Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature. The "
Oxford English Dictionary" states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck," although it formerly also referred to crucifixion.
The preferred past tense and past participle in English is "hanged". [http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/hang?view=uk]
For lack of a better term, "hanging" has also been used to describe a method of suicide in which a person applies a ligature to the neck and brings about unconsciousness and then death, by means of partial suspension or partial weight-bearing on the ligature. This method has been most often used in prisons or other institutions, where full suspension support is difficult to devise. The earliest known use in this sense was in A.D. 1300. [OED Entry, URL http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50102310?query_type=word&queryword=hang&first=1&max_to_show=10&sort_type=alpha&result_place=4&search_id=ytyG-jULKok-8630&hilite=50102310]
Methods of judicial hanging
There are four ways of performing a judicial hanging — the short drop, suspension hanging, the standard drop, and the long drop. A mechanised form of hanging, the
upright jerker, was also experimented with in the 19th century.
The short drop is done by placing the condemned prisoner on the back of a cart, horse, or other vehicle, with the noose around the neck. The object is then moved away, leaving the person dangling from the rope. The condemned prisoner dies of strangulation. Prior to 1850, it was the main method used. A ladder was also commonly used with the condemned being forced to ascend, after which the noose was tied and the ladder pulled away or turned, leaving the condemned hanging. A stool, which the condemned is required to stand on and is then kicked away, has also been used.
Suspension hanging is similar to the long drop, except the
gallowsthemselves are movable, so that the noosecan be raised once the condemned is in place. This method is currently used in Iran, where tank gun barrels or mobile cranes are used to hoist the condemned into the air. Similar methods involve running the rope through a pulley to allow the raising of the person.
The standard drop, which arrived as calculated in English units, involves a drop of between four and six feet (1.2 to 1.8 m) and came into use in the mid-19th century, in English-speaking countries and those where judicial systems were under English influence. It was considered an advance on the short drop because it was intended to be sufficient to break the person's neck, causing immediate paralysis and immobilization (and probable immediate unconsciousness). This method was used to execute condemned Nazis after the Nuremberg Trials.
This process, also known as the measured drop, was introduced to Britain in 1872 by
William Marwoodas a scientific advancement to the standard drop. Instead of everyone falling the same standard distance, the person's height, weight and strength [ [http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/hanging1.html The history of judicial hanging in Britain 1735 - 1964] was used to determine how much slack would be provided in the rope so that the distance dropped would be enough to ensure that the neck was broken but not so much that the person was decapitated.
Prior to 1892, the drop was between four and ten feet (about one to three meters), depending on the weight of the body, and was calculated to deliver a force of 1,260
lbf(5,600 newtons or 572 kgf), which fractured the neck at either the 2nd and 3rd or 4th and 5th cervical vertebrae. However, this force resulted in some decapitations, such as the famous case of "Black Jack" Tom Ketchumin New MexicoTerritory in 1901. Between 1892 and 1913, the length of the drop was shortened to avoid decapitation. After 1913, other factors were also taken into account, and the force delivered was reduced to about 1,000 lbf (4,400 N or 450 kgf). The decapitation of a female inmate during a botched hanging in 1930 led the state of Arizonato switch to the gas chamberas its primary execution method, on the grounds that it was believed more humane. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE5D7113BF936A15757C0A964958260 "Gruesome death in gas chamber pushes Arizona towards injections"] , New York Times, April 25 1992(retrieved 7 January 2008).] One of the more recent decapitations as a result of the long drop occurred when Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikritiwas hanged in Iraq in 2007.
Hanging is a common method of suicide. The materials necessary for suicide by hanging are easily available to the average person, compared with firearms or lethal poison. Full suspension is not required, and for this reason hanging is especially commonplace among suicidal
prisoners. A type of hanging comparable to full suspension hanging may be obtained by self-strangulation using a ligature of the neck and only partial weight of the body (partial suspension). This method is dependent on unconsciousness produced by arterial blood flow restriction while the breath is held.
Canada, hanging is the most common method of suicide.cite news|first=|last=|pages=|title=Canadian Injury Data|date=|publisher=Statistics Canada|url=http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/injury-bles/cid98-dbc98/index.html] , and in the U.S., hanging is the second most common method, after firearms. [ [http://www.preventsuicidenow.com/suicide-statistics.html Suicide Statistics] . URL accessed on 2006-05-16.] In Great Britain, where firearms are less easily available, as of 2001 hanging was the most common method among men and the second-most commonplace among women (after poisoning). [ [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_health/HSQ20.pdf Trends in suicide by method in England and Wales, 1979 to 2001] ( 2006-05-16.]
A hanging may induce one or more of the following medical conditions:
carotid arteriescausing cerebral ischemia
*Induction of carotid reflex, which reduces heartbeat when the pressure in the
carotid arteriesis high, causing cardiac arrest
*Breaking of the
neck( cervical fracture) causing traumatic spinal cord injury
*Closure of the
The cause of death in hanging depends on the conditions related to the event. When the body is released from a relatively high position, death is usually caused by severing the spinal cord between C1 and C2, which may be functional decapitation. High cervical fracture frequently occurs in judicial hangings, and in fact the C1-C2 fracture has been called the "
hangman's fracture" in medicine, even when it occurs in other circumstances. Usually, accidental C1-C2 fracture victims do not immediately become unconscious; instead death occurs after some minutes.Fact|date=February 2007 Another process that has been suggested is carotid sinus reflex death. By this theory, the mechanical stimulation of the carotid sinus in the neck brings on terminal cardiac arrest.
In the absence of fracture and dislocation, occlusion of blood vessels becomes the major cause of death, rather than
asphyxiation. Obstruction of venous drainage of the brain via occlusion of the internal jugular veins leads to cerebral edemaand then cerebral ischemia. The face will typically become engorged and cyanotic (turned blue through lack of oxygen). There will be the classic sign of strangulation— petechiae—little blood marks on the face and in the eyes from burst blood capillaries. The tongue may protrude.
Compromise of the cerebral blood flow may occur by obstruction of the carotid arteries, even though their obstruction requires far more force than the obstruction of jugular veins, since they are seated deeper and they contain blood in much higher pressure compared to the jugular veins. Only 31 newtons (7 lbf or 3.2 kgf) of force may be enough to constrict the carotid arteries to the point of rapid unconsciousness.Fact|date=February 2007 Where death has occurred through carotid artery obstruction or cervical fracture, the face will typically be pale in color and not show petechiae. Many reports and pictures exist of actual short-drop hangings that seem to show that the person died quickly, while others indicate a slow and agonizing death by strangulation. [cite web|url=http://www.richard.clark32.btinternet.co.uk/hanging2.html#causes|title=How hanging causes death|accessdate = 2006-04-27]
When cerebral circulation is severely compromised by any mechanism, arterial or venous, death occurs over four or more minutes from cerebral hypoxia, although the heart may continue to beat for some period after the brain can no longer be resuscitated. The time of death in such cases is a matter of convention. In judicial hangings, death is pronounced at cardiac arrest, which may occur at times from several minutes up to 15 minutes or longer after hanging. During suspension, once the prisoner has lapsed into unconsciousness, rippling movements of the body and limbs may occur for some time which are usually attributed to nervous and muscular reflexes. In Britain, it was normal to leave the body suspended for an hour to ensure death.
After death, the body typically shows marks of suspension: bruising and rope marks on the neck. Moreover, sphincters will relax spontaneously and urine and feces will be evacuated. Forensic experts may often be able to tell if hanging is suicide or homicide, as each leaves a distinctive ligature mark. One of the hints they use is the
hyoid bone. If broken, it often means the person has been murdered by manual choking. Also, there have been cases of autoerotic asphyxiationleading to death. Children have accidentally died playing the choking game.
Notable references by country (political)
Hanging has been a method of
capital punishmentin many countries.
Capital punishment was a part of the legal system of
Australiafrom its early days as a penal colony for the British Empire, until 1985. During the 19th century, crimes that could carry a death sentence included burglary, sheep stealing, forgery, sexual assaults, murder and manslaughter. During the 19th century, there were about 80 people hanged each year throughout Australia for these crimes.
Australia abolished the death penalty in all states by 1985. [http://www.religioustolerance.org/executh.htm Countries that have abandoned the use of the death penalty] , Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance,
November 8 2005] The last man executed by hanging in Australia was Ronald Ryanon 3 February, 1967, in Victoria. [ [http://www.nswccl.org.au/issues/death_penalty/australia.php Death penalty in Australia] , New South Wales Council for Civil Liberties]
Death by hanging was the customary method of capital punishment in
Brazilthroughout its history. Some important national heroes like Tiradentes(1792) were killed by hanging. The last man executed in Brazil was the slave Francisco, in 1876.The death penalty was abolished for all crimes, except for those committed under extraordinary circumstances such as war or military law, in 1890. [http://encarta.msn.com/media_461543496/Capital_Punishment_Worldwide.html Capital Punishment Worldwide] , MSN Encarta]
Bulgaria's national hero, Vasil Levski, was executed by hanging by the Ottoman court in Sofiain 1873. Every year since Bulgaria's liberation, thousands come with flowers on the date of his death, February 19, to his monument where the gallows stood.
Historically, hanging was the only method of execution used in
Canadaand was in use as punishment for all murders until 1961, when murders were reclassified into capital and non-capital offenses. The death penalty was restricted to only apply for certain offenses to the National Defence Act in 1976 and was completely abolished in 1998. [Susan Munroe, [http://canadaonline.about.com/cs/crime/a/cappuntimeline.htm History of Capital Punishment in Canada] , About: Canada Online, ]
In the territories occupied by
Nazi Germanyfrom 1939 to 1945, strangulation hanging was a preferred means of public execution, although more criminal executions were performed by guillotine than hanging. The most common sentenced were partisans and black marketeers, whose bodies were usually left hanging for long periods of time. There are also numerous reports of concentration camp inmates being hanged. Hanging was continued in post-war Germany in the British and US Occupation Zones under their jurisdiction, and for Nazi war criminals, until well after (western) Germany itself had abolished the death penalty by the German constitution as adopted in 1949. The German Democratic Republicdid not abolish the death penalty until 1987. The last execution in West Germany was carried out by guillotinein Moabit prison 1949. The last known execution in East Germany was in 1982, but by a pistol shot to the neck. Date for the last known hanging is sought.
The prime minister of Hungary during the 1956 revolution,
Imre Nagy, was secretly tried, executed by hanging, and buried unceremoniously by the new Soviet-backed Hungarian government, in 1958. Nagy was later publicly rehabilitated by Hungary. [ [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/06/3c9b40e0-f493-49d4-a33d-6d93c1580bb1.html [Hungary: U.S. President To Honor 1956 Uprising - [Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2008 ] ] .
Nathuram Godse, Mohandas Gandhi’s assassin, was executed by hanging in 1949.
Supreme Court of Indiahas suggested that capital punishmentshould be given only in the "rarest of rare cases". [ [http://www.epw.org.in/showArticles.php?root=2005&leaf=03&filename=8383&filetype=html Sakhrani, Monica; Adenwalla, Maharukh; Economic & Political Weekly, "Death Penalty - Case for Its Abolition"] ]
A recent case of capital punishment by hanging is that of
Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was convicted of the 1990 murder and rape of a 14 year old girl in Kolkatain India. The manner in which the crime was committed (the accused bludgeoned the victim with a blunt object and raped her as she was slowly dying) was considered brutal enough by the supreme court to warrant the death penalty. An appeal for clemency was made to the president of India but was turned down. Chatterjee was executed on August 14, 2004, in the first execution in India since 1995. [ [http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/sep2004/indi-s30.shtml Kumara, Sarath; World Socialist Web Site; "West Bengal carries out first hanging in India in a decade"] ]
As one of several means of
capital punishment in Iran, hangings are carried out by using an automotive telescoping crane to hoist the condemned aloft. The death penalty is used for many offenses and is the only punishment for rape, murder and child molestation, with all hangings taking place in public.
July 19, 2005, two boys, Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, ages 15 and 17 respectively, who had been convicted of the rape of a 13-year-old boy, were publicly hanged at Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, on charges of homosexualityand rape. [ cite web| url=http://direland.typepad.com/direland/2005/07/iran_executes_2.html|title=Iran executes 2 gay teenagers|accessdate = 2006-04-27] [cite web|url=http://www.gayrussia.ru/en/detail.php?ID=1596|title=Exclusive interview with gay activists in Iran on situation of gays, recent executions of gay teens and the future|accessdate = 2006-04-27] On August 15, 2004, a 16-year-old girl, Atefeh Sahaaleh(a.k.a. Ateqeh Rajabi), was executed for having committed "acts incompatible with chastity". [cite web |url=http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE13/036/2004/en/Gj2vcmpR0sAJ |title=IRAN: Amnesty International outraged at reported execution of a 16 year old girl |accessdate=2008-03-30 |author= |date=2004-08-23 |work= |publisher= Amnesty International]
At dawn on 27 July 2008, the Iranian Government executed a total of 29 people at
Evin Prisonin Tehran. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7527431.stm]
Hanging was used under the regime of
Saddam Hussein, [ [http://www.richard.clark32.btinternet.co.uk/hanging2.html Clark, Richard; "The process of Judicial Hanging"] ] but was suspended along with capital punishment in 2003 when the United States-led coalition invaded and overthrew the previous regime. The death penalty was reinstated in May 2005.
In September 2005, three murderers were the first people to be executed since the restoration. Then on
March 9 2006, an official of Iraq's Supreme Judicial Council confirmed that Iraqi authorities had executed the first insurgents by hanging. [cite news | url=http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=266369&area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__international_news/ | title=More bombs bring death to Iraq | publisher=Mail & Guardian Online | date= 2006-03-10| accessdate = 2006-04-27]
Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death by hanging for
crimes against humanity[cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/11/05/dujail.saddam/index.html|title=Saddam Hussein sentenced to death by hanging| publisher=CNN.com|date= 2006-05-11|accessdate=2006-05-11] on November 5, 2006, and was executed on December 30, 2006at approximately 6:00 a.m. local time. During the drop, there was an audible crack indicating that his neck was broken, a successful example of a long drop hanging. [cite news|url=http://www.nationalledger.com/artman/publish/article_272610730.shtml|title=Saddam Hussein Hanging Video Shows Defiance, Taunts and Glee|work= National Ledger|date=2007-01-01|accessdate = 2007-01-20]
Barzan Ibrahim, the head of the Mukhabarat, Saddam's security agency, and Awad Hamed al-Bandar, former chief judge, were executed on January 15, 2007, also by the long drop method, but Barzan was decapitated by the rope at the end of his fall indicating that the drop was too long. [ [http://news.bostonherald.com/international/view.bg?articleid=177248&format=&page=1
January 15 2007]
Also, former vice-president
Taha Yassin Ramadanhad been sentenced to life in prison on November 5, 2006, but the sentence was changed to death by hanging on February 12, 2007. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6354205.stm Top Saddam aide sentenced to hang] February 12 2007] He was the fourth and final man to be executed for the 1982 crimes against humanity on March 20, 2007. This time, the execution went smoothly and without obvious mistake or problem. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070320/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iraq Saddam's former deputy hanged in Iraq] March 20 2007]
At the Anfal genocide trial, Saddam's cousin
Ali Hassan al-Majid(aka Chemical Ali), former defense minister Sultan Hashim Ahmedal-Tay, and former deputy Hussein Rashid Mohammed were sentenced to hang for their role in the Al-Anfal Campaignagainst the Kurds on June 24, 2007. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19394865/ Iraq's "Chemical Ali" sentenced to death] , "MSNBC.com", June 24, 2007. Retrieved on June 24, 2007.]
Israelhas provisions in its criminal law to use the death penalty for extraordinary crimes, it has only been used twice, and only once by hanging. On June 1, 1962, Nazi leader Adolf Eichmannwas executed by hanging. (Before that, in 1948 Major Meir Tobianskiwas wrongfully charged with treason, court-martialed and shot. Later he was exonerated). [http://cosmos.ucc.ie/cs1064/jabowen/IPSC/php/authors.php?auid=9790)]
February 27, 2004, the mastermind of the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, Shoko Asahara, was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. On December 25, 2006, serial killer Hiroaki Hidakaand three others were hanged in Japan. Hanging is the common method of execution in capital punishment cases in Japan, as in the cases of Norio Nagayama[cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9406EED8163CF934A3575BC0A961958260|title=In Secrecy, Japan Hangs a Best-Selling Author, a Killer of 4|publisher= New York Times|date=1997-08-07|accessdate=2008-06-17] , Mamoru Takuma[cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3654144.stm|title=Japanese school killer executed|publisher= BBC News|date=2004-09-14|accessdate=2008-06-17] and Tsutomu Miyazaki[cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/06/17/asia/AS-GEN-Japan-Execution.php|title=Reports: Japan executes man convicted of killing and mutilating young girls in 1980s|publisher= International Herald Tribune|date=2008-06-17|accessdate=2008-06-17] .
Death by hanging is the traditional method of capital punishment in
Hanging is the traditional way of capital punishment in
More than 3,000 people are on the
Pakistan's death row, where hanging is the most common form of execution.Fact|date=April 2007
Similar to many other countries, the
Russian Empireused the death penalty for a wide range of crimes.
The death penalty was officially outlawed shortly after the revolution of 1917, but the government later permitted the use of the penalty for soldiers on the front. In the next several decades, the death penalty was alternatively permitted and prohibited, but during Stalin's reign, the death penalty was used in many cases. The last persons to be sentenced to death by hanging were
Andrey Vlasovand 11 other officers of his army on August 1, 1946. Numerous executions from that date forward were carried out by gunshot, which became the standard method of capital punishment in the Soviet Union.
Russian Federationthe death penalty is still technically allowed but is currently under a moratorium.
Singapore, mandatory hanging using the long-drop method is currently used as punishment for various crimes, such as drug trafficking, kidnappingand unauthorized possession of firearms. [cite news|url=http://www.suntimes.co.za/zones/sundaytimesNEW/basket7st/basket7st1132576915.aspx|title=Singapore clings to death penalty|publisher=Sunday Times (South Africa)|date= 2005-11-21|accessdate = 2006-04-02]
A 25-year old Vietnamese-Australian,
Nguyen Tuong Van, was hanged on December 2, 2005, after being convicted of drug trafficking in 2002. Numerous efforts from both the Australian government, Queen's Counsels and petitions from organizations such as Amnesty Internationalfailed to persuade Singapore to rescind its decision.
A 24-year old
Malaysian, Took Leng How, was hanged on November 2, 2006, after being convicted of the murder of Huang Nain 2004. Iwuchukwu Amara Tochi, a Nigerian national was sentenced to death in Singapore for drug trafficking. He was hanged on January 26, 2007.
As a form of judicial execution in
England, hanging is thought to date from the Saxon period, approximately around 400. Records of the names of British hangmen begin with Thomas de Warblynton in the 1360s; complete records extend from the 1500s to the last hangmen, Robert Leslie Stewartand Harry Allen, who conducted the last British executions in 1964.
In 1965, Parliament passed the "Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act" abolishing capital punishment for murder. And with the passage of the
Crime and Disorder Act 1998the death penalty was officially abolished for all crimes in both civilian and military cases. Following its complete abolition, the gallows were removed from Wandsworth prison, where they remained in full working order until that year.
The last woman to be hanged was
Ruth Ellison July 13 1955by Albert Pierrepointwho was a prominent hangman in the 20th century in England.The last hanging in Great Britain happened in 1964, when Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prisonin Manchesterwere executed for the murder of John Alan West.
In the UK, some felons have traditionally been executed by hanging with a silken rope:
poacherswho killed the "King's royal deer,"Fact|date=February 2008 as in the Child ballad" Geordie (ballad)".
hereditary peerswho committed capital offences [ [http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo980212/text/80212-26.htm Lords Hansard text for 12 February1998] , Hansard, Col. 1350] , as anticipated by the fictional Duke of Denver, brother of Lord Peter Wimsey. The Duke was accused of murder in the novel " Clouds of Witness", and if convicted, this execution would have been his fate, after conviction by his peers in a trial in the House of Lords. However, it has been claimed that the execution of Earl Ferrers in 1760 - the only time a peer was hanged after trial by the House of Lords- was carried out with the normal hempen rope instead of a silk one. The writ of execution does not specify a silk rope be used, [ [http://www.languageandlaw.org/TEXTS/WRITS/EXECUTE.HTM Writ of Execution - Laurence, Earl Ferrers] ] and the Newgate Calendarmakes no mention of the use of such an item [ [http://www.exclassics.com/newgate/ng284.htm The Newgate Calendar - Laurence, Earl Ferrers] ] - an unusual omission given its highly sensationalist nature.
*Those who have Freedom of the City of London [ [http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/Corporation/leisure_heritage/freedom_of_city/priveleges.htm Freedom of the City - History] , City of London]
The two largest mass executions in the U.S., of 38 and 13 men at the same time, respectively, were carried out by hanging.Fact|date=August 2008
At present, capital punishment varies from state to state; it is outlawed in some states but commonly used in others. However, the death penalty under federal law is applicable in every state. Other forms of capital punishment have largely been replaced by
lethal injectionin the U.S., where the condemned may choose this as an option. Only lethal injection is used at the federal level and only the states of Washingtonand New Hampshirestill retain hanging as an option.
Delawarewere changed in 1996 to specify lethal injection, except for those convicted prior to 1996, who were allowed to choose hanging. If a choice was not made, or the convict refused to choose injection, then hanging was the default method. This was the case in the 1996 execution of Billy Bailey, the most recent hanging in American history. Since the hanging of Bailey, no Delaware prisoner has fit into this category, thus the practice has ended there " de facto", and the gallows have been dismantled.
In New Hampshire, if it is found to be 'impractical' to carry out the execution by lethal injection, then the condemned will be hanged, and in
Washingtonthe condemned still have an outright choice between hanging and lethal injection. [cite web | url=http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/rsa/html/lxii/630/630-5.htm | title=Section 630.5, Procedures in Capital Murder | accessdate = 2006-04-27 ]
Clinton Duffy, who served as Warden of San Quentin Prison in California, presided over ninety executions. He began to oppose the death penalty and after his retirement he wrote a memoir entitled "Eighty-eight Men and Two Women" in support of the crusade to abolish the death penalty. The book documents several hangings gone wrong and describes how they led his predecessor, Warden James B. Holoran, to persuade the California Legislature to replace hanging with the gas chamber. [cite book | first=Clinton | last=Duffy | authorlink=Clinton Duffy | year=1926 | title=Eighty-Eight Men and Two Women ]
*The word game hangman uses a stick-figure drawing of a hanged person as a method of keeping score; when the figure is complete, the player has lost.
*In some films, such as "
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly", " Shanghai Noon" and " Back to the Future Part III", victims are often saved by their accomplices who shoot the rope with a gun just before the slack in the rope straightens. The television show " MythBusters" asserted that this was not possible, as it took several well-placed shots to break the rope, unless a very thin rope is used.
*The mandrake plant often has bifurcated roots, which, as in the case of
ginseng, has historically caused it to be identified with the human body and figure. It was a common belief in some countries that a mandrake plant would grow in the shadow of a gallows, where the semen of a hanged man dripped on to the earth; this would appear to be the reason for the methods employed by the alchemists who, in alchemy terms, "projected human seed into animal earth." In Germany, the plant is known as the Alraune. The novel " Alraune" by Hanns Heinz Ewers, later adapted into a film, is based around a soulless woman conceived from a hanged man's semen, the title being a reference to this myth of the Mandrake's origins.
Hand of Glory
List of notable people who died by hanging
List of suicides
Official Table of Drops
* [http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic227.htm Hanging injuries and strangulation]
* [http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/vol_002_no_002/papers/paper005.html A Case Of Strangulation Fabricated As Hanging]
* [http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/vol_007_no_001/papers/paper005.html Obliquity vs. Discontinuity of ligature mark in diagnosis of hanging - a comparative study]
* [http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/vol_001_no_001/paper001.html Homicidal Hanging - Case Report (Bias In Premise Of Hanging)]
* [http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/vol_002_no_002/poster/poster003.html Post-mortem Lividity on Soles: A Case of Partial Hanging]
* [http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/vol_005_no_002/papers/paper003.html Suicide among teenagers and young adults in the Transkei. Case reports]
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