Infobox Russian city
Skyline=Perm, Sibirskay Street, 6.jpg
Perm Krai, Permsky District
Charter of Perm
May 15, 1723
October 29, 1781
October 2, 1957
Perm ( _ru. Пермь, pronounced|pʲɛrmʲ) is a city and administrative center of
Perm Krai, Russia. It is situated on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
Perm is one of the largest cities in
Russia, thirteenth most populous, with 990,200 (2007 est.) [http://old.gorodperm.ru/files/perm_2006.doc Perm citizens] — The Official website of Perm Administration.] inhabitants, down from 1,001,653 recorded in 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census. The city is served by Bolshoye Savino Airportbut also hosts Bakharevkaair base.
The word "Perm" is Komi in origin. "Parma" is translated from
Komi-Permyak languageas a hilly place, covered with woods.
Perm covers an area of 799,68 square km. It takes the third place among Russian cities, after
The city of Perm is located on the bank of the
Kama River. The Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and the one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. The Kama is the water-way which grants the Uralsaccess to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. Kama divides the city into two parts, Central part and right-banked part. The city stretches for a 70 km along the Kama and 40 km across of it. All latitudional streets settles down along the river, all meridional streets across of it.
The city is situated on hills. The distinguishing feature of the city's relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyanka, Yegoshikha, Motoviliha (all are in left bank of Kama River), and Gaiva (in right bank of Kama River).
During the early
Middle Ages, the region of Perm was populated by pagan Finno-Ugrictribes who lived to the southeast of the legendary Bjarmalandand northeast of Volga Bulgaria. Between the 13th and 14th centuries, Russian fur traders and Christian missionaries from Novgorodand later Moscowfounded the first settlements in the area. Saint Stephen of Permis credited with the conversion of the local population to Christianity in the late 14th century. In the 15th century, the Perm region, because of its highly profitable fur trade, was an object of a bitter rivalry between Novgorod and Moscow, and in 1472 Perm was finally annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, soldiers, merchants, Christian monks, and priests were followed by Tsaristadministration officials and peasantsettlers from the western Russia.
Perm was first mentioned as a village, Yegoshikha, in 1647; however, the history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar
Peter I of Russia. Vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg.
Perm was founded on
May 15(May 4 in Julian calendar), 1723, and has had town status since 1781. By 1797, it was already an administrative center of the guberniawith the same name.
In the 19th century, Perm became a major trade and industrial center with a population of more than 20,000 people in the 1860s, with several
metallurgy, paper, and steamboatproducing factories, including one owned by a British entrepreneur. In 1870, an opera theatre was opened in the city, and in 1871 the first phosphoric factory in Russia was built. In 1916, [http://www.psu.ru/?a=0&lang=Eng&m=001&search=on Perm State University] —a major educational institution in modern Russia—was opened.
After the outbreak of the
Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitionsfactories. In December 1918 the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev(who acknowledged the authority of the OmskGovernment of Aleksandr Kolchak), took Perm. In 1919 the city was retaken by the Red Army.
Grand Duke Mikail Alexandrovich was executed in the outskirts of Perm with his secretary Nicholas Johnson on
June 12, 1918on the orders of the Perm Cheka. Their bodies were never recovered. A few weeks later on July 7, 1918, Andronic Nikolsky, the Archbishop Of Perm, was also murdered by the Bolsheviksin the city. In 2000, the Russian Orthodox Church glorified him as Hieromartyr Andronik, Archbishop Of Perm, one of the Russian New Martyrs and Confessors.
In the 1930s, Perm grew as a major industrial city, and
aviation, shipbuilding, and chemicalfactories were built there. The process continued after the 1940s and virtually every major industry became represented by numerous factories in Perm. To this day almost 80% of the city's population is employed in manufacturing. During the Great Patriotic War( World War II), Perm was a vital center of tankproduction in the Soviet Union.
From 1940 until 1957 the city was named Molotov ( _ru. Мо́лотов), after
The city is a major administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center. The leading industries include machinery, defence, oil production (about 3% of Russian output), oil
refining, chemicaland petrochemical, timberand woodprocessing and the foodindustry.
Perm is divided into seven city districts:
The Perm Opera and Ballet House is the one of the best in Russia. There are many other theatres in Perm such as the Drama theatre, the Puppet Theatre, the Theatre for Young Spectators, the Theatre "Near Bridge" and so on.
Perm is scientific center. Some of institutes combine into Perm scientific center of ural branch
Russian Academy of Sciences.
Perm is a home to several major universities including
Perm State University[ [http://www.psu.ru/?a=0&lang=Eng&m=008 Perm State University ] ] , Perm State Technical University [ [http://www.pstu.ru/ Заставка - Пермский государственный технический университет ] ] , Perm State Teachers' Training University, Perm State Medical Academy [ [http://www.psma.ru/psmabeta2/english/ Perm State Academy Of Medicine ] ] , Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy [http://www.psfa.ru/english/] , Perm State Agricultural Academy, The Institute of Art and Culture, Perm State Choreographic School [ [http://balletschool.perm.ru/eng/ Perm State Ballet college ] ] , Perm branch of state university Higher school of economics [ [http://www.hse.perm.ru/ Государственный университет - Высшая школа экономики ] ] and others. There are also three military schools in Perm.
Perm is an important railway junction on the
Trans-Siberian Railwaywith lines radiating to Central Russia, north part of Ural, far east of Russia. KamaRiver is an important link in the unifying deep-water system of the European part of Russia. The river connects city with European water-routes. It is possible to ship cargo from Kama river area to the sea ports of White, Baltic, Azov, Black and Caspian seas without reloading. [http://perm.ru/eng/region/transportation/ Transport infrastructure] — Perm regional server.]
There is one international airport in Perm Bolshoye Savino (Big Savino).Perm is also served by the smaller Airport "Bakharevka".
Perm's public transit network includes
streetcar(tram), bus, and trolleybusroutes.
Perm is the sister city of (twinned with):
Louisville, Kentucky, United States( 1994)
Oxford, United Kingdom( 1995)
Duisburg, Germany( 2007)
*flagicon|People's Republic of China
Shenzhen, People's Republic of China
FC Amkar Perm, the football club based in Perm, playing in the Russian Premier League
Molot-Prikame Perm, ice hockeyclub playing in the Russian Hockey Super League
PBC Ural Great, the basketballclub based in Perm, playing in the Russian Basketball Super League
The following people were either born in Perm or made names for themselves while residing there.
*Viktor Petrovich Astafiyev, a Russian writer of short stories and novels;
Tatiana Borodina, opera soprano;
Sergei Diaghilev, balletimpresario;
Alexey Victorovich Ivanov, a modern Russian writer;
Fyodor Gral, a doctor.
Alexandra Kosteniuk, chessGrandmaster;
Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak, a Russian author;
Nikolai Moiseev, a astronomer;
Fyodor Petrovwas a Soviet artillery designer;
Victor Pokhmelkin, a Russian opposition politician;
Natasha Poly, a Russian supermodel.
Alexander Stepanovich Popov, physicist who was the first to demonstrate the practical application of electromagnetic waves ( radio);
*Arkadiy Dmitrievich Shvetsov, a Soviet aircraft engine designer;
Nikolai Slavyanov, the inventor of new method in arc welding;
Peter Berngardovich Struve, a Russian political economist, philosopher and editor;
Yuri Trutnev, a Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation;
*Andrey Nikoforovich Voronikhin, a Russian architect and painter. As a representative of
classicismhe was also one of the founders of the monumental Russian Empire style;
Konstantin Zyryanov, a Russian footballer.
Saint Stephen of Perm
* [http://perm.ru/eng/ Perm regional server]
* [http://www.duma.perm.ru/english/ The Official Website of the Perm Municipal Duma]
* [http://www.gorodperm.ru/en/default.asp Official website]
* [http://invest.permtpp.ru/en/main/ Perm Chamber of Commerce and Industry]
* [http://www.photoperm.ru/?s=0&c=0&lang=eng The Western Ural Photographic Album]
* [http://www.permonline.ru/~museum/romanov/ Virtual museum of Romanov in Perm]
* [http://www.permonline.ru/english/perm/history.htm History of Perm]
* [http://www.kommersant.com/tree.asp?rubric=5&node=406&doc_id=-62 Perm and Perm Region Information on Kommersant Publishing webpage (also, see all other Russian subjects of the Federation)]
* [http://www.permian.ru/ The city of Perm - The poem of the town]
* [http://www.psu.ru/?a=0&lang=Eng&m=008 Perm State University]
** [http://www.forum-psu.ru/ Forum of Perm State University] ru icon
* [http://welcome-ural.ru/urals/30/193/ Perm for travelers] Sights of Perm and Perm's region
* [http://www.uraltourism.com/perm.php General info on the city of Perm]
* [http://www.pimg.ru/en/ "The Perm Days"] is the regional newspaper issued in English language. That is an investment, business, tourist guide for foreign guests of
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1083/is_n10_v70/ai_18733466 Article about Perm Ballet]
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