- Unfinished work
An unfinished work is a
creative workthat has not been finished. Its creator might have chosen never to finish it, or have been prevented by circumstances outside of his or her control (including death). Such pieces are often the subject of speculation as to what the finished piece would have been like; sometimes they are finished by others and released posthumously. Unfinished works have had profound influences on their genres and have inspired others in their own projects. The term can also refer to ongoing work which could eventually be finished, and is distinguishable from "incomplete work", which can be a work that was finished but is no longer in its complete form.
There are many reasons for work not being completed. Works are usually stopped when their creator dies, although some, aware of their failing health, make sure that they set up the project for completion. If the work involves other people, such as a cast of actors or the subject of a portrait, it may be halted because of their unavailability. Projects that are too grandiose might never have been finished, while others should be feasible but their creator's continual unhappiness with them leads to abandonment.
Unfinished works by popular authors and artists may still be made public, sometimes in the state they were in when work was halted. Alternatively, another artist may finish the piece. In some fields work may appear unfinished but are actually finished, such as
Donatello's " non finito" technique in sculpture.
authors have left work incomplete. Some such pieces have been published posthumously, either in their incomplete state or after being finished by somebody else.
It is the job of
literary executors to take charge of the work of a writer after their death. They must often decide what to do with incomplete work, using their own judgement if not given explicit instructions. In some cases this can lead to something happening to the work that was not originally intended, such as the release of Franz Kafka's unfinished writings by Max Brodwhen Kafka had wished for it to be destroyed. These works have become iconic in Western literature. [es icon Contijoch, Francesc Miralles (2000) "Franz Kafka". "Oceano Grupo Editorial, S.A. Barcelona." ISBN 84-494-1811-9.] The posthumous publication of some of Ernest Hemingway's unfinished novels was met with controversy. Several books were published, but it has been suggested that it is not within the jurisdiction of Hemingway's relatives or publishers to determine whether these works should be made available to the public. For example, scholars often disapprovingly note that the version of "The Garden of Eden" published by Charles Scribner's Sonsin 1986, though not a revision of Hemingway's original words, nonetheless omits two-thirds of the original manuscript [ [http://www.bookrags.com/shortguide-garden_of_eden/ BookRags] makes this quantitative note; it also reveals some more information about the publication of "The Garden of Eden" and offers some discussion of thematic content.] .
Novels can remain unfinished because the author continually rewrites the story. When enough material exists, someone else can compile and combine the work, creating a finished story out upon several different drafts.
Mark Twain's " The Mysterious Stranger" was written in three different versions over a period of 20 years, none of which were complete. Twain biographer and literary executor Albert Bigelow Painecombined the stories and published his version six years after Twain's death. [" [http://www.geocities.com/hal9000report/hal96.html A History of War] ". Accessed 6 August 2006] Similarly, J. R. R. Tolkiencontinuously rewrote " The Silmarillion" throughout his lifetime; a definitive version was still uncompiled at the time of his death, with some sections very fragmented. His son, Christopher Tolkien, invited fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kayto reconstruct some parts of the book, and they eventually published a final version in 1977. [Tolkienlibrary.com. " [http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/reviews/silmarillion.htm Collecting The Silmarillion] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.] In 1980, Christopher Tolkien published another posthumous collection of his father's unfinished work, appropriately entitled Unfinished Tales. Between 1982 and 1996, he published twelve volumes of " The History of Middle-earth", a substantial portion of which is unfinished and incomplete drafts. In 2007, Christopher Tolkien published another novel from his father entitled " The Children of Húrin". Like "The Silmarillion", Christopher assembled the novel from various incomplete drafts.
The size of a project can be such that a piece of literature is never finished.
Geoffrey Chaucernever completed " The Canterbury Tales" to the extensive length that he originally intended. Chaucer had, however, already written much of the work at the time of his death, and the Canterbury Tales are considered to be a seminal work despite the unfinished status. [ 6 December 2000. " [http://ccsun7.sogang.ac.kr/~anthony/Chaucer/index.htm#The Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer : an overall survey] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.] English poet Edmund Spenseroriginally intended " The Faerie Queene" to consist of 12 books; even at its unfinished state – six books were published before Spenser's death – it is the longest epic poem in the English language. ["The Faerie Queene" is about [http://books.google.com/books?vid=LCCN13011576&id=dBqqd47DWK8C&q=%22faerie+queene%22+number+of+verses&dq=%22faerie+queene%22+number+of+verses&pgis=1 35,000 verses] long. By comparison, "Savitri" is about 24,000 verses long, and " Beowulf" is about 3,000 verses long. The Sanskrit language " Mahabharata", however, is multiple times longer than "The Faerie Queene".] Honoré de Balzac, the French novelist, completed nearly 100 pieces for his novel sequence" La Comédie humaine", but a planned 48 more were never finished. [Pierre Citron edition, vol 1, 49-50.] Notes and plot outlines left behind by an author may allow a successor to complete a novel or series of novels. Frank Herbertleft behind extensive notes related to his "Dune" universe, which led to son Brian Herbertand science fiction author Kevin J. Andersoncompleting several prequels to the popular series. [Dune 7 Blog. 16 December 2005. " [http://www.dunenovels.com/dune7blog/page21.html Conspiracy Theories] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.] Mervyn Peake, author of the Gormenghast novels, meant to write a complete biography of the main character, Titus, but died after only completing three books in the series.
Some works are presented as separate sections, each written at different times. This can lead to the situation where a piece can appear complete while the author actually intended for it to continue, or where other authors try to fake their own writing as part of the work. The first four
cantos of Lord Byron's narrative poem "Don Juan" were written in 1818 and 1819, with a further 12 completed and published before his death in 1824. Numerous "continuations" of the story had been published by various publishing houses even between issues of the story, along with several fake conclusions. Byron had intended to continue the story, as evidenced by the find of the 17th canto after his death, but it is not clear how long the poem would continue or how it would conclude. It is still regarded as one of his greatest achievements. [Hubeart, Thomas. 1996. " [http://members.aol.com/basfawlty/byron.htm Whatever Happened to Don Juan? Finding the Ending to Byron's Poem] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.] Charles Dickenswas writing " The Mystery of Edwin Drood" in monthly installments when he died, completing just six of the twelve intended. The story surrounded the murder of the titular Edwin Drood; because the story was never finished the murderer was never revealed. [Perdue, David. David Perdue's Charles Dickens page. " [http://charlesdickenspage.com/drood.html The Mystery of Edwin Drood] ". Accessed 10 August 2006.] The book was still made into a film and a musical, with the latter having the unusual concept of the audience voting for who they think is the murderer. [Tams-Witmark Music Library. " [http://www.tamswitmark.com/musicals/drood.html Drood (The Mystery of Edwin Drood)] ". Accessed 10 August 2006.]
Other famous unfinished works of literature include: "
Hero and Leander" by Christopher Marlowe(a completion was provided by George Chapman); the second part of " Dead Souls" by Gogol; " Bouvard et Pécuchet" by Flaubert; " Weir of Hermiston" by Robert Louis Stevenson; " The Good Soldier Svejk" by Jaroslav Hasek; "Suite française" by Irène Némirovsky, " Answered Prayers" by Truman Capote, The Love of the Last Tycoonby F. Scott Fitzgerald, and " Uncertain Times" by Richard Yates.
cience, theology and philosophy
Religious works have also been left incomplete, leading to debates about the possible missing content. The
Persian Bayán, a scripture from Bábism, was left unfinished when the Bábdied. There have been some claims that the text has been completed by other people, though the Báb stated that it would be finished by he whom God shall make manifest. [Poirier, Brent; Terry, Peter;Buck, Christopher; Momen, Moojan; Winters, Jonah. " [http://bahai-library.org/resources/tablets-notes/bayan/notes.html The Bayán] ". Accessed 11 August 2006.] [Pottenger, Elizabeth. " [http://bahai-library.com/?file=pottenger_disclosure_station Baha'u'llah's Disclosure of His Station] ". Accessed 11 August 2006.] St. Thomas Aquinas abandoned his great work, the " Summa Theologiae" in 1273, citing a mystical experience during mass. Its arguments for the existence of God continue to exert influence in Christian theologymore than 700 years later. [Richards, Stephen. " [http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Theology/aquinas.htm Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274 CE)] ". Accessed 20 August 2006.]
The most influential document in
computer sciencewas John von Neumann's " First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", a 101-page manuscript dating from 1946. Littered with ellipticals and spaces for the eventual addition of further material, von Neumann never completed it, as by that time its distribution had already influenced an explosion in postwar computer development. Its elaboration of the stored programconcept and formalisation of the logical design of computer architecture – ideas not all of which were original to von Neumann, but which he first expressed in the mathematical language he favoured – endure in the architectures of modern computer systems. [Goldstine, Herman H. 1972. "The Computer: from Pascal to von Neumann". Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02367-0.]
The first genuine historigraphical work, the
Peloponnesian Warby Thucydideswas undergoing a major revision by the author at the time of his death, so different sections of it reflect a starkly contrasting general outlook on Persian influence in the events depicted.
Drawings, paintings and sculptures
Artists leave behind incomplete work for a variety of reasons. A piece may not be completed if the subject becomes unavailable, such as in the changing of a landscape or the death of a person being painted.
Elizabeth Shoumatoff's "Unfinished Portrait" of 32nd U.S. president Franklin D. Rooseveltwas started around noon on 12 April 1945but left unfinished when Roosevelt died later that day. In other instances, outside circumstances can prevent the execution of an otherwise "finished" artwork: Leonardo da Vincideveloped sketches and models for the 24 foot-tall "Gran Cavallo" horse statue but the bronze to cast the sculpture was diverted to make cannons.Vezzosi, Alessandro "Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man": Thames & Hudson, 1997 page 73] Five hundred years later, two full-size sculptures were completed based on Leonardo's work. " [http://www.leonardoshorse.org/never_was_is.asp The horse that never was...is!] " Accessed 26 August 2006]
Depending on the medium involved, it can be difficult for another artist to complete an unfinished artwork without damaging it. Some artists did complete the paintings of their mentors, such as
Giulio Romanois believed to have done on Raphael's "Transfiguration", [Gerten-Jackson, Carol. " [http://cgfa.floridaimaging.com/raphael/raphael_bio.htm Raphael] ". Accessed 10 August 2006.] and Titianon Giorgione's "Sleeping Venus". [" The Economist". 27 July 2006. " [http://www.economist.com/books/displaystory.cfm?story_id=7218457 Venitian art: The line of beauty] ". Accessed 10 August 2006.] Instead of completing another artist's masterpiece, particularly when many years have passed, unfinished works frequently inspire others to create their own version. Michelangeloleft several unfinished sculptures and paintings, with sketches and partially-completed paintings inspiring others. [Lane, Jim. 24 March 1999. " [http://www.humanitiesweb.org/human.php?s=r&p=a&a=i&ID=452 A Painter's Legacy] ". Accessed 6 August 2006.] If the work is to be done on commission but is not finished it is commonly passed on to another artist. Leonardo da Vinci's work on the "Adoration of the Magi" for the monastery of San Donato was halted when he left Florencefor Milan. Still requiring an altarpiece, the monks employed Filippino Lippito create one. [Universal Leonardo: " [http://www.universalleonardo.org/lifeevent.php?event=242 Birth of Filippino Lippi] ". Accessed 26 August 2006] Both paintings now hang in the Uffizigallery. [Loadstar's Lair. " [http://www.lairweb.org.nz/leonardo/magi.html Adoration of the Magi] ". Accessed 10 August 2006.]
Paintings are usually sketched on the
canvasbefore work begins, and sculptures are frequently planned using a maquette. These works-in-progress can be as (or even more) sought-after as completed works by highly-regarded artists because they help reveal the process of creating a work of art. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, a sculptor from the Baroqueperiod, made his bozzeti (an Italian term for the prototype sculpture) from waxor baked terracottato show those that had commissioned him how the final piece was intended to look. Eleven of these bozzeti were displayed in an exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicagoin 2004. [Cassidy, Victor M. artnet. 2004. " [http://www.artnet.com/magazine_pre2000/reviews/cassidy/cassidy8-25-98.asp Chicago Report] ". Accessed 22 August 2006.] Some museums specialise in collections of maquettes, such as the Museo dei Bozzettiin Pietrasanta, Italy.
Renaissance, Donatellomade sculptures that appeared unfinished by only sculpting part of the block, leaving the figure appearing to be stuck within the material. He called this technique " non finito", and it has been used by several artists since then. [The Open Door Web Site. " [http://www.saburchill.com/history/events/014.html The Renaissance] ". Accessed 10 August 2006.]
In the age of
mass media, incomplete work can reach an audience due to sheer demand for material by the artist. " Tintin and Alph-Art", the 24th comic in Hergé's popular " The Adventures of Tintin" series, was unfinished at his death. Though he had illustrated much of the book, several sketched panels remained in the final scenes. The book was still published and the story can be followed despite the incomplete artwork.
Architecture, construction and engineering
Unfinished building."Many constructionor engineeringprojects have remained unfinished at various stages of development. The work may be finished as a blueprintor whiteprintand never be realised, or be abandoned during construction.
There are numerous
unfinished buildings that remain partially-constructed in countries around the world, some of which can be used in their incomplete state but with others remaining as a mere shell. An example of the latter is the Ryugyong Hotelin North Korea. If finished it would become the tallest hotel in the world and the seventh largest building [ Emporis. " [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=130967 Ryugyong Hotel] ". Accessed 20 August 2006.] but is uninhabitable and will not be completed due to the cost and the poor structural integrity. [Emporis. 28 July 2000. " [http://www.emporis.com/en/bu/nc/ne/?id=100302 Ryugyong Hotel on hold] ". Accessed 20 August 2006.] Some projects are intentionally left with an unfinished appearance, particularly the follies of the late 16th to 18th century.
There are many reasons for construction work being halted. Amongst others, they include a changing financial climate, unforeseen structural weaknesses, or a dramatic shift in the politics of a country. Work on the
Palace of Soviets, a project to construct the world's largest building in Moscow, was halted when the city was attacked during World War II. [Beautiful Atrocities. 8 April 2005. " [http://beautifulatrocities.com/archives/2005/04/stalins_vision.html Stalin's Vision of Moscow] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.]
Some buildings are in a cycle of near-perpetual construction, with work lasting for decades or even centuries.
Antoni Gaudí's Sagrada Famíliain Barcelonahas been under construction for around 120 years, having started in the 1880s. Work was delayed by the Spanish Civil War, during which the original models and parts of the building itself were destroyed. Today, even with portions of the basilicaincomplete, it is still the most popular tourist destination in Barcelona with 1.5 million visitors every year. Gaudí spent 40 years of his life overseeing the project and is buried in the crypt. [Barcelona Information. " [http://www.barcelona-information.com/sagrada-familia.html Barcelona Sagrada Familia] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.] Germany's Cologne Cathedraltook even longer to complete; construction started in 1248 and finished in 1880, a total of 632 years. [ UNESCOWorld Heritage. " [http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=292 Cologne Cathedral] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.]
Cologne Cathedraltook over 600 years.] It is not only buildings that have failed during the construction phase. In the 1920s, the White Star Linehired the shipbuilders Harland and Wolffto build the first 1000-foot-long ocean liner, with the planned name of "Oceanic". However, a dispute between the companies and eventually the Great Depressionhalted the construction, and eventually the portion of the keelalready constructed was broken up and used in building the smaller but similar ship, the " MV Britannic". [Othfors, Daniel. " [http://www.greatoceanliners.net/intendedgiants.html Intended Giants of the Seas] ". Accessed 20 August 2006.] In the 1970s the Hoan Bridgein Milwaukee, Wisconsinwas out of use for five years after its construction when the connecting roads were not completed. In the 1980s, during the Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi president Saddam Husseincommissioned the Babylon project. The supergundesign by Gerald Bullwas never fully constructed after Bull's assassinationin March 1990. [Wade, Mark. Encyclopedia Astronautica. " [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/babongun.htm Babylon Gun] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.] [Sherman, Robert. Federation of American Scientists. 8 October 2000. " [http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/iraq/other/supergun.htm Project Babylon Supergun / PC-2] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.]
Many projects do not get to the construction phase, halted during or after planning.
Ludwig II of Bavariacommissioned several designs for Castle Falkenstein, with the fourth plan being vastly different from that of the first. The first two designs were turned down, one because of costs and one because the design displeased Ludwig, and the third designer withdrew from the project. The fourth and final plan was completed and some infrastructurewas prepared for the site but Ludwig died before construction work began. [Yan, Mark. King Ludwig II of Bavaria - his Life and Art. " [http://us.geocities.com/sharmar505/falkenst.htm Falkenstein] ". Accessed 21 August 2006.] The Palace of Whitehall, at the time the largest palacein Europe, was mostly destroyed by a fire in 1698. Sir Christopher Wren, most famous for his role in rebuilding several churches after the Great Fire of Londonin 1666, sketched a proposed replacement for part of the palace but financial constraints prevented construction.
Computer technology has allowed for 3D representations of projects to be shown before they are built. In some cases the construction is never started and the computer model is the nearest that anyone will ever get to seeing the finished piece. For example, in 1999 Kent Larson's exhibition "Unbuilt Ruins: Digital Interpretations of Eight Projects by Louis I. Kahn" showed computer images of designs completed by noted
architect Louis Kahnbut never built. [Eiteljorg II, Harrison. 1999. CSA Newsletter, " [http://csanet.org/newsletter/spring99/nls9902.html Seeing Buildings that Were Never Built] ". Accessed 21 August 2006.] Computer simulations can also be used to create prototypes of engineering projects and test them before they are actually made; this has allowed the design process to be more successful and efficient.
Even without being constructed, many architectural designs and ideas have had a lasting influence. The
Russian constructivism movement started in 1913 [HuntFor.com. " [http://www.huntfor.com/arthistory/C20th/constructivism.htm Constructivism] ". Accessed 25 August 2006.] and was taught in the Bauhausand other architecture schools, leading to numerous architects integrating it into their style. [ University of Westminster. " [http://www.westminsterjournalism.co.uk/coursesite/magazines/123const.html Constructivism] ". Accessed 25 August 2006.] [GrahamPotter.com. " [http://www.grahampotter.com/constructivism.html Constructivism synopsis] ". Accessed 25 August 2006.]
Unfinished symphony."In the days of classical musicall compositions were sketched on manuscripts – the technology to record music did not exist. Often these manuscripts are roughly sketched, with drafting work scribbled over the top of the music, and have been found in unordered piles. Many unfinished symphonies have been pieced together from these original manuscripts by other composers, after the original author's death, with some remaining incomplete until many decades later. One of the most famous examples of unfinished musical compositions is Franz Schubert's "Symphony No. 8 in B minor", or as it is more commonly known, "The Unfinished Symphony". [Vial Jaffe, Jane. Stockton Symphony Association. " [http://www.stocktonsymphony.org/Program06-Schubert.htm Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D759] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.] Another famous unfinished classical piece is Mozart's Requiem, famous in part by the numerous myths and legends that surround its creation and in part by Mozart's prestige. Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 10 was incomplete with only drafts, sketches, and two mostly orchestrated movements existing at the composer's death. Several individuals have "completed" it with varying degrees of success, the most notable of these being Deryck Cooke's "performing version of the draft."cite book|title = A Performing Version for the Draft of the Tenth Symphony|last= Cooke|first= Deryck |publisher = Associated Music Publishers|year=1976|id = ISBN 0-571-51094-9]
Some compositions are finished "in the style of" the original composer, with someone who is highly familiar with their work adopting their writing style and continuing the musical tone.
Johann Sebastian Bach's " The Art of Fugue", which was broken off abruptly during "Contrapunctus XIV" by the death of the composer, was first published in the mid 18th century. Many reconstructions have been written, but in 1991 Zoltán Gönczused the form of a permutation fugue to make a strong argument as to the structure of the Fugue to come. [Göncz, Z. 1997. Reconstruction of the Final Contrapunctus of " The Art of Fugue, in: "International Journal of Musicology" Vol. 5, pp. 25–93. ISBN 3-631-49809-8; Vol. 6, pp. 103–119. 1998 ISBN 3-631-33413-3.] Edward Elgarwas composing a Symphony No. 3 at the time of his death and left 130 pages of sketches. These sketches were put into a reasonable order, orchestrated in the style of Elgar, and elaborated by Anthony Payne. Payne's reconstruction has been played numerous times to great acclaim. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/elgar/56393.stm BBC NEWS | Special Report | 1998 | Elgar | Anthony Payne on Elgar's Symphony No 3 ] ]
In May 2000 composer
Colin Matthewspremiered his "completion" of Gustav Holst's " The Planets", whereby he composed a piece for the ninth planet Pluto, giving it the name "Pluto, The Renewer". When Holst had written the original piece Pluto had not been discovered, and this addition therefore updated the suite and completed the eight movements that represented the planets of the solar system(Earth was never included) some 80 years after it was originally performed. [Andante. December 2002. " [http://www.andante.com/article/article.cfm?id=19430 Completing Holst's Cosmos] ". Accessed 26 August 2006.] Ironically in August 2006 Pluto was officially demoted to a dwarf planet, thus meaning that Holst's original work now more accurately represented the solar system. [ BBC News. 24 August 2006. " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/5282440.stm Pluto loses status as a planet] ". Accessed 26 August 2006.]
Some extremely famous 20th century operas have been left incomplete at their composers' deaths.
Giacomo Puccinileft the finale of " Turandot" unfinished and the missing music had to be provided by Franco Alfanofor the premiere in 1926. Recently, Luciano Beriocomposed an alternative ending. Alban Berghad only finished the first two acts of his opera "Lulu" at the time of his death in 1935. Due to objections from his widow it was not until 1979 that a full version was performed, with music for the final act devised by Friedrich Cerhausing Berg's sketches. ["Viking Opera Guide", ed. Holden (Viking, 1994): articles on Puccini and Berg.]
Since recording equipment has been an integral part of writing music it has been possible to use the original master tapes and demos to construct a song from the parts that had already been completed. Many demos are released officially if the artist has been unable (or unwilling) to complete it, or made available as a
bootleg recording. The continued popularity of The Beatlesled to " Free as a Bird" and "Real Love" being released in the mid 1990s after the band members pieced together incomplete recordings by the deceased John Lennon. [Sullivan, Caroline. Guardian Unlimited, 21 November 1995. " [http://www.guardian.co.uk/thebeatles/story/0,,606548,00.html Do they believe in yesterday?] ". Accessed 6 August 2006.] Both songs reached the top five in the British singles chart.
One of rock music's most famous unfinished albums is the 1967
Beach Boysalbum, Smile. Recorded in 1966 and 1967, Smile was to be a very ambitious followup to the acclaimed Pet Soundsalbum, but due to Brian Wilson's deteriorating mental health and increased friction among band members, The Beach Boys abandoned the project after completing numerous recordings slated for the project. In 2004, Brian Wilson and writing partner Van Dyke went into the studio, and newly recorded the material and released it as a completed solo album.
Another famous unfinished rock album is Jimi Hendrix's
First Rays of the New Rising Sun. Due to his untimely death at the age of 27, Hendrix was unable to complete the album. It has been issued in various posthumous forms in the ensuing years.
Several artists have found that some of their studio work has been leaked onto the
Internetbefore their album has been completed. System of a Down's 2002 follow-up to "Toxicity", untitled at the time, was leaked onto the Internet as MP3files. When the album was released under the title " Steal This Album!" the songs were significantly different from the work-in-progress, with different titles, lyrics and even melodies. There were some reports that the changes were a direct result of negative feedback about the leaked material. [Sputnikmusic. " [http://www.sputnikmusic.com/album.php?albumid=135 System of a Down - "Steal This Album!"] ". Accessed 12 August 2006.]
Some artists will try to ensure that their work is completed (as much as possible) before their health prevents them from continuing.
Johnny Cash, aware of his failing health, made sure that he recorded the vocals for 60 more songs, with the music being completed after his death. These songs were compiled by producer Rick Rubinand released as "" and " American VI". [Gundersen, Edna. USA Today, 1 May 2006. " [http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/reviews/2006-05-01-cash_x.htm Johnny Cash's final work yields 2 more albums] ". Accessed 6 August 2006.] However, not all artists get the chance to complete their work before their death, and the recordings that are made public may be somewhat different from what had originally been intended. " From a Basement on the Hill" by Elliott Smithwas released posthumously in 2004 with comments from the initial album producer saying that " [t] he record he would have delivered would [have] had more songs, would have had different mixes and [been] a little more in your face". [Confabulators. " [http://www.confabulators.com/2005/elliott-smith-lives-again-from-a-basement-on-the-hill-v2 Elliott Smith Lives Again! From a Basement on the Hill V.2] ". Accessed 24 August 2006.] The album was still well-received by critics.
Richard Carpenter released several tracks decades after his sister Karen died in 1983, leaving a multitude of unfinished work. One track, released on the "Interpretations" album in the mid-nineties, included Karen's lead vocal for the song "
Trying To Get The Feeling Again" which had previously been recorded and released by Barry Manilow. The lead had been lost for years on a mislabelled tape. Strings, piano, and backup singers were added to the sound of Karen's lead vocal, while Richard left the sound of her turning the lead sheet over in the finished product. Another track was Karen's cover " The Rainbow Connection", which had been written by Kenny Ascherand Paul Williams for Jim Hensonto sing as Kermit The Frogin " The Muppet Movie" (1979). Recording it only a year later, Richard claims that Karen just didn't like the song and that was why it was left off of their 1981 album, "Made In America". A toy piano, choir, and strings were added against Karen's vocals. The song was released in 2001 on the album "As Time Goes By".
Films may not be completed for several reasons, with some being shelvedduring different stages of the production. " Arrive Alive" was scrapped after a week of filming when the comedy was not living up to the screenplay. Shelving a film without it ever being released can be very expensive for the studios, with "Arrive Alive" costing $7 million.
With so many people involved in
filmmakingit is very possible for a film to remain incomplete because of an injury or death. While a member of the crew (even a producer or director) can often be replaced, it is much more difficult to change to a different actorif many of the scenes have already been filmed. For example, " Dark Blood" was cancelled halfway through filming due to the death of its star River Phoenix. Some films have been completed despite such problems. A famous example is Bruce Lee's " Game of Death", who died during the filming and the rest of the filming was finished by Tai Chung Kim, a Lee lookalike and Yuen Biao, a then stunt actor and later becomes a TV/movie actor. His son, Brandon Leealso suffered from the same fate: he died after filming most of "The Crow", but the remaining scenes were played by stunt doubleChad Stahelski with Lee's face digitally composited onto the double. [ Urban Legends Reference Pages. 7 December 1997. " [http://www.snopes.com/movies/actors/brandlee.htm Brandon Lee] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.]
Continued delays can prevent a film from ever being completed. "
Something's Got to Give" was a 1962 film with a difficult production history, which included the firing of leading lady Marilyn Monroe. She was later rehired but died before filming started; without the delay the film might have been completed. [CoverUps.com. " [http://www.coverups.com/monroe/countdown.htm Marilyn Monroe's Death, Countdown To Tragedy] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.]
Orson Welles' lifetime his unfinished films became legendary. For decades he worked on a version of " Don Quixote", and he claimed that the film could be finished despite the deaths of his two leading actors. ["The Orson Welles Story", "Arena", BBC TV 1982.] " Citizen Kane" remains the only film that was released as Welles intended, with other films remaining incomplete or being changed by the studios. His death on 10 October 1985came while he was working on " The Other Side of the Wind" and "The Dreamers", the former being nearly completed. [Cabrelli, Paolo. 22 May 2006. " [http://www.stylusmagazine.com/articles/weekly_article/sunken-treasure-the-drowned-world-of-lost-movies.htm Sunken Treasure: The Drowned World of Lost Movies] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.] Stanley Kubrickalso had a famous unfinished film, "Napoleon". Reputedly, he wanted Jack Nicholsonto play the famous Emperor after seeing him in " Easy Rider". However, it never got made, due to budgetary constraints and the box office failure of Sergei Bondarchuk’s "Waterloo". He eventually used his research on "Napoleon" to make " Barry Lyndon", regarded by many to be his most personal film.
It is not only live-action films that can be problematic. "
The Thief and the Cobbler" was a twenty-six-year animated film project by Richard Williamswhich was taken away from him and completed by Fred Calvert. [Briney, Daniel. 21 August 2001. " [http://www.toxicuniverse.com/review.php?aid=1000025/ The Thief and the Cobbler: How the Best Was Lost, 1968-1995] " at ToxicUniverse. Accessed 6 August 2006.] The workprintof the original film became available as a bootleg. The 1978 animated adaptation of "The Lord of the Rings" was not viewed by the studio as enough of a commercial success to warrant the funding of a sequel, thus not completing the story from the original trilogy of books. [Cochran, Connor. March 2006. " [http://www.conlanpress.com/html/zaentz_b.html Peter S. Beagle and the Saul Zaentz Company] ". Accessed 25 August 2006.]
software, particularly games, are sometimes cancelled quite far into their development. Occasionally they are demonstrated to the press so that previews can be written but are never completed or published. "" had an extensive preview written in the magazine "PC Paradox" in 1999, including numerous screenshots, which generated a lot of interest in the project. However, it was cancelled the following year. [PlanetPhillip. 18 August 2004. " [http://www.planetphillip.com/posts/amen-the-awakening/ Amen: The Awakening] ". Accessed 12 August 2006.] Due to continued interest in a game, some are eventually made available in their unfinished state. " Combat 2", the sequel to the 1977 Atari VCS-bundled game "Combat", was never completed but, many years later at the 2001 Classic Gaming Expo, 200 copies of the unfinished game were sold after a company created a box and manual. [AtariAge. " [http://www.atariage.com/software_page.html?SoftwareLabelID=1137 Combat Two] ". Accessed 12 August 2006.]
Software undergoes a testing phase that helps to eliminate problems before it is released; however, beta testing is a form of testing where the software is open to the public (usually limited to a set number of people or organisations) but is still essentially unfinished. This is often an important part of the development of a software package.
If a piece of software is becoming overly delayed the developer may just release the programme despite the presence of a few bugs. The Internet has allowed patches to be deployed that fix these bugs, but before such technology was available the problems could not be fixed after the game was published. Even with this, a game with too many bugs when it is made public will receive very poor reviews that will undoubtedly affect sales. For example, 2002's "
Destroyer Command" received some very positive reviews about many aspects of the game but was criticised for the number of glitches it contained that, given a lengthier software testing phase, should have been fixed. [Metacritic. " [http://www.metacritic.com/games/platforms/pc/destroyercommand Destroyer Command] ". Accessed 12 August 2006.] Some developers choose to disable certain features in order to release the game on time, especially if a project has seen an amount of feature creep. One such title was Cinemaware's " Defender of the Crown", which was released before all the features were completed when the company was faced with a strict deadline and the loss of two programmers. [Hall Of Light. " [http://hol.abime.net/305 Defender Of The Crown] ". Accessed 20 August 2006.]
Unfinished work and the law
Unfinished work is often covered by the
copyrightlaws of the country of origin. The United Stateshave taken the step of creating a law which specifically mentions ongoing work, whereby work which is in progress but will in the future be completed can be covered by copyright. On 27 April 2005the "Artist's Rights and Theft Prevention Act", a subpart of the Family Entertainment and Copyright Act, was signed into U.S. law. This act allows for organisations or individuals to apply for copyright protection on unfinished commercial products, such as software, films, and other visual or audible media. [ Center for Democracy and Technology. April 2005. PDF| [http://www.cdt.org/copyright/20050426s167analysis.pdf Analysis of the Family Entertainment and Copyright Act of 2005 (S. 167)] |74.1 KiB . Accessed 9 August 2006.] For example, a photographercan preregister a photograph by giving a written description of what the final piece (or collection thereof) will look like before the work is finished. [Lang, Daryl. 14 November 2005. " [http://www.pdnonline.com/pdn/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001479563 New Copyright Law Lets Photographers Register Unfinished Work] ". Accessed 9 August 2006.]
In copyright law, an artistic creation that includes major, basic copyrighted aspects of an original, previously created first work is known as a '
derivative work'. This holds for all kinds of work, including those that have never officially been published. The rights of the first work's originator must be granted to the secondary work for it to be rightfully called a 'derivative work'. If no copyright permission is granted from the originator, it is instead called a 'copy'. Upon completion of the new piece both parties hold a joint copyright status, with both having to agree to any publications. When the copyright has lapsed for the original work the second artist fully owns the copyright for their work, but cannot stop distribution of the original piece or another artist from completing the work in their own way. However, such copyrights can only be granted if the work shows significant new creative content.Lloyd L. Rich. The Publishing Law Center. 1998. " [http://www.publaw.com/publicdomain.html The Public Domain and the Impact of New Legislation] ". Accessed 26 August 2006.] [Wehrli, John E. 14 October 2005. " [http://www.lbl.gov/Workplace/patent/ch9.html Computer Software and Copyright] ". Accessed 26 August 2006.]
Lacuna– a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, or a musical work.
Shared universe– a literary techniquewhereby a series can continue after the death of the original author.
Tower of Babel– a tower mentioned in Genesisin the Biblewhere Godhalted the construction.
List of comics that were never published
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