of a trend of fantasy shows at the time that included CBS's " My Favorite Martian" and " Gilligan's Island". Aubrey's "unwritten code" for programs was described in "Life":
Feed the public little more than rural comedies, fast-moving detective dramas and, later, sexy dolls. No old people; the emphasis was on youth. No domestic servants, the mass audience wouldn't identify with maids. No serious problems to cope with. Every script had to be full of action. No physical infirmities.
"Life" acknowledged there were exceptions, such as "The Defenders" with
E.G. Marshalland Robert Reedas socially conscious attorneys, and quoted Aubrey's defense to charges of pandering to the public. "I felt that we had an obligation to reach the vast majority of most of the people," he said. "We made an effort to continue purposeful drama on TV, but we found out that people just don't want an anthology. They would rather tune in on "Lucy"."
In 1962, a
United States Senatecommittee investigating juvenile delinquencyheld hearings on sex on television and called executives from the three networks. The chairman, Senator Thomas J. Dodd(D- Connecticut), blasted "an unmistakable pattern" and informed the executives "you all seem to use the same terminology – to think alike – and to jam this stuff down the people's throat." Dodd accused Aubrey of putting "prurient sex" in the CBS program "Route 66" and confronted him with the "bosoms, broads, and fun" quotation from a memorandum by a CBS executive. Aubrey denied saying the phrase. [ Associated Press. "Networks Offer Definition of Sex." " The New York Times". May 12, 1962. 51.]
"The Smiling Cobra"
Aubrey was a controlling man and a workaholic, putting in twelve-hour days six days a week. He endlessly read scripts, screened episodes, and ordered reshoots or changes made in the furniture and dressing of a set.
Murray Kemptonwrote that he would see six movies every weekend and read three books on transcontinental flights. Kempton quoted a CBS executive saying:
He read everything. Like he saw every movie. But he had the smallest world there could be. He'd watch a movie and, while everyone else was involved in the story, he'd say out loud "that kid could be the lead in a television program." He read everything sure. All the new fiction. What he didn't like was Bellow, Updike, Cheever, Salinger, Capote, and Mailer. He didn't know how to use them.
Kempton claimed Aubrey:
[He] was the fourth president of CBS-TV as
Caligulawas the fourth of the twelve Caesars. Each carried the logic of his imperial authority as far as it could go. Each was deposed and disappeared suddenly leaving bad press behind him.
Oulahan and Lambert claimed "Aubrey exercised his tremendous power with the canny skill and the ruthlessness of a
Tatarkhan." Aubrey's treachery led the producer John Housemanin 1959 to dub him "The Smiling Cobra." Houseman in public was less direct. In December 1962, CBS announced it was spending $250,000 an episode on Houseman's hour-long drama on American history for the next season, "The Great Adventure", but on July 25, 1963, CBS announced Houseman had resigned. The producer told " The New York Times" "The kind of show they want is not what I wanted to produce" but attributed his departure to a simple difference of opinion, the "Times" reporter stating Houseman "expressed no criticism of CBS." (The show ran for one season, 1963–64.) [Adams, Val. "New C.B.S. Series to Lose Houseman." " The New York Times". July 26, 1963. 53.] [Gould, Jack. "A.B.C. Plans New TV Format For Its 'Arrest and Trial' Show." " The New York Times". December 26, 1962. 5.]
In "Only You, Dick Daring!", his humorous yet damning account of the five and a half months he spent trying to make a show with CBS for the 1963–64 season based on an idea of Aubrey's about a
county agent, writer Merle Millerdescribed how Aubrey would simply walk out of meetings without offering any substantive comments on Miller's program and the nineteen rewrites he did of the pilot episode. Miller was assured by other CBS executives that Aubrey's silence meant things were fine – Kempton quoted a CBS producer telling Miller "this has nothing to do with a good script or a bad script. It has to do with pleasing one man, Jim Aubrey. Don't ever forget it" – and Miller later learned of efforts by Aubrey to force him out. (A pilot for the show, known as "Calhoun" and "County Agent", to star Jackie Cooperand Barbara Stanwyck, was shot and put on the fall schedule, but the series was canceled before it ever aired.) Miller quoted an independent producer: "Aubrey's the most important man in television, in the history of television, maybe in the history of entertainment. He out-Mayers Louis B. Mayerten times over."Miller, Merle. "Only You, Dick Daring! Or, How to Write One Television Script and Make $50,000,000: A True-life Adventure". New York: William Sloane Associates, 1964.]
Abrasive toward many
Aubrey's success seemed to have gone to his head and he became even more arrogant. He was abusive to the network's affiliates, advertisers, producers, and talent. Friends of Aubrey's such as producers
Dick Dorsoof United Artists, Martin Ransohoffof Filmways, and David Susskind, who had each sold several series to CBS, suddenly found themselves shut out. "He's a friend of mine, but he cut me stone cold last year," Susskind said. "I was hanging there with my pants down, wondering what I'd tell the stockholders." Garry Moore, a popular personality in the 1950s, wanted to make a comeback on CBS, but Aubrey casually dismissed him: "Not a chance." John Frankenheimer, critically acclaimed as the number one director of live TV dramas during the 1950s, was shown the exit door by Aubrey in 1960. Frankenheimer was forced to find a new career as a movie director, although he had wanted to continue in television. In 1996, during a personal appearance at the Museum of Television & Radio, Frankenheimer described Aubrey as "a barbarian."
The star of CBS's "
The Lucy Show" had problems with Aubrey. " Lucille Ballcouldn't say his name without calling him an S.O.B.," Stanton said – though Kempton quoted her after Aubrey's firing as saying "he was the smartest one up there."Kempton, Murray. "The Fall of a Television Czar." " The New Republic". April 3, 1965. 9–10.] Aubrey fought with Red Skelton, Danny Thomas, and Arthur Godfreyas well. The treatment of Jack Bennywas typical.
Aubrey first rescheduled Benny's long-running series without consulting the star. Benny, a good friend of Paley's since he lured the comedian to CBS in 1948, objected to his new lead-in on Tuesdays for the 1963–64 season, "
Petticoat Junction", instead of the previous season's "The Red Skelton Hour". Then in the summer of 1963, Aubrey told Benny his show would not be renewed at the end of the forthcoming season, Aubrey having decided that Benny was out of step with current tastes and no longer relevant. "You're through," Aubrey told the star.Martin Kasindorf. "How now, Dick Daring?" " The New York TimesMagazine". September 10, 1972. 54+.] Benny took his show to NBC, his home before 1948, where it was cancelled after only one season, proving Aubrey's point if not his tactics. [Adams, Val. "Benny to Return to N.B.C. Network." " The New York Times". September 26, 1963. 71.]
There were charges of favoritism in purchasing programs. Aubrey's friend
Keefe Brasselle, who had bit parts in several movies in the 1940s and 1950s and met Aubrey when they both worked at KNXT-TV, had no experience as a producer. "A 1965 edition of George Raft," said David Susskind, particularly apt as there were also rumors Brasselle had ties to the Mafia. Nevertheless, Aubrey scheduled three shows from Brasselle's Richelieu Productions for the 1964–65 season, all without pilots, still an almost unheard-of practice. (The shows were " The Baileys of Balboa", a sitcom with Paul Ford; the newspaper drama " The Reporter"; and " The Cara Williams Show", a sitcom starring red-head Williams, billed as the next Lucille Ball.) Brasselle would personally supervise "The Reporter", shot in New York City. Costs skyrocketed on Brasselle's shows – after nine episodes, "The Reporter" was $450,000 over budget – and all three bombed – "The Reporter" running only three months, "Baileys" until April 1964; and "Cara Williams" finishing the season. Aubrey was later asked why he aired three untested programs. "Arrogance, I guess" he responded.Folkart, Burt A. "James Aubrey Jr., Former Head of CBS and MGM, Dies." " Los Angeles Times." September 11, 1994. 1.]
But, as his critics acknowledged, Aubrey could be charming and go to great lengths to please talent. To keep
Jackie Gleasonhappy when he moved his show from New York Cityto Miami Beach in 1963, Aubrey had CBS buy Gleason's futuristic home in Peekskill, New York– " The New York Times" called it "a flying-saucer like cabana" – for $350,000. The network was still trying to sell it years later.Dallos, Robert E.. "One-Bedroom House for Sale – Asking $350,000." " The New York Times". August 25, 1968. R1.]
News and sports
Aubrey, who on May 9, 1963, warned the network's affiliates the high cost of rights for professional sports could price them off television, nevertheless in January 1964 agreed to pay $28.2 million to air the games of the
National Football Leaguefor two years, seventeen games each season. "We know how much these games mean to the viewing audience, our affiliated stations, and the nation's advertisers," Aubrey told " The New York Times". In April, he agreed to extend the deal for another year for a total of $31.8 million. [Adams, Val. "C.B.S. Relents: Ignores Own Warning on Spiraling Costs." " The New York Times". April 26, 1964. X17.] [Adams, Val. "C.B.S.-TV to Pay $28.2 Million For 2-Year Pro Football Rights." " The New York Times". January 25, 1964. 1.]
In the spring of 1964, "
The New York TimesMagazine" declared CBS "for the 10th year in a row ... was the undisputed champion of the television networks." The "Times" quoted an analyst who said CBS was "almost comparable to what General Motors did in autos or what General Electric[did] in electrical equipment."
Aubrey fought constantly with officials of
CBS News, especially its chief, Fred W. Friendly, who was just as demanding and controlling as Aubrey. Friendly felt Aubrey was insufficiently concerned with public affairs and in his memoir, "Due to Circumstances Beyond Our Control", recounts one budget meeting at CBS when Aubrey talked at length of how much money the news was costing the company, a sea of red ink that could be stopped by replacing news with more entertainment programs. However, Paley supported the news and protected Friendly's division from Aubrey's proposed budget cuts. Aubrey in 1962 ordered that there would be fewer specials, both entertainment and news, because he felt interruptions to the schedule alienated viewers by disrupting their routine viewing, sending them to the competition. Friendly resented this move.
That fall, "
CBS Reports", a news program at eight o'clock on Wednesdays, was blamed in the press for the sharp drop off in the ratings of " The Beverly Hillbillies" – the comedy had been number one in its first two seasons, but dropped to eighteenth when "CBS Reports" became the "Hillbillies" lead-in for its third season. ("Hillbillies" had aired at nine o'clock before moving up a half hour in 1964.) CBS responded by moving "CBS Reports" to Mondays.
In the spring of 1964, charges were printed in the April 16 issue of "Close-Up", a celebrity scandal sheet, which claimed Aubrey was taking kickbacks from producers. The
Federal Communications Commissionmade inquiries, and CBS learned that despite his $264,000 annual salary from the company, Aubrey's apartment on Manhattan's Central Park Southwas owned by Martin Ransohoff, the head of Filmways, the producer of the "Hillbillies"," Petticoat Junction", " Mr. Ed", and other CBS programs. And though he had a chauffeur-driven car paid for by the network, Brasselle's Richelieu Productions was paying for another chauffeured car for Aubrey, done so Paley and Stanton would not know what Aubrey was doing after hours. CBS had not known of either the apartment or the car. The company was also concerned about the money spent to buy Gleason's former home.
In late 1964, Aubrey approached Stanton with a proposal. Claiming he had investors lined-up and ready to buy the company, Aubrey said once in control, they would fire Paley, install Stanton as chairman, and promote Aubrey to Stanton's post, CBS corporate president. This did not come to pass, but Aubrey's contempt for his boss William S. Paley knew no bounds, Aubrey even showing his disregard for Paley in public. The
Internal Revenue Servicefiling a tax lien against Aubrey for $38,047.93 was another irritant for Paley. Aubrey also seemed to have lost his touch, the early ratings for the 1964–65 season showing the new shows that fall were flops. Aubrey panicked, noted "Life", and "by that time Paley had made his decision to fire Aubrey, though he had yet found no plausible excuse."
"Aubrey was torpedoed at last," wrote "The New York Times Magazine", "by a combination of his imperiousness, the ratings drop, and a vivid afterhours life culminating in a raucous
Miami Beachparty – details of which no one ever agrees on – the weekend he was fired." (Aubrey had been in Florida for Jackie Gleason's forty-ninth birthday party.)
"I don't pretend to be any saint. If anyone wants to indict me for liking pretty girls, I'm guilty,"" [http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,839128,00.html The Return of Smiling Jim.] " "
Time Magazine". October 31, 1969. 80. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] Aubrey said at the time, one factor in his divorce in 1962, which freed him to, "live the high life around New York, Hollywood, Miami, and in Europe with such companions as Judy Garland, Julie Newmar, Rhonda Fleming– and with other dolls who were only faces and figures, not names. His late dates and early morning parties were the talk of several towns."
Paley ordered Stanton to fire Aubrey, and he did so on February 27, 1965, though the announcement was delayed until the following afternoon, a Sunday. Stanton's statement declared:
Jim Aubrey's outstanding accomplishment during his tenure as head of the C.B.S. television network need no elaboration. His extraordinary record speaks for itself.Adams, Val. "C.B.S. Ousts Aubrey as TV President: Unexplained Move Stuns Industry – Post Goes to John A. Schneider." "
The New York Times". March 1, 1965. 1. ]
In 1986, Paul Rosenfield of the "Los Angeles Times" wrote:
There are at least 13,000 theories on why he got the ax, some of them lurid, but none as obvious as the fact that CBS was starting to slip in the Nielsens. "And there was a basic dissatisfaction with me," as he put it. If Aubrey understood ratings and revenue, he also was no stranger to a kind of after-hours recklessness that mirrored the Camelot of its day. Nobody questions that Jungle Jim had a good time in the playgrounds of Manhattan and Hollywood.
Rosenfield also claimed "for years gossip columnists had to bite their tongues because the fodder on Aubrey was so tempting, but mostly unprintable. How much was
hearsayand how much was fiction is not clear." Aubrey's successor was announced as John A. Schneider, the general manager of WCBS-TVin New York City, who had no experience in network television. Aubrey was so despondent at losing his job Stanton feared he would kill himself. Wall Streettook the news badly as well: CBS stock plunged nine points over the following week. The stock tumble "puts my net value to the network at $20 million," Aubrey noted. Aubrey continued to be a CBS employee until April 20.
Jack Gould, television critic for "
The New York Times", wrote two days after Aubrey's dismissal that Aubrey
symbolized an era in television that has been and is too much rooted in calculated and insensitive preoccupation with making more money this year than last ... Automated situation comedies that wooed the young and did not drive away the old were the mainstay of his philosophy and they paid off.Gould, Jack. "TV: In the Wake of Aubrey's Dismissal by C.B.S." "
The New York Times". March 2, 1965. 71.]
Aubrey, who left CBS with $2.5 million in network stock, moved to the
Sunset Stripand set up a production company, The Aubrey Company. His attorney, Gregson E. Bautzer, in 1967 tried to buy the American Broadcasting Companyfor another client, the Las Vegas-based millionaire Howard Hughes. Aubrey was to have run ABC after the takeover, but the reclusive Hughes refused to testify in person at hearings before the Federal Communications Commission, which had to approve the purchase, and the deal collapsed.Sloane, Leonard. "Lawyer Keeps Late Hours With Clients." " The New York Times". December 14, 1969. F3.]
Aubrey's outsize reputation – beaming smile, dapper dress, endless womanizing – and his dramatic exit from CBS inspired characters in three novels. His former friend
Keefe Brassellewrote "The CanniBalS: A Novel About Television's Savage Chieftains" (1968), the title of which had very unsubtle capitalization and was, in Nora Ephron's assessment, "unreadable." Harold Robbins's "The Inheritors" (1969) and Jacqueline Susann's "The Love Machine" (1969) also contained characters based on him. In Susann's book, Aubrey is network executive Robin Stone. Paul Rosenfield said Aubrey had "quietly cooperated" with Susann, "giving her background on TV," although Susann's husband, Irving Mansfield, had been a busy TV producer himself, before switchingto managing his wife's career full-time. Susann said Aubrey, her neighbor, was "one of those people who are born to run the works. A natural for a novel."
In June 1967, Aubrey agreed to a two-year contract to produce films for
Columbia Pictures. Despite being frequently rumored as a candidate for many posts in the entertainment industry, Aubrey told Vincent Canbyof " The New York Times" he had "no desire ever again to become involved in the corporate side of the entertainment business" and had been, in Canby's words, "dabbling in a number of enterprises, including the acquisition of films for TV, real estate, and cultured pearls."Canby, Vincent. "Aubrey to Make Columbia Films: Ex-Head of C.B.S.-TV Signs as Producer for 2 Years." " The New York Times". June 24, 1967. 18.] In 1965, Oulahan and Lambert had noted he had "extensive investments in everything from coppermines to a chain of waffle shops."Oulahan, Richard; and William Lambert. "The Tyrant's Fall That Rocked the TV World: Until He Was Suddenly Brought Low, Jim Aubrey Ruled the Air." " Life Magazine". September 10, 1965. 90+.] His first project for Columbia was to be an adaptation of a Patricia Highsmithbook, "Those Who Walk Away". "The criteria is profitable entertainment," he told Canby. Before the deal collapsed on January 1, 1968, Aubrey had been rumored to be the leading candidate to be hired as ABC television entertainment chief if International Telephone and Telegraph's takeover of ABC, which was announced in March 1966, had been completed.
Picked to run MGM
Aubrey resurfaced in 1969 when Las Vegas businessman
Kirk Kerkoriantook control of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayerstudio for the first time, ousting Canadian liquor magnate Edgar M. Bronfman, who had gained control earlier that year. Aubrey's attorney Gregson E. Bautzer also represented Kerkorian, and Bautzer recommended Aubrey for the MGM post. Aubrey, announced as MGM president on October 21, 1969, was Kerkorian's third choice after Herb Jaffe of United Artistsand independent producer Mike Frankovich both declined the post, while producer Ray Starkwas also considered. Aubrey replaced the fired Louis F. Polk, Jr., who had been MGM president only since January 14, 1969. Aubrey was the studio's third president that year. [Sloane, Leonard. "Some New Teeth for M-G-M Lion." " The New York Times". October 26, 1969. F1.] Polk told "The New York Times", "no one likes to leave a job unfinished," and said he had started much-needed reforms at the studio, which suffered a $35 million loss in the fiscal year ending August 31, 1969.Sloane, Leonard. "Aubrey Named M-G-M President: Kerkorian Moves In as Bronfman and Forces Lose Out." " The New York Times". October 22, 1969. 57.]
Aubrey received a salary of $4,000 a week, but had no contract. He said in 1986, "I wanted Kirk to be able to say, 'Get lost, Jim,' without obligation if it didn't work." Like most of the big studios in the 1960s, MGM was struggling [Sloane, Leonard. "Film Makers Showing Bad Picture." "
The New York Times". April 26, 1970. F2.] and Kerkorian said his new president would bring the company roaring back to its former glory. Instead, Aubrey largely liquidated the company as Kerkorian transformed it into a hospitality company with the MGM Grand Hotelhe was building. "We've been using old-fashioned methods here," Aubrey said at the time. In 1986, he said the company was "total disarray. Until you were in a position to lift up the rug, there was no way to know how much disarray. The crown jewel of studios had become a shambles."
Within days of his hiring, twelve films were canceled because of financial issues, among them director
Fred Zinnemann's "Man's Fate", days from starting principal photography.
Restructures the company
Aubrey eliminated hundreds of jobs when he relocated corporate headquarters from
New York Cityto Culver City to be closer to production facilities, a move which was announced on April 29, 1970. ["M-G-M Is Planning Move." " The New York Times". April 30, 1970. 55.] Aubrey ordered the sale of MGM's historic collection of costumes and props such as the Ruby Slippers wore by Judy Garlandin "The Wizard of Oz" and the suit Spencer Tracywore in " Inherit the Wind". (It was bought by one of the defense attorneys defending Charles Manson, who regularly wore it to court.) The studio's camera department was auctioned. Most of the studio's Culver City backlot and its 2,000 acre (8 km²) ranch in the Conejo Valley were sold to developers, moves already planned under Polk. Aubrey literally threw the company's valuable archives into the trash and brought production to a standstill. Aubrey was criticized for these actions. In 1986 he recalled, "the buck had to stop somewhere, and it was with me. Nostalgia runs strong out here, so we were criticized for selling Judy Garland's red shoes. To us they had no value, and they had no intrinsic value."
These moves were effective in restoring the company's finances. In his first nine months on the job, he cut MGM's debt by $27 million, nearly one-quarter the total, and the company posted profits of $540,000 for those nine months compared to a $18,372,000 loss in the comparable period in the preceding fiscal year., [Sloane, Leonard. "Capital Gains Help." "
The New York Times". July 25, 1970. 30.]
Losses were so great because Polk wrote off as total losses many films made under his predecessors; the company posted a $35,366,000 loss in the fiscal year ending August 31, 1969. "Basically what we're really concentrating on at the moment is to really streamline this operation. There isn't much else to do when you're losing as much money as we are,"Leonard Sloane. "New M-G-M Chief Trims Expenses: Aubrey Says Headquarters May Move to California." "
The New York Times". December 12, 1969. 89.] Aubrey told "The New York Times" in December 1969. Aubrey said, "we have determined that we're not going to continue to produce on the basis of forty acres and acres and acres of standing sets. Young people who are the major movie audience today, refer to that as the plastic world and that is almost a deterrent in the business today." [Sloane, Leonard. "M-G-M Discloses $35-Million Loss: No Revenue Figure Is Given for Year Ended Aug 31." " The New York Times". November 20, 1969. 69.]
Aubrey announced plans for faster and cheaper movies, none of which would have a budget above $1 million, but many of these inexpensive films bombed with critics and audiences. One notable success was the
Richard Roundtreefilm "Shaft", which cost $1 million and sold $12 million worth of tickets. Agent Sue Mengerssaid he was a very tough dealmaker. "I'd rather go to bed with him than negotiate with him." Upon assuming his MGM post, Aubrey almost immediately canceled production on two Julie Andrewspictures, "She Loves Me" and "Say It With Music", the late 1960s fad for musicals having ended. He also clashed with David Lean, whose production of " Ryan's Daughter" was running overbudget, in early 1970, attempting to cancel or at least scale down the film; but Lean held too much sway for Aubrey's actions to have any effect. [Kevin Brownlow, "David Lean: A Biography", pp. 570-571.]
Return to profitability
In the first half of fiscal 1970, the company had profits of $6,531,000 despite sizable write-offs. The company had significantly cut its operating losses from $6,547,000 to $1,594,000. Aubrey told the press in April 1970 the company would have made money if not for four films:
Herbert Ross's musical version of James Hilton's novel "Goodbye, Mr. Chips" starring Peter O'Tooleand Petula Clark; Michelangelo Antonioni's "Zabriskie Point", a film Pauline Kaelcalled "a huge, jerry-built crumbling ruin of a movie"; [Kael, Pauline, "The Current Cinema," " The New Yorker", February 21, 1970, p. 95.] the adventure " Captain Nemoand the Underwater City" with Robert Ryanand Chuck Connors; and Sidney Lumet's "The Appointment" with Omar Sharif, Anouk Aimée, and Lotte Lenya. These four pictures cost almost $20 million to produce and had they broken even the company would have been profitable. [Sloane, Leonard. "Loss in Operations Is Listed by M-G-M." " The New York Times". April 22, 1970. 82.] In "The New York Times", Vincent Canbynoted that same month "the fickle tastes of the movie-going audience have made a large part of [studios' film] inventory obsolete."Canby, Vincent. "Is Hollywood in Hot Water?" " The New York Times". November 9, 1969. D1.]
By the end of the fiscal year, the company had made $1,573,000 in profits; a remarkable turnaround for a company which posted a $35 million loss one year before. [Reckert, Claire M. "M-G-M Earnings Make Recovery: Year's Net Follows Loss 4th Quarter Shows Deficit." "
The New York Times". December 15, 1970. 68.] In January 1971, Aubrey declared, "we are pleased that the company has been turned around. Through the policies of this management, including a complete reorganization, substantial economies, consolidation of operations and through better performance of recent films, we have been able to operate substantially in the black." [Reckert, Claire M. . "M-G-M Earnings Gain Ground For the Latest Fiscal Quarter." " The New York Times". January 12, 1971. 45.]
That same month, Aubrey announced the company was in merger talks with
Twentieth Century Fox, days after Fox fired its top executives, Richard D. Zanuckand David Brown. [Reckert, Claire M. "Merger is Pushed by M-G-M and Fox: Preliminary Terms Call for an Exchange of Shares." " The New York Times". January 15, 1971. 27.] Two weeks later he announced the talks had ended. However, Darryl F. Zanuck, chairman and CEO of Fox, publicly denied any negotiations. "There have not been and are not now and are not scheduled for the future any discussions concerning a merger or any other type of combination between our two companies," he told the press. [ Associated Press. "U.S. Will Oppose White Motor Tie." " The New York Times". January 27, 1971. 49.] [Hammer, Alexander R. "White Motor Tie Put Off by Court." " The New York Times". January 28, 1971. 47.]
Aubrey again took a hands-on approach to MGM's products, personally ordering cuts on films. "The New York Times Magazine" wrote, "Aubrey's heavy involvement with every creative detail of MGM's pictures far surpassed his immersal in CBS's scripts." After he made edits to the film "Going Home" starring
Robert Mitchum, its director, Herbert Leonard, protested publicly. "He unilaterally and arbitrarily raped the picture," he told "Time" in 1971. Director Blake Edwardswas incensed by changes Aubrey made to his film "The Wild Rovers" with William Holden, telling "The New York Times Magazine", "Cuts? He doesn't know as much as a first-year cinema student. He cut the heart right out of it." Television producer Bruce Geller, who created "", had his name removed from the credits of his first film, "Corky", because "It's not my picture any more." The producer of the film "Chandler", Michael S. Laughlin, and its director, Paul Magwood, took out a full page ad, bordered in black, in the trade papers declaring:
Regarding what was our film "Chandler", let's give credit where credit is due. We sadly acknowledge that all editing, post-production as well as additional scenes were executed by James T. Aubrey Jr. We are sorry." [http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,905617,00.html Uprising at MGM.] " "
Time Magazine". December 27, 1971. 49. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.]
Laughlin told "Time Magazine", "You just can't deal with Aubrey. He realizes that litigation can be a great expense, and that because of legal delays the film will have disappeared long before your case comes to court."
Aubrey engaged in another infamous feud with
Sam Peckinpah, who in 1973 began work on the Western " Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid". Aubrey clashed with Peckinpah immediately, the two men's notoriously difficult personalities leading to a long-lasting feud. Aubrey slashed Peckinpah's budget early in production, refusing to allow him to reshoot crucial footage, pushing back the release date to Memorial Day, and editing out nearly 20 minutes of the film. Editor Roger Spottiswoodesaid that "Aubrey was ordering scenes cut out for no other reason except he knew Sam didn't want them cut." [David Weddle, "If They Move, Kill 'Em: The Life and Times of Sam Peckinpah", pp. 462-463, 481-488; Spottiswoode quoted on 486 ]
MGM had disagreements with the
Motion Picture Association of Americaand its rating system for films, which had been instituted in 1968. ["'Ryan's Daughter' To Be Advertised Without a Rating." " The New York Times". November 13, 1970. 25.] MGM resigned from the MPAA in 1971 over the issue of ratings and "exorbitant dues charges," Aubrey said. ["M-G-M To Withdraw From a Film Group." " The New York Times". March 20, 1971. 15.] In October 1971, MGM announced that it was to build the world's largest hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, what would become the MGM Grand Hotel, and was to enter the cruise-ship business. ["M-G-M Sets Move in Leisure Field: Hotel and Ships Planned – New Chairman Elected." " The New York Times". October 15, 1971. 55.] The next month, the company announced fiscal 1971 profits of $16,358,000, up sharply from the $1.6 million in fiscal 1970 and the highest in a quarter century. [Reckert, Claire M. " RevlonReports Record Profits." " The New York Times". November 3, 1971. 67, 71.]
After four years at MGM, Aubrey announced his resignation, declaring, "The job I agreed to undertake has been accomplished." Kerkorian was named as his successor on October 31, 1973. "
Time Magazine" declared, "Under Aubrey, MGM churned out profitable, medium-budget schlock like "Skyjacked" and "Black Belly of the Tarantula"; directors often charged him with philistine meddling, and he alienated many of them" but "as a financial auteur, Aubrey may have deserved an Oscar."" [http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,944683,00.html The Lion and the Cobra.] " " Time Magazine. " November 12, 1973. 110+. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.]
Sherry Lansing, who entered the movie business as a script reader at MGM under Aubrey, were struck by a car while crossing Wilshire Boulevardin the mid-1970s. Both were badly hurt and Lansing had to use crutches for a year and a half. Aubrey nursed her back to health. "He came every day. He would say, 'You're not going to limp.' My own mother and father couldn't give me more support," she told "Variety" in 2004.
Aubrey became an independent producer after leaving MGM, producing ten films, none memorable. His greatest success was a 1979 television movie about the
Dallas Cowboys Cheerleadersstarring Jane Seymour – "broads, bosoms, and fun" once more. [cite web|url=http://imdb.com/title/tt0079024|work=imdb.com|title=Dallas Cowboy Cheerleaders Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] In the mid-1980s, he was chairman of Entermark, a production company which made low-budget films and was backed by several wealthy Texans – including former Governor John Connally. "Our theory is that with today's ancillary rights, there is real profit in a movie that costs $3 million. We don't need to gross $40 million, or open on Christmas Day," he said. To publicize this venture, he granted a rare interview to the "Los Angeles Times" in 1986. Reporter Paul Rosenfield found him unrepentant:
Aubrey doesn't deny that he shoots from the hip, in a style that can unhinge the fragile egos of show business. "If I was in the tire business," reasoned Aubrey, "I wouldn't be hurt if the customer didn't buy my tires. I'd think, 'So what?' But in my business, if I don't buy the script, then the writer kicks the dog and beats his wife. So you learn to pay attention to personal relationships. But that doesn't mean you lie to people. I've been the screwer and the screwee, and I know which is better. It's better to be the screwer, and it's very difficult to do that with honesty, but it's how I prefer to be treated. I don't want power now, or authority, so I suppose my candor can't hurt me.Rosenfield, Paul. "Aubrey: A Lion in Winter." "
Los Angeles Times." April 27, 1986. Calendar section, 1.]
Gossip columnist Liz Smith reported this profile of Aubrey had led to rumors he would again return to head CBS after Paley was forced out in 1986 when
Laurence Tischacquired the network.Smith, Liz. "Hot TV Rumor: Return of the 'Smiling Cobra'." " San Francisco Chronicle". May 9, 1986. 81.] Aubrey worked as a consultant for Brandon Tartikoffduring the 1980s, while Tartikoff worked to restore the reputation of NBC, but by the time of Aubrey's death he had been largely forgotten.
He died of a heart attack at the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles on September 3, 1994,Pace, Eric. " [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9805E0D9173BF931A2575AC0A962958260 James Aubrey Jr., 75, TV and Film Executive.] " "
The New York Times." September 12, 1994. D10. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] and was buried in Los Angeles's Westwood Memorial Park. [cite web|url=http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9308|work=Find A Grave|title=James T. Aubrey Retrieved on January 24, 2008.] His marker there identifies him as "A Man Among Men." In the summer of 2004" Variety" reported his daughter is writing a biography of her father, though as of 2008 no further details about this book have been announced.
*Bart, Peter. " Fade Out: The Scandalous Final Days of MGM". New York: William Morrow, 1990. ISBN 0-688-08460-5.
*"James T. Aubrey." "
Current Biography". March 1972.
* Metz, Robert. "CBS: Reflections in a Bloodshot Eye." Chicago: Playboy Press, 1975. ISBN 0-87223-407-X
* Slater, Robert. "This ... Is CBS: A Chronicle of Sixty Years." Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1988. ISBN 0-13-919234-4
* Smith, Sally Bedell. "In All His Glory: The Life of William S. Paley, the Legendary Tycoon and His Brilliant Circle". New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990. ISBN 0-671-61735-4
*imdb name|id=0041407|name=James T. Aubrey, Jr.
* [http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/A/htmlA/aubreyjames/aubreyjames.htm Biography at the Museum of Broadcast Communications site]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9308 James Aubrey's Gravesite]
NAME = Aubrey, James Thomas, Jr.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Aubrey, James T., Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION = American film and TV executive
DATE OF BIRTH = December 14, 1911
PLACE OF BIRTH = La Salle, Illinois
DATE OF DEATH = September 3, 1994
PLACE OF DEATH = Los Angeles
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