- Coral bleaching
Coral bleaching is the loss of intracellular endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) through either expulsion or loss of algal pigmentation.The corals that form the structure of the great reef ecosystems of tropical seas depend upon a symbiotic relationship with unicellular flagellate protozoa, called zooxanthellae, that are photosynthetic and live within their tissues. Zooxanthellae give coral its coloration, with the specific color depending on the particular clade. Under stress, corals may expel their zooxanthellae, which leads to a lighter or completely white appearance, hence the term "bleached".
Bleaching occurs when the conditions necessary to sustain the coral's zooxanthellae cannot be maintained. Any environmental trigger that affects the coral's ability to supply the zooxanthellae with nutrients for photosynthesis (carbon dioxide, ammonium) will lead to expulsion. This process is a "downward spiral", whereby the coral's failure to prevent the division of zooxanthellae leads to ever-greater amounts of the photosynthesis-derived carbon to be diverted into the algae rather than the coral. This makes the energy balance required for the coral to continue sustaining its algae more fragile, and hence the coral loses the ability to maintain its parasitic control on its zooxanthellae.
Coral bleaching is a generalized stress response of corals and can be caused by a number of biotic and abiotic factors, including:
- increased (most commonly), or reduced water temperatures
- increased solar irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet band light)
- changes in water chemistry (in particular acidification)
- increased sedimentation (due to silt runoff) 
- bacterial infections 
- changes in salinity 
- low tide and exposure 
- cyanide fishing
While most of these triggers may result in localized bleaching events (tens to hundreds of kilometers), mass coral bleaching events occur at a regional or global scale and are triggered by periods of elevated thermal stress resulting from increased sea surface temperatures.
Mass bleaching events
Most evidence indicates that elevated temperature is the cause of mass bleaching events. Six major episodes of coral bleaching have occurred since 1979, with the associated coral mortality affecting reefs in every part of the world. Correlative field studies have pointed to warmer-than normal conditions as being responsible for triggering mass bleaching events. These studies show a tight association between warmer-than-normal conditions (at least 1°C higher than the summer maximum) and the incidence of coral bleaching.
Factors that influence the outcome of a bleaching event include stress-resistance which reduces bleaching, tolerance to the absence of zooxanthellae, and how quickly new coral grows to replace the dead. Due to the patchy nature of bleaching, local climatic conditions such as shade or a stream of cooler water can reduce bleaching incidence. Coral and zooxanthellae health and genetics also influence bleaching.
Large coral colonies such as Porites are able to withstand extreme temperature shocks, while fragile branching corals such as table coral are far more susceptible to stress following a temperature change. Corals consistently exposed to low stress levels may be more resistant to bleaching.
Monitoring reef sea surface temperature
The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors for bleaching "hot spots", areas where sea surface temperature rises 1 °C (34 °F) or more above the long-term monthly average. This system detected the worldwide 1998 bleaching event, that corresponded to an El Niño. NOAA also uses a satellite with 50k resolution at night, which covers a large area and does not detect the maximum sea surface temperatures occurring usually around noon.
Changes in ocean chemistry
Increasing ocean acidification due to rises in carbon dioxide levels exacerbates the bleaching effects of thermal stress. Acidification affects the corals' ability to create calcareous skeletons, essential to their survival. A recent study from the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future found that with the combination of acidification and temperature rises, the levels of CO2 could become too high for coral to survive in as little as 50 years.
Infectious bacteria of the species Vibrio shiloi are the bleaching agent of Oculina patagonica in the Mediterranean Sea, causing this effect by attacking the zooxanthellae. V. shiloi is infectious only during warm periods. Elevated temperature increases the virulence of V. shiloi, which then become able to adhere to a beta-galactoside-containing receptor in the surface mucus of the host coral. V. shiloi then penetrates the coral's epidermis, multiplies, and produces both heat-stable and heat-sensitive toxins, which affect zooxanthellae by inhibiting photosynthesis and causing lysis.
During the summer of 2003, coral reefs in the Mediterranean Sea appeared to gain resistance to the pathogen, and further infection was not observed. The main hypothesis for the emerged resistance is the presence of symbiotic communities of protective bacteria living in the corals. The bacterial species capable of lysing V. shiloi had not been identified as of 2011.
In the 2012-2040 period, coral reefs are expected to experience more frequent bleaching events. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) sees this as the greatest threat to the world's reef systems.
Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef along the coast of Australia experienced bleaching events in 1980, 1982, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006. While most areas recovered with relatively low levels of coral death, some locations suffered severe damage, with up to 90% mortality. The most widespread and intense events occurred in the summers of 1998 and 2002, with 42% and 54% respectivly of reefs bleached to some extent, and 18% strongly bleached.
The IPCC's moderate warming scenarios (B1 to A1T, 2°C by 2100, IPCC, 2007, Table SPM.3, p. 13) forecast that corals on the Great Barrier Reef are very likely to regularly experience summer temperatures high enough to induce bleaching.
Other coral reef provinces have been permanently damaged by warm sea temperatures, most severely in the Indian Ocean. Up to 90% of coral cover has been lost in the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Tanzania and in the Seychelles.
Evidence from extensive research in the 1970s of thermal tolerance in Hawaiian corals and of oceanic warming led researchers in 1990 to predict mass occurrences of coral bleaching throughout Hawaii. Major bleaching occurred in 1996 and in 2002.
Significant bleaching occurred in the Mediterranean Sea in 1996.
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- Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority information on bleaching.
- ReefBase: a global information system on coral reefs.
- More details on coral bleaching, causes and effects.
- Travellers Impressions
- The Link between Overfishing and Mass Coral Bleaching
- Discussion on Overfishing and Coral Bleaching
- Social & Economic Costs of Coral Bleaching from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative
- Microdocs: Coral bleaching
- Coral Bleaching at Maro Reef, September 2004
Corals and coral reefs Stony corals Soft corals Coral reefs Coral regions Coral diseases Protection Other
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