- Bourne, Lincolnshire
infobox UK place
country = England
population= 11,933 [Lincolnshire Research Observatory / Office for National Statistics, " [http://www.research-lincs.org.uk/lro/documents_lro/Site_Text/2001_Census/Parish_Profiles/PDF/32UG012.pdf Statistics about Bourne, South Kesteven] ."]
region= East Midlands
constituency_westminster= Grantham and Stamford
postcode_district = PE10
Bourne is a
market townon the western edge of the Fens, in southern Lincolnshire, England. The town owes its origin to the Roman roadupon which it was built, and also to the exceptionally fine-quality water supply derived locally from natural springs. The name “Bourne” (or “Bourn”, as the town was originally known) is a common name for a settlement and derives from the Anglo-Saxonmeaning “water” or “stream”. The town lies on the intersection of the A15 and the B1193 (formerly A151) roads at coord|52|46.0920|N|0|22.6320|W|region:GB. As well as the main township, the parish includes the hamlets of Cawthorpe, Dyke and Twenty.
The town's economy was based on rural industries. The coming of the railway opened up a market for
mineral waters bottled locally. Today the local economy is still mainly rurally-based, revolving around agricultureand food preparation and packaging geared towards the modern system of supermarkets, but there are also important light engineering and tourism activities. The district as a whole has one of the fastest-growing housing markets in the whole country, with much of the new building taking place in Bourne. The town's population is now (2006) nearer to 15,000 than the 12,000 or so given in the 2001 Census data. There are approximately 5,424 households in Bourne as of 2007.
Bourne is reputedly the birthplace of
Hereward the Wake(in about 1035), although the 12th century source of this information, "De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis", [Bevis, T. translator "De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis" Westrydale Press. (1982) ISBN 0-901680-28-1 Chapter II] refers in this connection only to his father as being 'of Bourne' and to the father's house and retainers ["De gestis" Chaper XIV] there. Charles Kingsleyused the "De Gestis" text for his lively novel which repeats the fundamental story with much descriptive embellishment. [ [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/7815 Kingsley, C. "Hereward, the Last of the English" (1866)] ]
Orm (or Ormin) the Preacher (flourished 1180) worked at
Bourne Abbeyduring the 12th century, about a century earlier than Robert Mannyng (see below) but his presence here has only been revealed during recent research. His collection of homilies known as "The Ormulum" has been well known to linguists and language historians ever since the 17th century but its source has only recently been established as Bourne Abbey. Orm's language provides a glimpse of the English vernacular of the time and before it was strongly influenced by the French. It is assumed that the manuscript remained at Bourne Abbey until the Dissolution of the Monasteriesbetween 1536 and 1540 and after various owners, it is now in the Bodleian Libraryat Oxford University, where it is kept in conditions in keeping with its age and fragility. Robert Mannyng(1264–1340) is perhaps the most notable of the town's past citizens. He is credited with putting the speech of the ordinary people of his time into recognisable form. He is better known as Robert de Brunne because of his long time residence as a canonat Bourne Abbey. There he completed his life's work; he popularised religious and historical material in a Middle Englishdialect that was easily understood by the people of his time. His work "Handlyng Synne" is acknowledged to be of great value because it gives glimpses into the ways and thoughts of his contemporaries and even more, shows us the language then in common use. William Cecil(1520 – 1598) became the first Lord Burghleyafter serving Queen Elizabeth I for forty years, during which time he was the main architect of Britain's successful policies of that period, earning a reputation as a master of renaissance statecraft with outstanding talents as a diplomat, politician and administrator. He was born at a house in the centre of Bourne that is now the Burghley Arms and a plaque on the outside reminds us of this event. Job Hartop(1550 – 1595) was a farmer's boy working on the land near Bourne but hankered after a life of adventure and ran away to sea when he was twelve years old. After a short apprenticeshipwith a gunpowdermanufacturer in London, he signed on with the English admiral Sir John Hawkinsand sailed the Spanish Mainin the company of the young Francis Drake. He was captured by the Spanish on his third voyage and spent ten years as a galley slaveand thirteen years in a Spanish prisonbut managed to escape and make his way back to Bourne where he spent his final days recounting his adventures in the town's taverns, although the privations he suffered had taken their toll and he died at the age of only 45. Robert Harrington( philanthropist) (1589 – 1654) made large bequests to Bourne from which the community benefits to this day. Legend has it that he walked to London to seek his fortune and was most successful in his endeavours and when he died, he remembered his home town by leaving shops and dwelling houses in the Leytonstonearea "for the benefit of his own people", namely the citizens of Bourne. The charity established in his name is by far the greatest currently administered by Bourne United Charities and fittingly, Harrington Street was named in his memory. Dr William Dodd(1729 – 1777), was an Anglican clergyman, a man of lettersand a forger. He was also the son of the Rev William Dodd who was Vicar of Bourne from 1727–56, graduating with distinction from Clare College, Cambridge, and then moved to London where his extravagant lifestyle soon landed him in debt and worried his friends who persuaded him to mend his ways and so he decided to take holy ordersand was ordained in 1751. He became a popular and fashionable preacher but was always short of money and in an attempt to rectify his depleted finances, forged a bond in the sum of £4,200. He was found out, prosecuted and sentenced to death and publicly hanged at Tyburn on 27 June 1777. Charles Worth(1825 – 1895) was born in this town, the son of a local solicitorwho lived at Wake House in North Street which survives today as a community centre. He left Bourne when still a boy to seek his fortune in Pariswhere he became a world-renowned designerof women's fashionand the founder of haute couture. His reputation was such that the French government awarded him the Legion of Honour and when he died, 2,000 people, including the President of the Republic, attended his funeral. Robert A Gardner(1850 – 1926) was a bank managerin Bourne and also a talented artist whose work was exhibited in the Royal Academy. He never aspired to public office but his interest in the community inevitably resulted in a number of appointments, notably as a magistrateand chairman of the Bourne bench. But he is best remembered for his paintings and many of his works survive to this day, mostly in private ownership although some can be found hanging in the Red Hall. Frederic Manning(1882 – 1935) wrote what is considered to be one of the finest novels dealing with the Great Warof 1914–18 and much of this work was completed while staying at the Bull Hotel in Bourne, now the Burghley Arms. Manning was an Australian who chose to live here after a spell at Edenhamwhere he stayed with the vicar, the Rev Arthur Galton, who had been his tutor. Her Privates We( Hogarth Press, ISBN 0-7012-0702-7) was at first published anonymously, to much critical acclaim, but eight years after his death, it was published in 1943 under his own name and is still in print almost 70 years later. In the book, Manning acknowledged his affection for this town by calling his hero Private Bourne. Lilian Wyles(1885 – 1975) was a major influence in the acceptance of women into the police force. She was the only daughter of the Bourne brewer, Joseph Wyles, and after a spell of duty on the streets of London with the new women patrols to assist young girls at risk, was promoted inspector in 1922, becoming the first woman officer of the Metropolitan Police's CID.
Charles Sharpe (1889 – 1963) was a farmer's boy from
Pickworth, near Bourne, who ran away from home and joined the army. During the Great Warof 1914-18, an act of conspicuous bravery earned him the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest decoration for valour, and he subsequently inspired many young men to enlist. On return to civilian life, he worked at a number of jobs, notably as a physical training instructorto boys at the Hereward Camp approved school, who regarded him as a role model. Raymond Mays(1899 – 1980), son of a local businessman, achieved fame in the world of international motor racing, both on and off the track. After a successful career as a driver, he opened workshops in Bourne where he developed the BRM, the revolutionary car that eventually won the world championship in 1962. Mays, who lived at Eastgate House in Bourne all his life, was honoured with a CBE in 1978 for his services to motor racing.
Bourne Abbey, (charter 1138), formerly held and maintained land in Bourne and other parishes. In later times this was known as the manor of 'Bourne Abbots'. Whether the canons knew that name is less clear. The estate was given by the Abbey's founder, Baldwin fitz Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert fitz Richard, and later benefactors. The abbey was established under the Arrouaisian order. Its fundamental rule was that of Augustine and as time went on, it came to be regarded as Augustinian. The Ormulum, an important Middle EnglishBiblical gloss, was probably written in the abbey in around 1175.
Sugar beetwas first successfully grown as an English crop, in the fenlandeast of Bourne, after trials elsewhere in the country had proved unsuccessful, by British SugarLtd. It had been developed in Germanyand Francein he early 19th century. Although Britain's ravenous demand for sugar was mostly fulfilled by Europeanbeet imports until shortly after 1900, the successful sugar beet production in areas such as that around Twenty, fulfilled the nation's sugar requirements during the 20th century's two world wars.
Lincolnshire County Council
Bourne has two County Council wards:
* [http://www.lincolnshire.gov.uk/azCouncillorsDetails.asp?division=12 Mark Horn] (Conservative). (Economic Wellbeing Scrutiny Panel): (Economic Development Policy Development Group).
:Councillor Horn resigned the Conservative Party whip at
Lincolnover a disagreement with his colleagues on 25, June, 2008 [ [http://www.stamfordmercury.co.uk/news/Councillor-quits-Tory-group.4223502.jp Councillor quits Tory group "Stamford Mercury" 25, June, 2008] ] . Following a further dispute involving a possible reference under the Standards Code, Councillor Horn resigned from Lincolnshire County Councilon 1, August, 2008 [ [http://www.markhorn.co.uk/ Resignation 1, August, 2008] ] , precipitating a by-election. The by-election between seven candidates will take place on 2, October, 2008 [ [http://www.southkesteven.gov.uk/Bourne%20Abbey.pdf Bourne Abbey: Statement as to persons nominated] ] .
* [http://www.lincolnshire.gov.uk/azCouncillorsDetails.asp?division=13 Charlotte Farquharson] (Conservative).
:Mrs Farquharson was elected after a by-election was held on 6 July 2006. The previous Councillor, Ian Croft (
Conservative), appeared before the Adjudication Panel on 31 March 2006 and was found guilty on several charges of misconduct. He was an associate of disgraced former Leader of the Council, Jim Speechley, succeeding him as Leader. The Panel ordered that Mr Croft be suspended from office as a Councillor for fifteen months. He did not lodge an appeal, and resigned from the Council.
outh Kesteven District Council
Bourne has two District Council wards, each electing three councillors:
* [http://moderngov.skdc.com/mgUserInfo.asp?UID=1050&J=1 David Higgs] (Conservative).
* [http://moderngov.skdc.com/mgUserInfo.asp?UID=1051&J=1 Bob Russell] (Conservative).
* [http://moderngov.skdc.com/mgUserInfo.asp?UID=309&J=1 Judy Smith] (Conservative).
* [http://moderngov.skdc.com/mgUserInfo.asp?UID=1052&J=1 Trevor Holmes] (Independent).
* [http://moderngov.skdc.com/mgUserInfo.asp?UID=136&J=1 Linda Neal] (Conservative).
* [http://moderngov.skdc.com/mgUserInfo.asp?UID=139&J=1 John Smith] (Conservative).
:Councillor Mrs Neal is the current Leader of South Kesteven District Council.
Bourne Town Council
Bourne Town Council has two wards which are identical to the South Kesteven District Council wards. Bourne East elects seven councillors to the town council and Bourne West eight.
From 1899 to 1974, Bourne had an Urban District Council in the former Parts of
Kesteven. Under the Local Government Act 1972, Bourne UDC was dissolved into the newly-formed South Kestevendistrict. Urban districts which disappeared in this way formed successor parishes and were given a dispensation to call their "parish" councils "town" councils, and the chairman is given the title Town Mayor. These town councils were allowed to adopt the Coat of Armsgranted to the former UDC.
Bourne Rural Districtalso existed from 1894 to 1931, when it was abolished to form part of a larger South Kesteven Rural District. The parish of Bourne had formed part of Bourne RD from 1894 to 1899. South Kesteven R.D.C. had its own distinct Coat of Arms which disappeared along with that of Kestevenin 1974, and very few copies of either remain in existence.
Since October 1989, Bourne has been twinned with
Doudeville, Seine Maritime, France.
Bourne Town Football Club, known affectionately as "The Wakes", plays football in the United Counties Football Leagueand the junior club runs teams for young people at all ages in local league competitions. The cricketteam is one of the strongest in the Lincolnshire Premier Division and often provides players for the Lincolnshire Minor Counties team. These teams play their home games at the Abbey Lawn, a recreation ground privately owned by the Bourne United Charities. Also at "The Lawn" are the tennisand bowlsclubs, along with a particularly fine open-air swimming pool. Bourne Rugby Club is based outside the town at Milking Nook Drove coord|52|46.2420|N|0|20.2560|W|region:GB, with senior teams and thriving Junior and Mini sections. The hockey club is obliged to play elsewhere, as there is not a suitable all-weather playing surface in the town. Bourne also hosts a number of other sporting clubs, particularly in the field of martial arts, and efforts to build a skate park continue. The Leisure Centre is attached to Robert Manning College and caters for a number of indoor activities, including a swimming pool.
The two famous racing car marques English Racing Automobiles and British Racing Motors were both founded by Raymond Mays, international racing driver and designer. ERA started in 1934 and BRM in 1949, when the first car was unveiled at Folkingham Airfield. Success was slow in coming but new workshops were opened in 1960 where engines and cars were developed. In 1962
Graham Hillwon the world championship in the BRM, the first British driver to win in an all-British car. The BRM team won the Constructors' Championship, and also that year's team prize at the BBCSports Personality of the Year awards. Motor racing fans believed this would be the start of a new era for the sport, but it proved to be something of a false dawn. By 1965, the company had 100 employees in Bourne and this was another victorious year when BRM cars gained either a first or second prize in every Grand Prix race that was held. After that, the cars had mixed fortunes until the Mexican driver Pedro Rodriguez scored a comeback victory in the 1970 Belgian Grand Prixat Spa. There were further successes but as the sport became the province of heavy commercial sponsorship, advancement was dogged by mechanical failures and lack of resources. The team ceased to compete after 1977. In all, BRM won seventeen Grands Prix between 1959 and 1972, the successful drivers apart from Hill (10), Stewart (2) and Rodriguez were Jo Bonnier, the tragic Jo Siffert, Peter Gethinand finally, Jean-Pierre Beltoise. Soon after Mays died in 1980, Rubery Owendecided to sell the BRM collection of racing cars. The sale created international interest when it took place during the Motor Show at Earl's Court, London, in October, 1981.
The former workshops are now occupied by a firm of auctioneers who use them as a saleroom, but the achievements of Raymond Mays and the motor racing connection with Bourne are remembered with a Memorial Room at the town's Heritage Centre (Baldock's Mill in South Street). The room is filled with photographs, memorabilia and an impressive display of silverware won by BRM cars and drivers on international circuits. Following on from a uniquely memorable Sunday in August 1999 when a collection of BRM cars paraded around the streets of the town watched by hundreds of spectators [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:Ux29cl8vZBQJ:members.madasafish.com/~d_hodgkinson/brmplaces.htm+bourne+brm+parade&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=uk] , a superb memorial to Raymond Mays and the town's motor racing heritage was unveiled in South Street in 2003.
Bourne continues to be closely connected with the motorsport industry. In 1975, BRM's former Chief Designer, Mike Pilbeam, set up
Pilbeam Racing Designswhich is still based in the town. Pilbeam is particularly known for its outstanding successes in hillclimbingin the 1980s and early 1990s.
Culture and attractions
There are currently 71 listed buildings in the parish of Bourne, the most important being the Abbey and Parish Church of
St. Peterand St. Paul (1138) which is the only one scheduled Grade I. The others are Grade II, the most colourful being the aptly named Red Hall (ca. 1620), finished in red brick with ashlar quoins, many gabled and featuring a fine Tuscanporch. From 1860 to 1959, it was the town's railway stationbooking office and waiting room. At two stages, in the 1890s and 1960s, it came close to demolition but the building is now well preserved by Bourne United Charities. The former station booking office serves as the BUC's office.
Baldock's Mill (1800), once a corn-grinding water mill, together with the miller's house, has been converted by
Bourne Civic Societyto serve as the town's Heritage Centre. It houses many interesting artefacts, most recently a water-wheel has been installed and a newly-created replica of a Charles Worthdress is on display.
Baptist Churchbuilding dates from 1835 but the church itself was established here in the 1640s. This building, the Methodist Church(1841) and the United Reformed Church(1846) are all still in active use.
The Old Grammar School was housed in a fine red-brick building with a
Collywestonroof, built in the 17th century and largely rebuilt in 1738. The school closed in 1904, and the building, which stands in the Abbey churchyard, has since been used for a variety of purposes. Maintenance has been lacking for many years and the roof was condemned as unsafe in April 2003 but has now been repaired. The building is in need of a good use but problems of access make finding one difficult.
cemeteryowned and run by the town council is a chapel [http://homepages.which.net/~rex/bourne/cemetery8.htm] , built in 1855. In recent years, the building has not been used as a chapel, and the fabric has deteriorated. This is attributed to a lack of maintenance by the council due to financial constraints, however, the shallowness of the foundations is said to be the principal cause [http://homepages.which.net/~rex/bourne/cemetery9.htm] . The chapel now requires considerable expenditure if it is to survive, but on 23 January 2007 the town council took the decision to demolish it [http://homepages.which.net/~rex/bourne/cemetery7.htm] . In 2007, local campaigners obtained a Grade IIlisting from the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, which secures the building from demolition for the foreseeable future. In 2008, the effort is now under way to identify a source of funding (estimated around £400,000) to render the building fit for long-term community use.
In July, 2008, the Ostler Memorial in the town's cemetery, an ornate Gothic water fountain originally erected in the market place in 1860 to the memory of local benefactor John Lely Ostler (1811-59) but neglected in recent years, was also given a Grade II status by DCMS bringing the total number of
listed buildings in Bourne to 71.
* [http://homepages.which.net/~rex/bourne/brmtrophies.htm Bourne Civic Society's heritage centre in Baldock's Mill, South Street] is opened by volunteers on Saturday and Sunday afternoons (except Christmas) from 2 to 4.
*Bourne Wood; 400 acres (2 km²) of woodland which has been a resource since primeval times. There is now a
sculpture trailand the wood forms part of the 19-mile Bourne cycle Trail.
Grimsthorpe Castle. A landed estate, large country house and tourist attraction. [http://www.grimsthorpe.co.uk/ The castle's web site] .
Bowthorpe Oak, A tree old at the time of the Domesdaysurvey. On private land, an admission charge is levied
* [http://www.bourneoutdoorswimmingpool.org/ The outdoor pool] an open-air swimming pool maintained by volunteers
* [http://www.corbyglen.com/willoughby.html The Willoughby Gallery] An art gallery in
Bourne Abbey School(Primary)
Bourne Grammar School
*Robert Manning College
*Westfield School (Primary)
The Willoughby School(Special Needs)
Bourne Market Place is at the crossroads of the
A15 roadand the B1193. Strictly speaking, it was a staggered pair of T-junctions where the A15 was met by the A151 from Spaldingto the east and the B676 from the west (the article A151 roadexplains) before the B676 was redesignated as an extension of the A151 to Colsterworth. The A151 was diverted from the town centre via Cherry Holt Road and a newly-opened relief road in 2005. When the rapid expansion of the town was first proposed in the early 1990s, development was scheduled to the north-east of the town, and part of this would have been a north/south bypass on the A15 under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990. However, the chosen site was shifted to the south-west of the town, and the proposed by-pass was lost. A large volume of traffic is generated within the town, with the result that the A15 between Bourne and Peterboroughis one of the busiest roads in the whole county. To the west of the town, the A6121 branches from the A151 and takes traffic towards Stamford
The town's bus services are provided by Delaine, a family-owned and run company which has been operating in Bourne for many years.
Confusion: When the relief road opened, the section of the A151 in the town centre was renumbered. However, ever since then some published road maps are incorrect. The A151 now follows Cherry Holt Road, it no longer continues to the town centre. The only reliable map is the Ordnance Survey: getamap|TF097195|TF1020. The error seems also to affect satellite navigation systems, causing large lorries to attempt a tight corner in the town centre rather than keeping to the correct roads.
Bourne had a railway station which was on both the Great Northern line from
Essendineto Sleafordand the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railwayconnecting the Midlandsto East Anglia. Both these were closed to timetabled passenger service by the end of February, 1959 and the lines were closed to occasional use by the Beeching Axe. With the exception of the Red Hall, the principal station buildings were demolished in 1964, the year after the Beeching Report. The main goods shed survived however, just into the new century and there remains an unusual survival: a goods store of wooden construction. The mechanism of the locomotiveturntable is now in the Wansford depot of the Nene Valley Railway.
Until the mid-19th century, the
Bourne Eauwas capable of carrying commercial boat traffic from the Washcoast and Spalding. This resulted from the investment following the Bourne Navigation Act of 1780.
*Birkbeck, John D. "A History of Bourne" (1970)
*Davies, Joseph J. "Historic Bourne" (1909)
*Needle, Rex. "A Portrait of Bourne - the history of a
Lincolnshire market townin words and pictures" (1998-2008), on CD-ROM, including more than one million words of text and 3,000 photographs from past and present)
*Needle, Rex. "The Bourne Chronicle - the town's history in dates and events, people and places" (2005)
*Rhodes, John. "Bourne to Essendine" (1986) ISBN 0-948017-03-1
*Swift, John T. "Bourne and People Associated with Bourne" (about 1925)
*Pearson, R. E & Ruddock, J. G. "Lord Willoughby's Railway" (Willoughby Memorial Trust. 1986)
* [http://www.skdc.com/Tourism/VisitorServices.aspx?View=4 District Council page on Bourne] .
* [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/LIN/Bourne/ Bourne historical summary (UK & Ireland Genealogy page)]
* [http://www.bourne-lincs.org.uk Bourne, (Lincs) Lincolnshire, England]
* [http://members.madasafish.com/~d_hodgkinson/brmplaces.htm The town and BRM]
* [http://boar.org.uk/aeipxe1ArchiveContents.htm Some historical Bourne documents]
* [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betterave#Histoire Sugar beet] (fr)
* [http://www.thisisbourne.co.uk Bourne Community Website]
* [http://www.delainebuses.com/ Delaine bus company website]
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