Infobox animanga/Header
name = RahXephon

caption =
ja_name = ラーゼフォン
ja_name_trans = Rāzefon
genre = Mecha, Psychological, Romance
Infobox animanga/Anime
title =
director = Yutaka Izubuchi
studio = BONES
network = flagicon|Japan Fuji TV/FNS
network_other = flagicon|Japan Bandai Channel, Sun, KBS, TVN, BBC, WTV flagicon|Canada flagicon|US Anime Network flagicon|US G4 TV flagicon|France flagicon|Switzerland flagicon|Belgium flagicon|Luxembourg Game One , Manga flagicon|Spain Cuatro, Buzz flagicon|Portugal SIC Radical
flagicon|Republic of China Animax
first = 21 January 2002
last = 11 September 2002
episodes = 26
episode_list = List of RahXephon media
Infobox animanga/Manga
title =
author = Takeaki Momose
publisher = flagicon|Japan Shogakukan
publisher_other = flagicon|Canada flagicon|US VIZ Media flagicon|Singapore Chuang Yi (English) flagicon|Australia flagicon|New Zealand Madman Entertainment flagicon|Italy flagicon|France flagicon|Germany Panini Comics flagicon|Spain Norma Editorial flagicon|South Korea Haksan Publishing flagicon|Indonesia M&C Comics
demographic = Seinen
magazine = Monthly Sunday Gene-X
first = September 2001
last = November 2002
volumes = 3
Infobox animanga/Novel
title =
author = Hiroshi Ohnogi
illustrator =
publisher = flagicon|Japan Media Factory flagicon|US DrMaster
demographic = Male
first = July 2002
last = February 2003
volumes = 5
Infobox animanga/Game
title =
developer =
publisher = flagicon|Japan Bandai
genre = Adventure, Action
ratings = CERO : 12
platforms = PlayStation 2
released = August 7 2003
Infobox animanga/OVA
title = Her and Herself (彼女と彼女自身と) / Thatness and Thereness
director = Tomoki Kyoda
studio = BONES
episodes = 1
released = August 7 2003
nihongo|"RahXephon"|ラーゼフォン|Rāzefon is a Japanese anime series about 17-year-old Ayato Kamina, his ability to control a godlike mecha known as the RahXephon, and his inner journey to find a place in the world around him. His peaceful life as a student and artist in Tokyo is suddenly interrupted by a mysterious woman who appears to be stalking him, strange planes invading the city, and even stranger machines fighting back.

The original 26-episode anime television series was the first directed by Yutaka Izubuchi. It was created by Izubuchi and Bones, and it aired on Fuji TV from January to September 2002. It was produced by Fuji TV, Bones, Media Factory and Victor Entertainment. The series received critical acclaim and was subsequently translated, released on DVD and aired in several other countries, including the United States. An adapted movie called RahXephon: Pluralitas Concentio was directed by Tomoki Kyoda, with plot changes and a few new scenes, was released in 2003. Novels, an extra OVA episode, an audio drama, computer games, illustration books, and a somewhat tweaked manga adaptation by Takeaki Momose were also created.

Music, time, archetypal mystery, intrigues and romance are central elements of "RahXephon's" plot. The series shows clear influences from philosophy and Japanese folklore, and from Western literature such as the work of James Churchward. Mesoamerican and other Pre-Columbian civilizations have a prominent place in the cultural background of the series. Director Izubuchi said "RahXephon" was his attempt to set a new standard for mecha anime, as well as to bring back aspects of 1970s mecha shows like "Brave Raideen".


The unusual relationship between Ayato Kamina and Haruka Shitow is one of the most important plot lines of the series. Although Haruka appears to be a stranger to Ayato at first, the series reveals that Haruka and Ayato know each other from before the beginning of the story.

Ayato, a boy conceived with the help of the "Bähbem Foundation", was living in Tokyo with his adoptive mother, Maya Kamina. Ayato met Haruka on a trip outside Tokyo, and they continued seeing each other when they returned to school in Tokyo. At this time, Haruka's family name was "Mishima".

However, during what later became known as the Tokyo Jupiter incident, Haruka Mishima and her pregnant mother were away on a holiday trip while Ayato was caught inside. Years later Haruka's mother re-married and their family name became "Shitow". Meanwhile, Maya modified Ayato's memories to make him forget Haruka. The series makes clear that the entire population of Tokyo Jupiter is subject to the same kind of mental control. Still, visions of Haruka continue to haunt Ayato, as manifested in his art. Ixtli, RahXephon's soul, also adopts Haruka's appearance and family name ("Mishima") but takes a different given name, "Reika".

The story begins as a seemingly peaceful Tokyo is attacked by invaders while a mysterious woman (soon revealed to be Haruka) stalks Ayato. By this point, time dilation has made Haruka considerably older than Ayato and his friends who remained inside. Because of this, Ayato does not recognize Haruka and initially mistrusts her, but he gradually re-discovers his love for her as the series progresses and he learns of what has happened. At the end of the series, Ayato's RahXephon merges with Quon's, and he "re-tunes the world" (that is, modifies the past) so that he and Haruka are never separated. In the final sequence of the series, the adult Ayato (who can now easily be mistaken for Dr. Kisaragi, his twin brother) is seen with his wife Haruka and their infant daughter Quon.


The backdrop of "RahXephon" is a fight against pan-dimensional invaders known as the Mulians, or nihongo|Mu|ムー|Mū. In appearance, the Mu are indistinguishable from humans. However, they carry a genetic marker called the "Mu phase" which makes their blood turn blue at a point in their maturity; this process also appears to cause memory loss.

The story reveals that two floating cities appeared above Tokyo and Sendai around the beginning of 2013. The ensuing conflict escalated into nuclear warfare, and the Mu enveloped Tokyo and outlying suburbs within a spherical barrier resembling Jupiter, referred to as "Tokyo Jupiter" ("Tōkyō Jupita") by all those outside . The barrier has a dilatory effect on time, with time inside Tokyo Jupiter passing about one-sixth as fast as the outside time.

Although "RahXephon" is part of the mecha genre of anime, its "mechas" are not generally mechanical. The mechas used by the Mu are called Dolems and are made of clay, like golems. Each is bound to a Mulian, and some are also bound to a human host called a "sub-Mulian".

The overarching theme of "RahXephon" is one of music changing the world. The Dolems are by a quasi-mystical force that is connected to music; most of the controlling Mulians appear to be singing. A Dolem attacks while singing, and sometimes the attack is the song itself. The RahXephon can also attack by having its pilot — the "instrumentalist" — sing a note. This unleashes powerful forces (such as light-energy blasts or heat waves) that cause destruction on an apocalyptic scale. Each of the Mulian Dolems has an Italian name which references musical notation, such as "Allegretto", "Falsetto", or "Vivace". The ultimate goal of the RahXephon is to "tune the world." Izubuchi says the name "RahXephon" lacked a real meaning, but that he now explains it as composed of "Rah", which according to Churchward is the origin of Ra, "X" for the X factor (the unknown), and "-ephon" as a suffix for instrument (). [cite book |pages=1|author=Momose Takeaki |authorlink=Takeaki Momose |coauthors=Izubuchi Yutaka |title=RahXephon Vol. 3|dateandmonth=September 29 |year=2004 |publisher=VIZ Media |location=San Francisco, CA |id=ISBN 1-59116-428-1 ]


:"This section represents the story as told in the television series. Characters are changed, cut and merged in the movie and manga. Character names are in western order." At the beginning of "RahXephon", Ayato Kamina is a modest 17-year-old living in Tokyo. Though not a model student, he is shown to enjoy painting and being with his classmates Hiroko Asahina and Mamoru Torigai. Ayato's mother Maya spends much of her time at work, which strains an otherwise affectionate relationship.

During a seemingly unexplained attack on Tokyo, Ayato hears the singing of another classmate, Reika Mishima. She leads him to a giant egg containing the RahXephon. Haruka Shitow, an agent of the defense research agency TERRA, brings Ayato and the RahXephon to TERRA. The acronym TERRA stands for "Tereno Empireo Rapidmova Reakcii Armeo", roughly esperanto for "Earth Empire Rapid Response Army".

Ayato moves in with Professor Rikudoh, Haruka's uncle, and pilots the RahXephon against attacking "Dolem". Quon Kisaragi, a mysterious girl living with chief researcher Itsuki, seems to share some of Ayato's artistic talent. Ernst von Bähbem of the "Bähbem Foundation" sponsors TERRA through the "Federation", the successor of the United Nations.

While most characters are introduced by the end of episode 7, "RahXephon" continues to develop the characters and reveal their mysteries and relationships, making heavy use of foreshadowing.


Dolem or nihongo|Dorem|ドレム|Doremu are enormous mecha-like beings that are used as superweapons by the Mulians. The name "Dolem" is derived from "golem".cite book
author = staff
year = 2004
title = RahXephon Complete
publisher = Media Factory
id = ISBN 4-8401-1019-0
] It is also a reference to the first three notes in the C major scale, "Do-Re-Mi", and the Italian word "" (to ache).

In "RahXephon", proper Dolems are designated by TERRA as D1. The smaller fighter craft Dotem (with "T" instead of "L") are designated as D2.

Dolem are made of clay, like golem, but are animated by a quasi-mystical force that is connected to music, as most of the controlling Mulians appear to be singing. A Dolem attacks while singing, and sometimes the attack is the song itself. Each D1 Dolem is bound to a Mulian who controls it. Some Dolem are also bound to a human host called a "sub-Mulian" or "Dolem host"; in this case, the human host anchors the Dolem in the human dimension, making it possible for the Mulian in question to take over the body of the host. This binary or trinary bond is so strong that, as shown in the series, destroying a Dolem can kill both the Mulian controlling it and the human host. When destroyed, a Dolem disintegrates into blue blood and clay.

Production and media

"RahXephon" began production as a TV series. A manga version, novels, soundtracks and an audio drama were published during the original broadcast. A movie, an OVA episode, art books and guide books were also created. Characters, mecha and story from "RahXephon" were featured in three video games.

TV series

Yutaka Izubuchi was a successful anime supervisor and designer focusing on costume, character and mechanical design, notably in the "Gundam" and "Patlabor" series. His drinking buddy and former Sunrise colleague Masahiko Minami, producer and president of Bones, had suggested that Izubuchi direct something.cite journal | last = | first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2003
month = February
title = RahXephon cover feature
journal = Newtype USA
volume = 2
issue = 2
pages = 6–13
doi =
id = ISSN|1541-4817
] multi-listen item
title="Yume no Tamago"
description=Sample from Hashimoto's ending theme, featuring synthesiser ambients and vocals.
multi-listen item
title="Huge Suites"
description=Sample from near the beginning of "Huge Suites", one of Hashimoto's classically scored compositions.
multi-listen item
description=Hashimoto's jazz compositions range from experimental to the more mainstream, like "Runnin'".
Izubuchi finally took Minami up on the offer and "RahXephon" became his first directing job. Izubuchi returned to the classic mecha shows of the 1970s and 1980s, and wanted to make a show of that type updated with advances in anime production as well as injecting his own personal ideas. He wanted to "set a new standard in the field" of mecha anime, or rather to show his "own standard" and capabilities as a creator-showrunner.cite journal
last = Wong
first = Amos
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2003
month = February
title = Interview with Yutaka Izubuchi
journal = Newtype USA
volume = 2
issue = 2
pages = 14–15
doi =
id = ISSN|1541-4817
Media Factory, Fuji TV and Victor Entertainment joined Bones as production partners. After planning the story and designing characters and locations, a core group was expanded to a full production staff that completed the show, primarily working on the same floor — a departure from the trend of outsourcing anime production."Making of RahXephon" special feature. DVD Orchestration 7]

The original music, except for the opening theme, is composed by Ichiko Hashimoto; she was initially approached to compose some of the score and replied that she wanted to compose all of it. She also plays Maya and performs the closing theme together with her sister Mayumi. The opening theme "Hemisphere" is composed by Yoko Kanno and sung by Maaya Sakamoto, who plays Reika.cite book
author = Izubuchi Yutaka
authorlink = Yutaka Izubuchi
coauthors =
year = 2003
title = RahXephon Bible
pages = 78-80
publisher = ADV Manga
location = Houston, Texas
id = ISBN 1-4139-0026-7
] Hashimoto's compositions range from piano sonatas and acoustic chamber music to experimental jazz, hard rock and ambience that crosses the border into sound design. That range also includes more mainstream jazz and orchestral music played with both acoustic and electronic instruments.


A television movie version of "RahXephon" called "Pluralitas Concentio" was directed by Tomoki Kyoda, who had directed three episodes of the TV series and acted as assistant director with Soichi Masui. Izubuchi acted as Chief Director on this movie, but was not heavily involved in its production. Most of the staff members involved with the TV series worked on the movie, and it was distributed by Shochiku. The producers were Masahiko Minami, Shiro Sasaki, Maki Horiuchi, Kenji Shimizu and Tatsuji Yamazaki. The movie quickly reveals mysteries that were developed slowly in the TV seriescite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/disc_reviews/3178.php |title=RahXephon: The Movie (also w/box) (of 1) |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Beveridge |first=Chris |authorlink= |date=2004-07-27 |work=Anime on DVD] and makes changes to the plot. It begins with a prologue showing previously un-shown events, followed by a couple of expository scenes. The final 30 minutes have the most plot changes and new scenes, and they end with a new epilogue. The rest of the movie consists mainly of abridged scenes from the original series, sometimes with characters replaced or with different motivations and dialogue. The plot establishes the link between the Kamina and Mishima families and other story-lines that were prominent in the original TV series were reduced or removed. One prominent distributor promoted the movie as an "encore" — an extra performance at the end of the series, rather than as a replacement. [A.D. Vision (2003) "RahXephon:Pluralitas Concentio" DVD cover: "Encore. Return to the world of RahXephon..."]


The manga was illustrated and written by Takeaki Momose. Momose was one of the candidates for character designer on the series,cite book |author=Momose Takeaki |authorlink=Takeaki Momose |coauthors=Izubuchi Yutaka |editor=Kit Fox |others=trans. Joe Yamazaki |title=RahXephon Vol. 1 |year=2004 |publisher=VIZ Media |location=San Francisco, CA |id=ISBN 1-59116-407-9 ] but Izubuchi wanted Akihiro Yamada to do the original designs,cite web
last = Broestl
first = Sean
year = 2006
url = http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/convention.php?id=336
title = Anime Expo 2006 - Yutaka Izubuchi Focus Panel
work =
publisher = Anime News Network
accessdate = 2006-07-11
] and Hiroki Kanno got the job of adapting them for animation. With the manga Momose got the opportunity to re-design the characters into his own style and make changes in characterization and story, as well as adding "fan service".cite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/manga/manga.php?manga_view=77 |title=RahXephon Vol. #01 of 3 |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Chavez |first=Eduardo M. |authorlink= |date=2004-05-22|work=Anime on DVD]

The manga adaptation of "RahXephon" presents the same overall scenario as the anime, with some differences, ranging from significant to minor. In the anime series, Reika is a mysterious and distant figure; in the manga Reika is a more comical figure who grew up as Ayato's adoptive sister, but here she has a darker origin. The anime series shows Megumi competing with Haruka for Ayato's affections, while this role is taken by Reika in the manga. The rate of time dilation is also different in the manga version, as the year outside Tokyo is 2033 instead of 2027.


In addition to its musical theme, "RahXephon" has many explicit references to ancient history and myth, literature, art and culture.

Art and literature

;MusicIn addition to the prevalence of terms from music, classical musical works are used in the show: The overture to "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" opens the first episode, hinting to the musical contests between "normal" Humans and the Mu where the RahXephon is one of the instruments. The motif Quon sings or hums repeatedly is from Polovetsian Dances in the opera "Prince Igor", about a warrior prince. Additionally, the opera itself is played on more than one occasion, usually over a loudspeaker system. The melody is also used in the musical "Kismet", about love between two people of different worlds, here with new lyrics and titled "Stranger in Paradise".

;Post-classical literatureIzubuchi found the basis for the relationship between Ayato and Haruka in Robert F. Young's short story "The Dandelion Girl". In Young's story the protagonist encounters a girl standing on a hill in a dress, the breeze blowing in her hair; this girl comes from the future, while the girl in "RahXephon" comes from the past. "The Dandelion Girl" is also the title of the "Coda" appearing after the credits of episode 26. Izubuchi later realized that another story, "Portrait of Jennie", had been an additional influence for the relationship. The idea of Tokyo Jupiter is explicitly compared to "Sayonara Jupiter" and "Tokyo Blackout" by the veteran science fiction writer Sakyo Komatsu.

The summary movie shows Haruka and Ayato sharing the book "Through the Looking-Glass" by Lewis Carroll; the series itself does not mention this book, but they have commonalities: Both use mirrors and reflections, and both feature the stopping and reversal of time. In the manga version of "RahXephon", the choice of literature is different: "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" by L. Frank Baum. This book appears only briefly in the anime series,cite episode|series=RahXephon |number=12 | title=The Black Egg |episodelink=The Black Egg Helena sees, or imagines, a younger version of herself reading the book.] but characters in the manga note how their situation is similar to Oz; the last manga chapter is named "Over the Rainbow". In a reversal of Dorothy's experience Ayato is whisked away from the constructed world of Tokyo Jupiter into the "real" world.

The series also references the works of writers who have won the Nobel Prize in Literature: "Macondo Four" a code-name used at the beginning of the show, comes from Gabriel García Márquez's fictional hometown Macondo, prominent in "One Hundred Years of Solitude". Another, "Yoknapatawpha", comes from William Faulkner's fictional home Yoknapatawpha County. The teams using the code-names attempt to maintain a similarly unreal home town for Ayato.cite episode|series=RahXephon |number=2 |title=God and Man Awaken|episodelink=God and Man Awaken]

;ColoursThe RahXephon system consists of a white RahXephon and a black RahXephon, with eggs, wings and feathers coloured accordingly. The Mu are shown to have blue blood while normal humans have red blood; in the "RahXephon" universe, the idea that the nobility has blue blood is thus a holdover from the period of Mu dominance.

"RahXephon" uses blue flowers as symbols of the Mu.cite episode|series=RahXephon |number=5 |title=Nirai-Kanai|episodelink=Nirai-Kanai (RahXephon episode) Ayato is taken on a boat ride by Itsuki, where Itsuki explains the history of the island. Multiple pyramids are shown. He tells Quon of the myth that sakura blossoms are coloured by the blood of people buried nearby, and says that Kunugi's sakura have blue flowers. ] cite episode|series=RahXephon |number=10|title=Sonata of Recollection|episodelink=Sonata of Recollection] This concept was used by the philosopher Novalis, who wrote about Heinrich — a young man yearning for a "blue flower" that he once saw in a dream. Novalis wrote that "the world becomes a dream, and the dream becomes reality". "RahXephon" has several references to dreaming, and features dreamlike sequences that are shown to foreshadow real events.

Michiru, the blue bird which the character Kunugi keeps, is named after his daughter. As well as being a Japanese given name, "Michiru" is the Japanese name for "Mytyl", a character in Maeterlinck's "The Blue Bird". In the last two episodes this bird parallels Haruka, blue birds symbolize the Mu, and "The Blue Bird" is used to describe Itsuki's relationship with Nanamori. The manga also uses this theme.

;Visual artsA recurring significant image in the anime is a modified version of noted Surrealist artist René Magritte's " [http://historyday.crf-usa.org/2806/magritte_art.htm La Grande Famille] ", showing a sky through the silhouette of a dove.

The anime makes other references to the French Surrealism movement, from the dreamlike sequences associated with some Dolems, to all the references to retuning and reworking the world and the desires of man. Surrealists said that artists should express the subconscious uninhibited by conscious thought and reason, and that the dream world of the subconscious was "more real" than the real world — surreal. [Breton, André (1924), "Surrealist Manifesto" ("See Surrealism")] Ayato re-tunes the world based on his desires. Likewise, the Surrealists wanted to re-shape the world to fit the subconscious, for example through political revolution. [Breton, André and Trotsky, Leon (1938) "Towards a Free Revolutionary Art"]

The opening sequence features dream art with surrealist qualities. One image in particular shows a dreamscape with clocks, some broken and others moving at different speeds, recalling the "soft watches" paintings [The Persistence of Memory (1931), [http://www.dali-gallery.com/html/works/1933_14.htm Soft Watches] (1933), The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory (ca. 1952-1954), [http://www.dali-gallery.com/html/works/1954_12.htm Soft Watch at the Moment of First Explosion] (1954)] by Salvador Dalí.

Civilization and culture

;The Americas"RahXephon" has many references to Pre-Columbian American culture. December 21 2012 is the end of the 5-vigesimal Mayan Long Count calendar and the transition from one Mayan age into the next. In "RahXephon" the Mu re-appear one week after this date. Characters listen to a song called "Fate of Katun"; a Katun is a measurement of time in the Mayan Calendar. The Dolem control system is worn as a helmet shaped like a face from a Mayan sculpture, [Photographs from a museum in Mérida, Yucatán: cite web|url=http://www.ratware.plus.com/Travel/mexico_merida.htm |title=Mexico - Merida |accessdate=2004-06-14] and the cities of the Mu contain artwork inspired by Mayan and other Mesoamerican art.cite book
author = Yamada Akihiro
authorlink = Akihiro Yamada
coauthors =
year = 2003
title = RahXephon Art Works
pages = 124-125
publisher = SoftBank Creative
location =
id = ISBN 4-7973-2316-7
] Even the leader of the Mu in Tokyo is named "Maya".

. Churchward claimed that the Maya, and other ancient civilizations, were remnants of Mu colonies. "RahXephon"'s main character Ayato is shown to know about Churchward's theories.

The language of the Mu is based on Nahuatl, a classical form of which was spoken not by the Mayas but by the Aztecs further north. The terms "in ixtli in yollotl" (face and heart) and "ollin" (movement) come from this language, and the latter refers to the sun god Ollin Tonatiuh. According to the Aztec sun stone, humanity is living in the fifth and final age of the world. Tonatiuh is the god of this fifth age; in "RahXephon", the characters Ayato and Quon are both called Ollin by the Mu. At the end of the series, both characters reach a state called Yolteotl — a state similar to the Buddhist nirvana.cite web
last = Maffie
first = James
url = http://www.iep.utm.edu/a/aztec.htm
title = Aztec Philosophy
work = Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
accessdate = 2006-12-26

The series shows a Dolem carving shapes into the earth; these shapes are referred to as "Nazca Lines"cite episode|series=RahXephon|number=6|title=Obliterated Cities|episodelink=Obliterated Cities] after lines made by a pre-Incan culture. Step pyramids both in the style of Tikalcite episode|series=RahXephon|number=12|title=The Black Egg|episodelink=The Black EggTikal style pyramids are shown in a state of excavation in a crater.] and other locations are shown, and the TERRA headquarters' shape is a pyramid-cone amalgam with the angle and tip of Mount Fuji.cite book
author = Bones staff
year = 2004
title = RahXephon Complete
publisher = Media Factory
id = ISBN 4-8401-1019-0
language = Japanese
and "Interview with Kazutaka Miyatake" in cite book
author =
year = 2003
title = RahXephon Orchestration 5: Synaesthesia DVD liner notes
publisher = ADV films
id =

The final episode contains a quotation from Octavio Paz's prose poem "The Obsidian Butterfly" from the collection "Aguila O Sol/Eagle or Sun?" that plays upon Aztec mythology and the coming of a new era. "The Obsidian Butterfly" is a reference to the Aztec goddess Itzpapalotl; the character of Quon becomes a representation of this goddess, particularly Paz's usage of the goddess in his poem.

;Creation mythsThe tuning of the world resembles the idea of "creation by song", appearing in creation myths like that of the Hopi. [cite web
last = LaMay
first = Julie
url = http://www.drlamay.com/creation_story_hopi.htm
title = Creation Story of the Hopi
accessdate = 2006-12-08
] It also appears in fictional mythologies like J. R. R. Tolkien's Music of the Ainur and the creation story of C. S. Lewis's Narnia. Another symbolic element is that of the golems, creatures made from clay, recalling Biblical imagery from Genesis as well as more recent stories in Jewish kabbalism and folklore.

;Japanese culture and religionTwo Japanese folk tales are explicitly mentioned in the series: Ayato compares himself to Urashima Tarō,cite episode|series=RahXephon|number=3|title=City of Two|episodelink=City of Two Ayato mentions Urashima Tarō. Movie posters for "Sayonara Jupiter" and "Tokyo Blackout" (lit. "The Capital Vanishes") are shown together.] and professor Rikudoh compares Maya to Princess Kaguya."RahXephon" Episode 16. In addition, the original English episode title is "The Moon Princess".] "Spiriting away" (kamikakushi) happens both in reverse and in the way common to Japanese folklore.cite episode|series=RahXephon|number=9|title=Small Shrine of Time|episodelink=Small Shrine of Time]

"Nirai kanai", also called "Nira-hara" or "Niraasuku", is the place out at sea where the gods live. These gods are believed to visit the islands of humans during certain religious festivals. [cite web
last =
first =
year =
url = http://www.wonder-okinawa.jp/022/en/study/022_e46.html
title = The Origin of All — Nirai Kanai
work = Wonder Okinawa
publisher = Okinawa Prefectural Government
accessdate = 2006-06-13
] In "RahXephon", Mu is suggested to be the real-world basis of the Nirai-kanai legend. The "Shrine of Time" looks like a Ryukyan family tomb."RahXephon" Episode 9] "RahXephon's" Nirai, Kanai, and the bay between them are roughly shaped like commas, a shape shared with magatama and common Taijitu symbols. Mount Fuji appears in the show, both directly depicted [cite episode|series=RahXephon|number=17|title=Return to the Labyrinth|episodelink=Return to the Labyrinth A battle takes place in the area around Mount Fuji] and as a design inspiration; this mountain has a special spiritual significance in Shinto.

The religious foundations of the TV series are Ryukyan and Mesoamerican. Beyond Ryukyuan beliefs and Confucianism the TV series has few prominent references to traditional Eastern religion. The character Yagumo is shown in a kimono performing a Shinto New Year ritual,"RahXephon" Episode 9] but other religious worship is not shown. The characters celebrate a secular Christmas, and distinguish between practice and belief.cite episode|series=RahXephon|number=8|title=Bitterly Cold Holy Night|episodelink=Bitterly Cold Holy Night The character Makoto Isshiki points out that Christians appropriated the winter solstice for Christmas. He says, however, that he is not a "non-believer" and makes the distinction between religion and religious practice.] The character Kunugi visits a Christian cemetery, [cite episode|series=RahXephon|number=10|title=Sonata of Recollection|episodelink=Sonata of Recollection Kunugi's daughter is buried with a large crucifix watching over her.] and important scenes in the last two episodes are set in and around a church. The show thus reflects the variations of Japanese religious practice.

Although Eastern religion only has a minor role in the TV series, the movie version references Buddhism. The epilogue shows a butsudan where a plaque bearing Ayato's posthumous name is standing. Beyond this, near the end of the movie there is a scene by a lake in which Ayato explains the situation of the "re-tuning" to Haruka. He explains how he cannot remain with her in the world as they know it and that now he, in fact, somehow has transcended his human state, that is, Enlightenment. In the manga version of the story, Reika is a Mu miko who was unprepared for a ritual involving the RahXephon, and who is trapped in a cycle of reincarnation. This form of reincarnation is very different from rebirth in Buddhism.


The anime series originally aired on stations in the Fuji Television network and its affiliates, except in the Kansai region where independent UHF stations aired it instead.cite web|title=Animation Data ラーゼフォン|url=http://www.jvcmusic.co.jp/m-serve/-/Animedata/L1197.html|accessdate=2007-10-12|work=Victor Animation Network |publisher=Victor Entertainment|language=Japanese] Starting with episode 10, some stations moved the series from the afternoon to after midnight, but other stations moved it from late night to afternoon. [cite web
url = http://tv.yahoo.co.jp/tvguide/vhf/tokyo/table/2002020416.html
title = 2月4日(月)の番組表 [東京/16時]
work = Yahoo!テレビ
publisher = Internet TV Guide, Yahoo Japan Corporation
language = Japanese
archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20020203225638/tv.yahoo.co.jp/tvguide/vhf/tokyo/table/2002020416.html
archivedate = 2002-02-03
] cite web| year = 2001-2003| url = http://www.fujitv.co.jp/jp/b_hp/rahxe/| title = RahXephon| publisher = Fuji TV | language = Japanese Retrieved 4 June 2002 and 20 July 2006] [Tōkai Television Broadcasting stations: Late night: cite web
url = http://www.tokai-tv.com/timetable/0215.html
title = 2002年 2月15日(金
work = 番組表
publisher =
language = Japanese
archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20020220055055/www.tokai-tv.com/timetable/0215.html
archivedate = 2002-02-20
Afternoon: cite web
url = http://www.tokai-tv.com/timetable/0808.html
title = 2002年 8月 8日(木)
work = 番組表
publisher =
language = Japanese
archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20020806183336/http://www.tokai-tv.com/timetable/0808.html
archivedate = 2002-08-06
] "RahXephon" thus remained both a "late night anime" and afternoon anime throughout its original run.

According to its distributor the series "captivated millions in Japan" and " [drew] in viewers by the tens of thousands." [cite web
last =
first =
date = 2003-03-20
url = http://www.advfilms.com/Films_UpdateDetails.asp?ID=1022
title = Anticipation continues to build for release of RahXephon 1: Threshold
work =
publisher = ADV Films
accessdate = 2006-08-07
] The series won the award for best TV anime at the 7th Animation Kobe fair. [cite web
last =
first =
month = November
year = 2002
date =
url =http://www.xebec.co.jp/anime-kobe/archive/2002/
title = 7th Animation Kobe
work =
publisher = Animation Kobe Committee, Kobe City and Xebec Corporation
accessdate = 2006-10-17
] It was considered popular enough that a TV movie version was commissioned and aired.

Internationally, the series was translated and released on DVD video. It was purchased for airing by television stations and made available on video on demand services in several countries. In the United States, the DVDs were released around the U.S. theatrical release of another Bones production, "". The distributor claimed that "RahXephon" was met with "strong sales and extraordinary critical response in the U.S." [cite web
last =
first =
date = 2003-10-13
url = http://www.advfilms.com/Films_UpdateDetails.asp?ID=372
title = ADV announces release date for RahXephon-Orchestration 7: Crescendo
work =
publisher = ADV Films
accessdate = 2006-08-07
] further|See List of RahXephon media#Anime distribution for more information on international distribution.

TV series reviews

The series was generally well received by English-language reviewers. While some reviewers only judged the show on its own merits, others compared it with varying favor against shows such as "Brain Powerd", "Megazone 23" and "Neon Genesis Evangelion".

Protoculture Addicts editor Claude J. Pelletier chose "RahXephon" as one of the top 3 anime TV series of 2002,cite journal
quotes =
author =
year = 2003
month = May
title = The Year 2002 in Review
journal = Protoculture Addicts
volume =
issue = 76
pages = 50–51
doi =
id = ISSN|08359563
] and Mioko Matsuda agreed, noting mystery, technology and romance. cite journal
quotes =
author = Matsuda, Mioko
coauthors= Pelletier, Claude J.
year = 2003
month = May
title = RahXephon: Overview
journal = Protoculture Addicts
volume =
issue = 76
pages = 17
doi =
id = ISSN|08359563
] Christian Nutt of Anime Jump offered a contrary opinion: "RahXephon's characters fell flat and the grind of its scenario didn't inspire much curiosity, despite some initially awesome ideas".cite web |url=http://www.animejump.com/index.php?module=prodreviews&func=showcontent&id=625 |title=Reviews: Rahxephon: The Motion Picture |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Nutt |first=Christian |authorlink= |date=2005-04-26 |work=Anime Jump ] En Hong, on the other hand, found the characters to be skilfully developed and believable as "self-conscious entities and not just parts to be filled for the story to progress",cite journal|url=http://www.animefringe.com/magazine/02.09/feature/4/index.php3 |title=Feature: Animefringe Coverage: RahXephon |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Hong |first=En |authorlink= |year=2002 |month=September |journal=Animefringe |id=ISSN|17053692 ] and Charles Solomon called them "engaging". cite web |url=http://www.amazon.com/RahXephon-Threshold-Vol-Yutaka-Izubuchi/dp/B0000844JY/ |title=RahXephon - Threshold (Vol. 1): Editorial Reviews |accessdate=2006-10-12 |last=Solomon |first=Charles |date= |year= |month= |work=Amazon.com Note: Izubuchi did not actually direct or write "Gasaraki" but did provide designs for it.]

Mike Toole of Anime Jump was impressed by the music, animation and character design;cite web |url=http://www.animejump.com/index.php?module=prodreviews&func=showcontent&id=382 |title=Reviews: Rahxephon vol. 1 |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Toole |first=Mike |authorlink= |date=2003-10-18 |work=Anime Jump] as was Protoculture's Martin Ouellette.cite journal
quotes =
author = Ouellette, Martin
year = 2003
month = May
title = Reviews: RahXephon, Vol. 1
journal = Protoculture Addicts
volume =
issue = 76
pages = 53
doi =
id = ISSN|08359563
] Solomon noted the "strikingly original mecha designs" and Anime Boredom's John Huxley noted the "unusual yet elegant" mecha and the "fluid computer-enhanced" — but not CGI-looking — animation.cite web |url=http://www.animeboredom.co.uk/anime-reviews/rahxephon/419 |title=RahXephon Anime Reviews : RahXephon Orchestration 7: Crescendo |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Huxley |first=John |authorlink= |date=2004-10-11 |work=Anime Boredom ]

"RahXephon"'s "brief but not unwelcome" comic moments went over well with Huxley, [cite web |url=http://www.animeboredom.co.uk/anime-reviews/rahxephon/241/ |title=RahXephon Anime Reviews : RahXephon Orchestration 1: Threshold |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Huxley |first=John |authorlink= |date=2004-05-21 |work=Anime Boredom ] and he found the romance "a million miles away from the cheery antics of "Love Hina" or "Ranma 1/2" and "for the most part thoroughly believable".

Cris Beveridge of Anime on DVD found the final episodes beautiful both in visual style and story, "with the raw emotions coming out of it, in both languages". [cite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/disc_reviews/2597.php |title=RahXephon Vol. #7 (of 7) |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Beveridge |first=Chris |authorlink= |date=2004-01-16 |work=Anime on DVD] Huxley also liked the conclusion: "Despite falling short of the mark in a few areas this is a satisfying conclusion to a good series." On the issue of plot resolution he wrote that "RahXephon" "keeps the audience guessing right up until the final credits and beyond" but that "the clues are all there" for the viewer to piece together. Anime News Network columnist Zac Bertschy called "RahXephon" a "paragon of responsible storytelling (...) No loose strings are left; we see the conclusion of every character’s storyline." He added that the English voice work "raised the bar across the board."cite web |url=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/reviews/display.php?id=566 |title=Review: RahXephon DVD 7: Crescendo |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Bertschy |first=Zac |authorlink= |date=2004-01-12| work= Anime News Network]

Movie reviews

The TV movie had a more mixed reception than the TV series. Christian Nutt was not excited about the TV series but found the movie to be better: Despite "too much cutting and chopping", he wrote that "the creators have done the best they can with the material." He added: "the last scene is very touching. It's a big improvement over the TV show." Efrain Diaz Jr. of IGN called the movie a "valiant effort", but preferred the TV series and asked, "Why even bother with the movie?" [cite web |url=http://dvd.ign.com/articles/562/562953p1.html |title=RahXephon: The Motion Picture. 26 episodes become a two-hour movie |accessdate=2006-10-16 |last=Diaz |first=Efrain Jr.|authorlink= |date=2004-11-02 |work=IGN]

Carlo Santos, writing for Anime News Network, recommended the movie both as an "endcap to a remarkable series" and as a sample for those yet to watch it.cite web |url=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/reviews/display.php?id=712 |title=Review: Rahxephon: Pluralitas Concentio DVD |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Santos |first=Carlo |authorlink= |date=2005-03-08|work=Anime News Network] While Chris Beveridge also recommended the movie as an addition to the series, he did not recommend it as a sample for newcomers, "since some of the best revelations are given away so quickly..."cite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/disc_reviews/3178.php |title=RahXephon: The Movie (also w/box) (of 1) |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Beveridge |first=Chris |authorlink= |date=2004-07-27 |work=Anime on DVD]

Indeed, reviewers who were not familiar with the series complained about the movie's lack of coherence. Mitchell Hattaway of DVD Verdict "got lost about ten minutes in", considered the movie a waste of money for anybody but "RahXephon" completists and wrote that "Bones Animation Studio is guilty of contempt for its audience."cite web |url=http://www.dvdverdict.com/reviews/rahxephon.php |title=Reviews:RahXephon: The Motion Picture |accessdate=2006-10-12 |last=Hattaway |first=Mitchell |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2004-09-02 |work=DVD Verdict] Janet Crocker of Animefringe was confused by the plot as well, but was less confused on the second viewing and looked forward to watching the TV series. She called the movie "intellectually refreshing and visually beautiful" and recommended it "even to non-mecha people like me". [cite journal |url=http://www.animefringe.com/magazine/2004/09/review/02.php |title=RahXephon: The Motion Picture |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Crocker |first=Janet |authorlink= |date= |year=2004 |month=September |journal=Animefringe |id=ISSN|17053692 ]

Book reviews

Eduardo M. Chavez of Anime on DVD was not impressed by the first volume of the manga, especially when compared to the TV series; he rated it "C minus", though he said it could have worked as a "parody dōjinshi". After the disappointment of volume one, Chavez was pleasantly surprised by the story in the following volumes, [cite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/manga/manga.php?manga_view=176 |title=RahXephon Vol. #02 of 3 |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Chavez |first=Eduardo M. |authorlink= |date=2004-07-28|work=Anime on DVD] and called it a "story that grew up with its characters", giving it a "B plus". [cite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/manga/manga.php?manga_view=894 |title=RahXephon Vol. #03 of 3 |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Chavez |first=Eduardo M. |authorlink= |date=2005-05-02|work=Anime on DVD]

The five-volume novelization was translated to English, but the other novels were not. This translation was marred by a lack of copy editing in the first volume, which was rated "D" by Santos. [cite web |url=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/review/rahxephon/novel-1 |title=RahXephon Novel 1|accessdate=2007-01-09 |last=Santos |first=Carlo |authorlink= |date=2006-01-04|work=Anime News Network] The situation was somewhat improved in the second volume, but reviewers did not recommend the novelization as an alternative to the animated versions — only as a source for learning more about the characters and their internal motivations. [cite web |url=http://www.animeondvd.com/reviews2/manga/manga.php?manga_view=928 |title=RahXephon (novel) Vol. #02 of 5 |accessdate=2007-01-09 |last=Eries |first=Sakura |authorlink= |date=2006-04-15|work=Anime on DVD]

Comparisons with other anime

Some reviewers, as well as the director, have compared "RahXephon" with other anime shows. Some of these shows also have staff in common with "RahXephon".

Raideen the Brave

The director of "RahXephon" has said this series is meant to be a sort of modern-day "Raideen". As such there are similarities between "Raideen" and "RahXephon", particularly in the titular "robots".
* The monsters in both shows are made from earth and rock which is brought to life.
* Akira Hibiki and Ayato Kamina both have mothers who are from a race called the "Mu". This in turn means that both Akira and Ayato have Mu blood.
* Akira and Ayato both "meld" into a surface in order to enter the cockpit of their respective robot. Akira enters via Reideen's forehead; Ayato can enter the RahXephon both directly and through a portal that is separate from the body of the RahXephon.
*The Raideen and the RahXephon both are portrayed as intelligent, sentient beings and possess similar general aesthetics, particularly the human-like face that is covered on the sides. Both can attack with their voices, and can form a bow with arrows as well as a sword that protrudes out of their right arms.

Both have appeared in the Super Robot Wars series, taking particular significance in "Super Robot Wars MX" where many characters note that Raideen and RahXephon are similar existences, and "Brave Raideen" has since been remade into "Reideen". The two also appear together in "Super Robot Wars: Scramble Commander the 2nd".

Neon Genesis Evangelion

While some English-language reviewers did not mention the popular mecha anime "Neon Genesis Evangelion" ("NGE") in their reviews of "RahXephon",cite web |url=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/reviews/display.php?id=712 |title=Review: Rahxephon: Pluralitas Concentio DVD |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Santos |first=Carlo |authorlink= |date=2005-03-08|work=Anime News Network] cite web |url=http://www.dvdverdict.com/reviews/rahxephon.php |title=Reviews:RahXephon: The Motion Picture |accessdate=2006-10-12 |last=Hattaway |first=Mitchell |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2004-09-02 |work=DVD Verdict] cite web |url=http://www.dvdtalk.com/reviews/read.php?ID=5851 |title=DVD Video Reviews - RahXephon - Crescendo (Vol. 7) |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Houston |first=Don |authorlink= |date=2004-01-21 |work=DVD Talk] others compared the two explicitly. Some reviewers noted similarities between the series' protagonists and their style and execution of events.cite web |url=http://www.dvdverdict.com/reviews/rahxephonvol1.php |title=DVD Verdict Review - RahXephon (Volume 1) |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Pinsky |first=Mike |authorlink= |date=2003-05-23|work=DVD Verdict] John Huxley noted an episode with "soul searching" sequences reminiscent of "NGE" with a "hint of "Twin Peaks". [cite web |url=http://www.animeboredom.co.uk/anime-reviews/rahxephon/243/ |title=RahXephon Anime Reviews : RahXephon Orchestration 3: Harmonic Convergence |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Huxley |first=John |authorlink= |date=2004-05-21 |work=Anime Boredom ]

After reviewing the first five episodes, Mike Pinsky of DVD Verdict wrote that much of "RahXephon" was "ripped off completely" from "NGE" and although finding it to be a good show, he ruled that "This "Evangelion" Lite tastes good enough, but is much less filling." Christian Nutt of Anime Jump had seen the entire show when he wrote that "One of my least favorite aspects of "RahXephon" is its aping of "Evangelion". In Protoculture Addicts Mioko Matsuda agreed that the shows were similar, but compared the two in "RahXephon's" favour: "it is very similar to Evangelion, but in many ways more original and exotic." In the same magazine, Martin Ouellette went as far as calling "RahXephon" an "NGE" "imitation", but was so impressed that he exclaimed "the imitation has surpassed the original!"

Some reviewers favoured "RahXephon" because of its more active protagonist and clearer ending: "Like "Evangelion", you have to bend and warp your brain around this thing, but unlike Evangelion, if you think about it, it all makes sense" wrote Zac Bertschy. Huxley praised RahXephon for including action sequences in the ending, providing "a more balanced experience". "RahXephon's" story and complex relationships were planned and written early in the production cycle. In contrast, "NGE's" director stated that he did not know how the show would end,cite book
last = Anno
first = Hideaki
authorlink = Hideaki Anno
others = translated by Mari Morimoto, English adaptation by Fred Burke
title = Neon Genesis Evangelion, Vol. 1
year = 1998
month = December
origyear = 1995
origmonth = July
publisher = VIZ Media LLC
location = San Francisco
id = ISBN 1-56931-294-X
pages = 170 – 171
chapter = What were we trying to make here?
] and production was influenced by the reactions that TV executives and viewers had to previous episodes. ["NGE"'s assistant director Kazuya Tsurumaki said it was "like a live performance." Source: Gainax " [http://www.evaotaku.com/html/rcb-tsurumaki.html PROFILE Kazuya Tsurumaki] ", Red Cross Book (1997), Translated by Bochan_bird] Although John Oppliger suggested stronger candidates for similarities than "NGE", he thought "RahXephon"'s similarity to "NGE" was intentional: [cite web |url=http://animenation.net/news/askjohn.php?id=549 |title=Is RahXephon an Evangelion Rip Off? |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Oppliger |first=John |authorlink=John Oppliger |date=2002-08-20 |work=Ask John] cquote|"RahXephon" actually borrows far more heavily from "Megazone 23" than it does "Evangelion", and even "Evangelion" could be said to be heavily influenced by "Megazone 23". I think that in its effort to be purely artistic entertainment, "RahXephon" knowingly pays homage to both "Megazone 23" and "Evangelion" in the same way "Evangelion" re-uses the concept of a boy piloting his father's giant robot that was used 20 years before in "Mobile Suit Gundam", which itself borrowed the idea from even older shows like "Tetsujin 28" and "Mazinger".

John Huxley found "several similarities" with "NGE", but wrote that there were "many, more significant differences",cite web |url=http://www.animeboredom.co.uk/anime-reviews/rahxephon/242/ |title=RahXephon Anime Reviews : RahXephon Orchestration 2: Tonal Pattern |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Huxley |first=John |authorlink= |date=2004-05-21 |work=Anime Boredom] and concluded that "RahXephon" "deserves to be recognised outside of its comparisons to a certain Hideaki Anno animation."

;Production connectionsAnno and Izubuchi, the chief directors of each show, both designed mecha appearing in "" (1988) and they worked together on the "Cutie Honey" live action movie (2004). Izubuchi had also made some design drafts of the Evangelion units, but did not make the final designs. They sat down for an interview in one of the "RahXephon" guide books.cite book
author = staff
year = 2004
title = RahXephon Complete
publisher = Media Factory
id = ISBN 4-8401-1019-0
] Mitsuo Iso, a writer and key animator on "NGE", wrote and directed the "RahXephon" episode "The Children's Night"; Yoji Enokido wrote the screenplay for "RahXephon's" "Interested Parties" and "NGE"'s "The Day Tokyo-3 Stood Still". Takeshi Honda was also an animator on both shows. Gainax was one of many companies contracted for in-between animation work on episodes 6 and 26. [Japanese end credits. In-between credits were removed from the ending in certain international releases to make room for voice and translation credits. Japanese credits available online: cite web |url=http://www1.vecceed.ne.jp/~m-satomi/rahxephon.sub1.html |title=Credits episode 1-13 |accessdate=2007-09-05 |author=Bones cite web |url=http://www1.vecceed.ne.jp/~m-satomi/rahxephon.sub2.html |title=Credits episode 14-26 |accessdate=2007-09-05 |author=Bones] Although no seiyū from "NGE" voiced characters in the Japanese version of "RahXephon", both shows were re-dubbed into English by ADV Films, and both Allison Keith and Tiffany Grant voiced regular characters in both series.

Other anime

* AnimeNation's John Oppliger noted influences from "Escaflowne", "Evangelion", "Revolutionary Girl Utena" and "especially "Megazone 23" [cite web |url=http://animenation.net/news/askjohn.php?id=486 |title=What is RahXephon? |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Oppliger |first=John |authorlink=John Oppliger |date=2002-05-02 |work=Ask John] [cite web |url=http://animenation.net/news/askjohn.php?id=579 |title=Can You Explain the Ending of RahXephon? |accessdate=2006-10-13 |last=Oppliger |first=John |authorlink=John Oppliger |date=2002-10-23 |work=Ask John]
* Charles Solomon compared the premise of "RahXephon" with that of "Dual! Parallel Trouble Adventure", but found "RahXephon" to be "better plotted and executed".
* Huxley found the Dolems to be "the star of the show with their bizarre, slightly disturbing designs" reminiscent of "Grey".
* Anime Jump reviewer Mike Toole compared "RahXephon" with "Brain Powerd" on account of the "excellent music", design and a "frustratingly large cast and Byzantine plot", but found "RahXephon" "more focused". He thus disagreed with his colleague, Christian Nutt, who wrote that " [Brain Powerd] may not be as sexy, but it features a more heartfelt and original story".


After "RahXephon" Izubuchi went back to design work and it was his assistant director Tomoki Kyoda's turn to be chief director, on "Eureka Seven". Mitsuo Iso went on from his experience on "RahXephon" to become the chief director of "Dennō Coil". "RahXephon" has been referenced by at least one other anime series, which was also produced by Bones. [cite episode|series=Ouran High School Host Club|serieslink=Ouran High School Host Club|number=7|title=Jungle Pool SOS The character of Renge cosplays as Quon. When asked who she is dressed as, she utters "La-la", Quon's standard expression; "LaLa" is also the name of the magazine where "Ouran" first appeared.]

When asked whether robot anime following "RahXephon" had "lived up to the new era" Izubuchi answered "Partially yes and partially no" and regretted the focus being on financially safer remakes instead of on new creations. One of "Evangelion"'s producers was similarly frustrated with anime as a whole, stating that much of what was released in the "post-Eva era" was "mass-produced junk".cite journal | last = | first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2006
month = December
title = Toshimichi Otsuki interview
journal = Newtype USA
volume = 5
issue = 12
pages =
doi =
id = ISSN|1541-4817

Notes and references

External links

;Official sites
* [http://www.mediafactory.co.jp/anime/rahxephon/ Official website] by Media Factory
* [http://www.neo-rahxephon.com/ Official website] by A.D. Vision;Databases
* imdb title|id=0364863|title=RahXephon;Directory
* [http://www.anipike.com/index.php?env=-inlink/index:m1641-3-0-0-0&reset=1 "RahXephon"] at the Anime Web Turnpike

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