- Bendigo, Victoria
Infobox Australian Place | type = city
name = Bendigo
state = Victoria
caption = Bendigo's "talking tram" in the main street
pop = 81,939 (2006) [Census 2006 AUS|id=2030|name=Bendigo (VIC) (Statistical District)|accessdate=2007-09-27]
poprank = 20th
density = 31.3
elevation = 225
est = 1851
area = 2998.97
timezone = AEST
utc = +10
timezone-dst = AEST
utc-dst = +11
county = Bendigo
postcode = 3550
Division of Bendigo
City of Greater Bendigo
Bendigo is a regional city in central
Victoria, Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. The Greater Bendigo municipality is home to around 100,000 while the city has a steadily growing urban population of about 80,000 people which places it as the third largest regional centre in Victoria after Geelong and Melbourne. Residents of Bendigo are called Bendigonians. [ [http://www.bendigoweekly.com/search?Query=bendigonian&fromSmall=true&searchWhat=searchAll&Categories=0&searchField=searchContentBody Search results for "Bendigonian"] - "Bendigo Weekly" Online Edition.]
Originally known as "Sandhurst", the city grew quickly out of the
Victorian gold rushand became established as a major provincial hub and minor financial centre, being home to Australia's only provincially headquartered retail bank, the Bendigo Bank, and the Bendigo Stock Exchange(BSX).
Bendigo is notable for its Victorian architectural heritage and
In 1851 Mrs Margaret Kennedy and Mrs Farrell, wives of two farmhands from the Ravenswood sheep run, found gold in the Bendigo creek. Word of the discovery spread quickly and soon after the township of Sandhurst was established, a Post Office opening on
July 1, 1852as Bendigo Creek (renamed Sandhurst on January 1, 1854and Bendigo June, 1891).Citation
last = Premier Postal History | title = Post Office List | url = https://www.premierpostal.com/cgi-bin/wsProd.sh/Viewpocdwrapper.p?SortBy=VIC&country= | access-date = 2008-04-11 ]
Official town planning commenced in 1854 and by 1857, Sandhurst was connected by
telegraphto Melbourne. The grand Town Hall was commissioned in 1859 and the Melbourne to Sandhurst railway commenced operations in 1862. Less than a decade later, in 1871, Sandhurst was proclaimed a City. By the 1880s, the city was considered the richest in the world due to the size of the local goldfields, City of Greater Bendigo: [http://www.bendigo.vic.gov.au Bendigo's heritage] ] with a start made on the local tram network made in 1890. [cite web
title=Bendigo Tramways - History
It was not until 1891 that the city's name was changed to Bendigo, in honour of the bare knuckled boxer, William "Abednego" Thompson, whose name had been lent to the creek where gold was first discovered.
As a legacy of the gold boom Bendigo has many magnificent ornate buildings built in a late Victorian colonial style, contributing to a picturesque "French" cityscape. Many buildings are on the
Victorian Heritage Registerand registered by the National Trust of Australia. Prominent buildings include the Bendigo Town Hall (1859, 1883-85), Post Office, Law Courts (1892-96), Shamrock Hotel (1897), Institute of Technology and Memorial Military Museum (1921) all in the Second Empire-style.
Architect Vahland, encouraged European artisans to emigrate to the Sandhurst gold fields and so create the Vienna(Wien) of the south.Fact|date=April 2008
Bendigo's Sacred Heart Cathedral, a large sandstone church, is the third largest cathedral in Australia and one of the largest cathedrals in the
Southern Hemisphere. The main building was completed between 1896-1908 and the soaring spire between 1954 and 1977.
Fortuna Villa is a large surviving Victorian mansion, built for Christopher Ballerstedt and later owned by George Lansell.
Many other examples of Bendigo's classical architecture rank amongst the finest classical commercial buildings in Australia and include the Colonial Bank building (1887) and the former Masonic Hall (1873-74) which is now a performing arts centre.
Joss house, a historic temple, was built in the 1860s by Chinese miners and is the only surviving building of its kind in regional Victoria which continues to be used as a place of worship.
The historic Bendigo Tram Sheds and Power Station (1903) now house Bendigo's tramway museum.
The Queen Elizabeth Oval still retains its ornate 1901 grandstand.
Parks and gardens
The central city is skirted by
Rosalind Park, a Victorian style garden featuring statuary and a large blue stone viaduct. The main entrance corner of the park is on the intersection known as the Charing Cross, formerly the intersection of two main tram lines (now only one). It features a large statue of Queen Victoria. The Charing Cross road junction features the large ornate "Alexandra fountain" (1881) and is built on top of a wide bridge which spans the viaduct. The park elevates toward Camp Hill, which features a historic school and former mine poppet head.
Further from the city is
Lake Weroona, a large ornamental lake, adjacent to the Bendigo Botanical Gardens.
Bendigo is growing rapidly whilst small surrounding rural towns (such as Elmore, Rochester, Inglewood, Dunolly and
Bridgewater) are in steep decline. The 2005 Bendigo Council Annual Report indicated about 13% of the workforce are employed in manufacturing.
Tourism, based on the old gold industry, is important and includes prominent attractions such as the Central Deborah Goldmine, Discovery Science and Technology Centreand the Bendigo Tramways (all three of which make up the Bendigo Trust, a council-intertwined organisation dedicated to preserving Bendigo's heritage).
Bendigo history was heavily influenced by its prominent Chinese community. The
Golden Dragon Museumshowcases a living history of the Chinese people in Bendigo from the goldrush of the 1850s to the present day. Having become the hub of Chinese cultural activity in Australia, the museum allows visitors to experience first hand Chinese arts and crafts with visiting artisans and tradespeople.
The main retail centre of Bendigo is the central business district, with the suburbs of Eaglehawk, Kangaroo Flat and Strathdale also having shopping districts.
The city is home to Australia's only provincial
stock exchange, the Bendigo Stock Exchange(BSX), founded in the 1860s.
The city is the home of the headquarters of
Bendigo Bank; established in 1858 as a building society it is now a large retail bank with community bank branches throughout Australia. The bank is headquartered in Bendigo, which is a major employer in the city (it also has a regional office at Melbourne Docklands).
AAPThas its call-centre based here, [ [http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/04/18/1082226636139.html?from=storyrhs Bendigo Bank builds community model with AAPT venture] ] as is the home of Bendigo Community Telco (founding subsidiary of Community Telco Australia).
Victorian gold rushBendigo developed a manufacturing industry. Little of that now remains but there is a large foundry which makes train and vehicle parts and there is also a rubber factory. The Thales Australia(formerly ADI Limited) is an important heavy engineering company. Australia Defence Apparel is another key defence industry participant making military and police uniforms and bullet proof vests. Intervet(formerly Ausvac) is an important biotechnology company, producing vaccines for animals.
The major industry in Bendigo is now health,Fact|date=June 2008 with a Base Hospital and a large old people's/rehabilitation home (The Anne Caudle centre) with about 600 beds. Psychiatric services are notably inadequate. The medium security gaol
HM Prison Bendigowas located in the city until closure in mid January 2006.
Bendigo Senior Secondary Collegeis the largest VCE (Victorian Certificate of Education) provider in the State. [http://www.britafe.vic.edu.au Bendigo Regional Institute of TAFE] . Catholic College Bendigofollows close after, which ranges from years 7-9 at the first campus and 10-12 at the second campus. Girton Grammar School is Bendigo's only private school. The Bendigo campus of La Trobe Universityis also a large and growing educational institution.
Farming and agriculture
The surrounding area, or "gold country", is quite harsh rocky land with scrubby regrowth vegetation. This "box-ironbark forest" is used for timber (mainly sleepers and firewood) and beekeeping.
Sheepand cattleare grazed in the cleared areas. There are some large poultryand pigfarms. Some relatively fertile areas are present along the rivers and creeks, where wheatand other crops such as canolaare grown. The area produces premium wines, including shiraz, from a growing viticultureindustry. Salinityis a problem in many valleys, but is under control. There is a relatively small eucalyptusoil industry.
One of the major revolutions in gold mining (during the
Victorian gold rush) came when fields like Bendigo but also Ballarat, Ararat, Victoria, and the gold fields close to Mount Alexanderturn out to have large gold deposits below the superficial alluvial deposits that were previously (partially) mined out. Gold was found in these basaltic deposits called "blue stone", or were washed away into channels of ancient rivers. Tunnels as deep as 2000 or even 3000 feet ( Stawell) were possible. [cite book |title = Gold, Gems and Pearls in Ceylon and Southern India | author = AMJ Ferguson | publisher = London, John Haddon & Co. | pages = p. 283 | URL: [http://www.farlang.com/gemstones/ferguson-gold-gems-pearls/page_292 Gold, Gems, Pearls Ceylon, Australian Gold Fields Discussion] ]
Until overtaken in the 1880s by the
Western Australiagoldfields, Bendigo was the most productive Australian gold area, with a total production of over 20 million ounces (622t). There is a large amount of gold still in the Bendigo goldfields, estimated to be at least as much again as what has been removed. The decline in mining was partly due to the depth of mines and the presence of water in the deep mines. With modern technology, Bendigo Mining NL has resumed mining and will likely be a large producer within 10 years.
Bendigo is about 150 km (93 miles) or less than two hours drive by car from Melbourne on the
Calder Freeway. The residual dual carriageway roads (currently about 100 km) are progressively being replaced by freeway.
Regular rail services to Melbourne operate over the Bendigo railway line that was upgraded as part of the
Regional Fast Rail projectcompleted in 2006. There are also additional train services to and from Swan Hill, and Echuca.
Bendigo is serviced by Bendigo Airport, which is just north of the city.
As a regional city Bendigo also includes the following suburbs and localities: Ascot, Big Hill, California Gully, Deborah Triangle, Eaglehawk, Eaglehawk North, Epsom, Flora Hill, Golden Square, Ironbark, Jackass Flat, Junortoun, Kangaroo Flat, Kennington, Huntly, Maiden Gully, Mandurang, North Bendigo, Quarry Hill, Sailor's Gully, Spring Gully, Strathdale, Strathfieldsaye, West Bendigo and White Hills that are served by buses.
Culture and events
Bendigo Art Gallery is one of Australia’s oldest and largest regional art galleries. The collections of Bendigo Art Gallery include Australian Art from the 1850s to the present day, a special collection of art from the Bendigo goldfields and 19th century European and British paintings, sculptures and decorative arts.
Each year Bendigo Art Gallery presents an exciting program of exhibitions and events. This includes guided tours, workshops, talks by arts professionals, films and much more.
Bendigo Art Gallery's collection is constantly growing and the Gallery enjoys the support of an enthusiastic Friends of the Bendigo Gallery membership, the City of Greater Bendigo and Arts Victoria. The Bendigo Art Gallery hosts Australia's richest painting prize, the
Arthur Guy Memorial Prize, worth $50,000, which was launched in 2003. [wikicite | id= Quinlan-2004 | reference= Quinlan, Karen (2004). "Bendigo Art Gallery Selected Works", Bendigo Art Gallery. ISBN 0-949215-27-9.]
The Capital Theatre is located next to the art gallery in View Street and hosts
performing artsand live music.
The city hosts the Bendigo National Swap Meet every year in early November. A must for all car enthusiasts, it is regarded as the biggest in the southern hemisphere, and attracts people from all over Australia and the world
Bendigo Easter Festivalis held each year and attracts tens of thousands of tourists to the city over the Easter long weekend. Attractions include parades, exhibitions, and a street carnival.
Bendigois served by three newspapers: The Advertiser, The Bendigo Miner and The Bendigo Weekly, six locally-based radio stations:(EasyMix Ten71am & 98.3FM) Star FM, 3BO FM, ABC Local Radio, two national radio stations Triple Jand ABC Radio Nationaland the community stations The Fresh 895and KLFMand five television stations: WIN, Prime, Southern Cross Ten, ABC and SBS. Prime and Ten maintain sales offices in the region, but do not produce any local programs.
Through great demand, several live music venues are thriving with many local independent bands and artists performing on a regular basis. With assistance from independent music promoters like
Bendigo Bands, Bendigo Events Guide, and the Launch Bendigoarts showcase, the City has eventually created a vibrant and exciting music scene.
Hard Rockers Darb Lee, Jim Dennis Rick Moyle & Mark Pecos of The JR Baker Band hail from Bendigo. Australian Idol Winner
Kate DeAraugogrew up in Bendigo where her family still live.
There also several adult choirs and a notable children's choir which often performs overseas, a community Symphony Orchestra, several brass bands and two pipe bands.
Cricketand Australian rules footballare the most popular sports in Bendigo. The Queen Elizabeth Oval(referred to locally as the "QEO") hosts both sports. The Bendigo Bombersare a semi-professional Australian Rules team that competes in the Victorian Football League. The Bendigo region is also home to the historic Bendigo Football League, a strong local Australian rules footballcompetition. Two teams from Bendigo, Sandhurst and South Bendigo compete in this league. The Bendigo Cup is a famous horse racingevent. The Bendigo and District Cricket Associationis the controlling body for ten senior cricket clubs within the Bendigo area. The Bendigo Madisonis a large prestigious cycling event, attracting international calibre cyclists.
Bendigo hosts the richest prorunning 400m in the world called the Black Opal. It is held early in the year and usually sees thousands of people at the venue with professional running races as well as cycling events over a 3 day carnival. The Bendigo Madison is held over this period.
Tennisis popular in Bendigo with the Bendigo Tennis Association(BTA) hosting local and national tournaments at its many court locations throughout the city. The Bendigo Indoor Sports & Leisure Centre(BISLC) (5 synthetic hard courts) in Strathdale is the only indoor tennis complex in the region, and the huge 30 synthetic hard court Coca-Cola Tennis Complex, next to Lake Weeroona, being one of the largest in the southern hemisphere. The Bendigo Lawn Tennis Clubalso boasts 16 natural grass courts, one of the largest in the region. Basketballis popular in Bendigo, the city is home to the Schweppes Centre, home of the Bendigo Braves. The stadiums hosted basketball during the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The city is also home to the Bendigo Basketball Association. Bendigo also has a team in the WNBL, the premier national female basketball competition, The Bendigo Spirit.
Bendigo was the host to the second
Commonwealth Youth Games, held from 30 Novemberto 3 December 2004. SoccerBendigo Amateur Soccer League [http://www.basl.org.au] organises and manages soccer for over 3000 juniors and seniors in Central Victoria. Bendigo is also home to the largest junior soccer club in Victoria, Strathdale Soccer Club. Rugby Union- The Bendigo Fighting Miners are the only team in Bendigo, it completes in the Victorian Country Rugby Union Competition and has won the premiership for the last four years in a row. Hockey- The CVHA Blazers represent Bendigo at State level in both male and female competitions. [http://www.bendigoraiders.com.au Bendigo Raiders Ice Hockey Team] competes at both junior and senior levels within the Victorian Ice HockeyAssociation and is the only team to play that is located outside Melbourne.
ice rinkin Bendigo is one of only two running in Victoria and has reopened after refurbishment by the Bendigo Ice Skating Association driven by ice sports volunteers and ice users groups. The facility was stripped down to the sub sand level with pipes repaired, sand relayed and ice built up from water spray. Surface flooding commenced within six weeks of volunteers engaging in the project and skaters set blades to the ice on 13th June, 2008. The aim is to sustain use at this stadium for a period of 4 -5 years while a new ice sports development is built to ensure that Bendigo becomes the heart of Victorian Ice Sports. For renovation images, visit the photo gallery at the website [http://www.iscb.org.au] Ice Skating- Bendigo also has a very active and dynamic figure skating club; the Ice Skating Club of Bendigo which is instrumental in organising Regional and State skating competitions. The 2008 Bendigo competition recommenced on the new ice August 3rd, 2008 with 250 people attending the 17 event card including skaters from Melbourne and the ACT. The event was a huge success with organisers agreeing to reconvene an additional competition meet on October 18th, 2008. Many of the skaters are coached from tiny tots through to senior levels through the skate development program of Aussie Skate. After school skating programs are growing in numbers with regular Friday and Saturday night skate discos and come and try family fun days catering to the family and youth sector. Affiliated organisations are Ice Sports Victoria and Ice Skating Australia. In addition to ice skating education and tuition, the Ice Skating Club of Bendigo also facilitates off ice training specialising in building core strength and, stretching and correct warm up regimes. [http://www.iscb.org.au] Judo/ JuJutsu Baseball- There are 5 running clubs in the Bendigo area: Eaglehawk Falcons, Bendigo East, Maiden Gully Scots, Bendigo BLS Bushrangers and Strathfieldsaye Dodgers. All of these clubs have been struggling for players for the past 5 years in both senior and junior sides. There has been two inclusions into the Bendigo Baseball Association this year with the Colts and the Rich River Rebels ebtering due to the GVBA folding. Bendigo participates in the annual VPBL state championships held across the state. This year Bendigo has won the U/18 event held in Wangaratta, and the U/12s came 2nd in Mildura. Orienteering– Bendigo hosted the 1985 World Orienteering Championships(September 4-6, 1985). Volleyball- Bendigo has a very strong volleyball association, with 5 senior divisions, 5 junior divisions and 3 Spikezone (primary) divisions. Competition is played Thursday nights at the Bendigo Schweppes Centre and Sunday evenings (Spikezone.) The Men's Bendigo team are the current Victorian Country Champions. A number of players have represented Australia including Caitlin Thwaites and Erin Ross in the Women's Team. Juniors to have represented Australia in during 2007-8 include Jason Hughes, James Winzar, Rhianon Judd and Carly Hynes. Bendigo's Girton Grammar School is currently the third ranked volleyball school in Australia. In 2007 the Bendigo Volleyball Association was awarded the Event of the Year for 2006-7 by the AVL for its hosting of the Australia v Argentina Volleyball Test.
The climate in Bendigo is typically dry and mild temperate with cold winters. The mean minimum temperature in January is 14.3 Celsius (57.7 degrees F) and the maximum 28.7 Celsius (83.7 F), although temperatures above 35 Celsius (95 F) commonly are reached, and the highest temperature ever recorded was 47.4 degrees Celsius (117.4 F) in January 1862. The mean minimum temperature in July is 3.5 Celsius (38.3 F), and winter minima of below zero Celsius (32 F) have been recorded frequently. Mean maximum winter temperatures in July are 12.1 C (53.8 F). Most of the city's annual rainfall of 582.1 mm falls during the winter half of the year. Snowfalls are virtually unknown, however frosts can be a common occurrence during the winter months.
The dryness of the area, drought and population continually puts pressure on the local water supply and the city has had some of the harshest water restrictions in Australia, with no watering outside the household, though two hours of watering are now allowed (
December 7). Local water storages have fallen to the lowest levels ever recorded and this is forcing the Victorian state government to build a "superpipe" which will connect Bendigo and Ballaratto a larger supply of water before the town runs out of water. The superpipe was delivering water by September 2007 and work on the Ballarat section of the pipeline is due to be completed in June 2008.
Tornadoes have been seen around the area of Bendigo and, although rare, the
2003 Bendigo tornadopassed though Eaglehawkand other parts of the city causing major damage to homes and businesses. Fact|date=May 2008
John Bannon, Labor Premier of South Australia, 1982-1992
*Frank Brennan, Federal Attorney-General, 1929-31
*Thomas Brennan, older brother of Frank and Federal UAP Senator, 1931-37
John Brumby, current Labor Premier of Victoria
*John Gunn, Labor
Premier of South Australia, 1924-26
Edward Heitmann, Federal Labor politician, 1917-1919
John Lutey, Labor Party member of the West Australian parliament, 1917-1932
*Peter Ryan, current leader of the Victorian National Party
*AFL players -
Nick Dal Santo, Nathan Brown, Wayne Campbell, Eric Fleming, Troy Selwood, Adam Selwood, Joel Selwood, Scott Selwood, Geoff Southby, Colin Sylvia, Greg Williams
Don Blackie, Test cricketer
Kristi Harrower, national basketballer
*Stephen Huss, 2005 Wimbledon men's doubles champion
Faith Leech, Olympic swimming champion
Billy Murdoch, Australian Test cricketcaptain
Ricky Nixon, sports agent and former AFL footballer
Lisle Nagel, Australian Test cricketer
Glen Saville, Australian and NBL basketballer
Craig White, English cricket player
Bunney Brooke, TV actress
Kate DeAraugo, 2005 Australian Idol winner
Colleen Hewett, singer and actress
*Keith Lamb, lead singer of Hush
Ernest Moffitt, artist
*William Moore, art and drama critic
William David Murdoch, concert pianist
John Bernard O'Hara, poet and schoolmaster
Alfred Henry O'Keeffe, artist
Ian Rilen, bass guitaristwith Rose Tattoo
John Irvine Hunter, Professor of Anatomy
Struan Sutherland, antivenin researcher
Geoffrey Watson, Professor Emeritus of Statistics
Frank McEncroe, inventor of the Chiko Roll
Sidney Myer, philanthropist and founder of the Myer chain of department stores, Australia's largest"Religion"
Sydney James Kirkby, Anglican bishop
Carl Jess, Australian Army Lieutenant General
John Campbell Ross, last surviving Australian World War Iveteran
* [http://www.bendigo.vic.gov.au/Page/Page.asp?Page_Id=961&h=1 City of Greater Bendigo: Bendigo's Heritage]
* [http://www.bendigo.vic.gov.au/Files/2087COGBARtextFINAL.pdf City of Greater Bendigo Annual Report 2005]
* [http://www.heritage.vic.gov.au/ Victorian Heritage Register (1999), Heritage Victoria]
List of Mayors of Bendigo
Bendigo Easter Festival
HM Prison Bendigo
Bendigo Senior Secondary College
Flora Hill Secondary College
Golden Square Secondary College
Catholic College Bendigo
2003 Bendigo tornado
* [http://www.bendigo.ws/ Bendigo Local and Visitor Information]
* [http://www.bendigo.vic.gov.au/ City of Greater Bendigo]
* [http://www.bendigotourism.com.au/ Bendigo Visitor Information and Interpretive Centre]
* [http://www.bendigotramways.com/ Bendigo Tramways]
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