Constitutional Democratic Rally

Constitutional Democratic Rally
Constitutional Democratic Rally
التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطي
French name Rassemblement constitutionnel démocratique
First Leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Last Leader Mohamed Ghannouchi
Founded February 27, 1988 (1988-02-27)
Dissolved March 9, 2011 (2011-03-09)
Preceded by Socialist Destourian Party a
Headquarters Tunis, Tunisia
Ideology Secularism
Social Democracy
Neoliberalism[1][2](contemporary)
International affiliation Socialist International (expelled)
Official colors Red
Website
rcd.tn[dead link]
Politics of Tunisia
Political parties
Elections
^ a. The RCD is the successor of the following parties : Destour (1920), Neo-Destour (1934) and Socialist Destourian Party (1964).

The Constitutional Democratic Rally (Arabic: التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطيat-Tajammu‘ ad-Dustūrī ad-Dīmuqrāṭī, French: Rassemblement Constitutionel Démocratique), also referred to by its French acronym RCD, formerly called Neo Destour then Socialist Destourian Party, was the governing party in Tunisia. The party was suspended by the minister of interior on February 6th awaiting a decision on its dissolution by judicial authorities.[3][4] The party held strong majorities in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Councillors, though elections in Tunisia were subject to widespread claims of fraud. The 2009 legislative elections resulted in the RCD winning 161 of the 214 seats with the remaining 53 seats going to minority parties.[5] In 2004, the party won 152 of 189 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The remaining 37 seats were occupied by minority parties.[6]

These elections were widely regarded as rigged and they contributed to the discontent shown in the Tunisian Revolution which pressured President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali into relinquishing authority and fleeing Tunisia.[7] In response to the RCD government clampdown on protests, the Socialist International ceased the membership of the RCD.[8] In order to placate protesters and designated coalition participants, the incumbent president and prime minister resigned from their memberships in the RCD on January 18[9] and all remaining RCD-aligned ministers resigned their party memberships on the 20th,[10] the effect of which left the RCD with only a parliamentary majority. On January 27, Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi carried out a major reshuffle, removing all former RCD members other than himself from the government. On March 9, the party was finally dissolved by the Tunisian courts.[11]

Contents

History

In 1920, Tunisian Nationalists formed the Destour (Constitutional) Party in opposition to French rule. As the party developed, a schism occurred within the party leading to the founding of the Neo Destour Party in 1934 by Habib Bourguiba. Under his leadership, the Neo Destour Party successfully garnered independence from France in 1956. Eight years later, in 1964, the Neo Destour Party became the Destourian Socialist Party (PSD). From 1963-1981, the PSD was the only legal political party in Tunisia.[12]

In 1981, the PSD faced opposition from Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Islamic Tendency Movement, the Tunisian Communist Party, the Movement for Popular Unity and student groups weakening its influence. On November 7, 1987, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, the Prime Minister at the time, became president after Bourguiba was declared medically unfit for office.[13] The following year, President Ben Ali instituted economic reforms increasing economic privatization and renamed the party the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD).[14]

On 6 February 2011, the Ministry of Interior banned all meetings and activities of the party, and requested the courts to dissolve it. This happened on 9 March, when a court in Tunis announced the dissolution of the former ruling party and the liquidation of its assets and funds, although the party said it would appeal the decision.[15]

Leaders

Congresses

  • July 29–31, 1993
  • July 29–31, 1998
  • August 30-September 2, 1998
  • July 28–31, 2003

Election results

Presidential Elections

Election date Party candidate Number of votes received Percentage of votes
1989 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 2,087,028 100%
1994 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 2,987,375 100%
1999 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 3,269,067 99.4%
2004 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 4,204,292 94.4%
2009 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 4,238,711 89.6%

Parliamentary Elections

Election date Party leader Number of votes received Percentage of votes Number of deputies
1989 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 1,633,004 80.6% 141
1994 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 2,768,667 97.7% 144
1999 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Unknown Unknown 148
2004 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 3,678,645 87.5% 152
2009 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 3,754,559 84.5% 161

See also

References

  1. ^ Geography and Map of Tunisia About.com
  2. ^ Dictatorship and Neo-Liberalism: The Tunisian People's Uprising Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya, Global Research, January 19 2011
  3. ^ Tunis Afrique Presse (7 February 2011). "Minister of Interior Suspends the RCD party awaiting its dissolution". http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=34993&Itemid=67. Retrieved 7 February 2011.  (Arabic)
  4. ^ "Tunisia suspends Ben Ali's RCD party". BBC News. 7 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12378006. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  5. ^ "Final Results of Presidential and Legislative Elections". 26 October 2009. http://www.elections2009.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=150&Itemid=1. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  6. ^ "Election News". 24 October 2009. http://www.tunisiaonline.com/elections2004/nouvelles/251004-2.html. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  7. ^ Empathy for Tunisian discontent in France euronews, January 13 2011
  8. ^ SI decision on Tunisia Socialist International, January 17 2011
  9. ^ CNN Wire Staff (January 19, 2011 -- Updated 2145 GMT (0545 HKT)). "State TV: 2 top officials depart Ben Ali's party In Tunisia". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/01/18/tunisia.protests/index.html?eref=edition. 
  10. ^ Lin Noueihed and Matthew Jones (Thu Jan 20, 2011 3:40am EST). "All Tunisian ministers quit ruling party- state TV". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLDE70J0F620110120. 
  11. ^ "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/20113985941974579.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  12. ^ "Tunisia: Politics, Government and Taxation". 2010. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/Tunisia-POLITICS-GOVERNMENT-AND-TAXATION.html. Retrieved 13 December 20010. 
  13. ^ Delaney, Paul (1987-11-09). "Senile Bourguiba Described in Tunis". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/11/09/world/senile-bourguiba-described-in-tunis.html. Retrieved 13 December 20010. 
  14. ^ "Tunisia: Politics, Government and Taxation". 2010. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/Tunisia-POLITICS-GOVERNMENT-AND-TAXATION.html. Retrieved 13 December 20010. 
  15. ^ Al-Jazeera English (9 March 2011). "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/20113985941974579.html. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 

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