- Azusa Street Revival
The Azusa Street Revival was a historic
Pentecostal revival meetingthat took place in Los Angeles, Californiaand was led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher. It began with a meeting on April 14, 1906at the African Methodist Episcopal Churchand continued until roughly 1915. The revival was characterized by speaking in tongues, dramatic worship services, and inter-racial mingling. The participants received criticism from secular media and Christian theologians for behaviors considered to be outrageous and unorthodox, especially at the time. Today, the revival is considered by historians to be the primary catalyst for the spread of Pentecostalismin the 20th century.
In 1904, the Welsh Revival took place, during which approximately 100,000 people in
Walesjoined the movement. Internationally, Evangelical Christianstook this event to be a sign that a fulfillment of the prophecy in the Bible's book of Joel, chapter 2:23–29 was about to take place. Joseph Smale, pastor of the First Baptist Church in Los Angeles, went to Wales personally in order to witness the revival. Upon his return to Los Angeles, he attempted to ignite a similar event in his own congregation. His attempts were short-lived, and he eventually left First Baptist Church to found First New Testament Church, where he continued his efforts.cite web | last = McGee | first = Gary | title = William J. Seymour and the Azusa Street Revival | publisher = Enrichment Journal | url = http://www.ag.org/enrichmentjournal/199904/026_azusa.cfm | accessdate = 2007-05-17] During this time, other small-scale revivals were taking place in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Texas. By 1905, reports of speaking in tongues, supernatural healings, "physical demonstrations of emotion", and significant lifestyle changes accompanied these revivals. As news spread, evangelicals across the United Statesbegan to pray for similar revivals in their own congregations.cite web | title = Azusa History | publisher = International Center for Spiritual Renewal | url = http://www.icfsr.org/history.html | accessdate = 2007-05-17]
Seymour Goes to Los Angeles
William J. Seymour, a 34 year old son of former slaves, was a student of well-known pentecostal preacher Charles Parhamand an interim pastor for a small holiness church in Houston, Texas.cite web | last = Cloud | first = David | title = AZUSA STREET MISSION | url = http://www.tribwatch.com/azusa.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-24] Neely Terry, an African Americanwoman who attended a small holiness church pastored by Julia Hutchins in Los Angeles, made a trip to visit family in Houston late in 1905. While in Houston, she visited Seymour's church, where he preached that baptism in the Holy Spirit was accompanied with speaking in tongues, and though he had not experienced this personally, Terry was impressed with his character and message. Once home in California, Terry suggested that Seymour be invited to speak at the local church. Seymour received and accepted the invitation in February of 1906, and received financial help and a blessing from Parham for his planned one-month visit.
Seymour arrived in Los Angeles on February 22, 1906,cite web | last = Cline | first = Austin | title = This Date in History: Azusa Street Revival | publisher = atheism.about.com | date = Sunday February 22, 2004 | url = http://atheism.about.com/b/a/066076.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-17] and within two days was preaching at Julia Hutchins' church at the corner of Ninth Street and Santa Fe.Citation | last = Hayford | first = Jack W. | last2 = Moore | first2 = S. David | title = The Charismatic Century: The Enduring Impact of the Azusa Street Revival | publisher = Warner Faith | year = 2006 | edition = August, 2006 | isbn = 978-0-446-57813-4 | pages = ] During his first sermon, he preached that speaking in tongues was the first Biblical evidence of the inevitable baptism in the
Holy Spirit. On the following Sunday, March 4, he returned to the church and found that Hutchins had padlocked the door.Citation | last =MacRobert | first = Iain | title = The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the USA | place= | publisher = MacMillian Press | year = 1988 | location = London | isbn = 0-333-43997-X | pages = ] Elders of the church rejected Seymour’s teaching, primarily because he had not yet experienced the blessing about which he was preaching. Condemnation of his message also came from the Holiness Church Association of Southern Californiawith which the church had affiliation. However, not all members of Hutchins' church rejected Seymour's preaching. He was invited to stay in the home of congregation member Edward S. Lee, and he began to hold Bible studies and prayer meetings there.
North Bonnie Brae Street
Seymour and his small group of new followers soon relocated to the home of Richard and Ruth Asberry, at 214 North Bonnie Brae Street.cite web | title = IPHC Azusa Street Links – 1901 to Present | publisher = International Pentecostal Holiness Church | url = http://arc.iphc.org/timeline/azusalinks.html | accessdate = 2007-05-17] White families from local Holiness Churches began to attend as well. The group would get together regularly and pray for the baptism of the Holy Spirit. On April 9, 1906, after five weeks of Seymour's
preachingand prayer, and three days into an intended 10-day fast,Citation | last =MacRobert | first = Iain | title = The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the USA | place= | publisher = MacMillian Press | year = 1988 | location = London | isbn = 0-333-43997-X | pages = ] Edward S. Lee spoke in tongues for the first time.cite web | last = Allen | first = Marshall | title = Pentecostal Movement Celebrates Humble Roots | publisher = The Washington Post | date = Saturday, April 15, 2006 | url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/14/AR2006041401421.html | accessdate = 2007-05-17] Citation | last = Synan | first = Vinson | title = The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Renewal, 1901-2001 | place= | publisher = Thomas Nelson Publishers | year = 2001 | location = Nashville | pages = 42-45 | isbn = 0-7852-4550-2 ] At the next meeting, Seymour shared Lee's testimony and preached a sermon on Acts 2:4 and soon six others began to speak in tongues as well, including Jennie Moore, who would later become Seymour's wife.cite web | title = Azusa Street Timeline | date = 2007-04-04 | url = http://www.spirithome.com/histpen1.html | accessdate = 2007-05-17] A few days later, on April 12, Seymour himself spoke in tongues for the first time, after praying all night long.cite web | title = Billy Wilson: The Miracle on Azusa Street | publisher = The 700 Club | url = http://www.cbn.com/700club/guests/bios/billywilson030706.aspx | accessdate = 2007-05-17] cite web | last = Blumhofer | first = Edith | title = Azusa Street Revival | publisher = religion-online.org | date = 2006-03-07 | url = http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3321 | accessdate = 2007-05-17] News of the events at North Bonnie Brae St. quickly circulated among the African American, Latinoand White residents of the city, and for several nights, various speakers would preachto the crowds of curious and interested onlookers from the front porch of the Asberry home. Members of the audience included people from a broad spectrum of income levels and religious backgrounds. Hutchins eventually spoke in tongues herself as her whole congregation began to attend the meetings. Soon the crowds became very large, and were full of people speaking in tongues, shouting, singing and moaning. Finally, the front porch collapsed, forcing the group to begin looking for a new meeting place. A resident of the neighborhood described the happenings at 214 North Bonnie Brae with the following words:
Revival at Azusa Street
The group from Bonnie Brae Street eventually discovered an available building at 312 Azusa Street, which had originally been constructed as an African Methodist Episcopal Church in what was then a
black ghettopart of town. The rent was only $8.00 a month.cite book | last = Bartleman | first = Frank | year = 1980 | title = Azusa Street | publisher = Bridge-Logos Publishers | id = ISBN 0-88270-439-7] A newspaper referred to the downtown Los Angeles building as a “tumble down shack.” Since the church had moved out, the building had served as a wholesale house, a warehouse, a lumberyard, stockyards, a tombstone shop, and had most recently been used as a stable with rooms for rent upstairs. It was a small, rectangular, flat-roofed building, approx. 60 feet (18.28m) long and convert|40|ft|m wide, totaling convert|4800|sqft, sided with weathered whitewashed clapboards. The only sign that it had once been a house of God was a single gothic-style window over the main entrance.
Discarded lumber and plaster littered the large, barn-like room on the ground floor.cite web | title = Azusa St. and modern Pentecostalism - The 100 year celebration of what? | publisher = Let us Reason Ministries | url = http://www.letusreason.org/Pent57.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-17] cite web | title = Azusa Street Revival (1906 - 1909) | publisher = lutherproductions.com | url = http://demo.lutherproductions.com/historytutor/basic/modern/stories/azuza.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-17] Nonetheless, it was secured and cleaned in preparation for services. They held their first meeting on April 14, 1906.cite web | last = Strand | first = Paul | title = The Lasting Impact of the Azusa Street Revival | publisher = CBNnews.com | url = http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/usnews/060424a.aspx | accessdate = 2007-05-17] Church services were held on the first floor where the benches were placed in a rectangular pattern. Some of the benches were simply planks put on top of empty nail kegs. There was no elevated platform, as the ceiling was only eight feet high. Initially there was no pulpit. Frank Bartleman, an early participant in the revival, recalled that “Brother Seymour generally sat behind two empty shoe boxes, one on top of the other. He usually kept his head inside the top one during the meeting, in prayer. There was no pride there.... In that old building, with its low rafters and bare floors..."
The second floor at the now-named
Apostolic Faith Missionhoused an office and rooms for several residents including Seymour and his new wife, Jennie. It also had a large prayer room to handle the overflow from the altar services below. The prayer room was furnished with chairs and benches made from California Redwoodplanks, laid end to end on backless chairs.
By mid-May 1906, anywhere from 300 to 1500 people would attempt to fit into the building. Since horses had very recently been the residents of the building, flies constantly bothered the attendees. People from a great diversity of backgrounds came together to worship: men, women, children, black, white,
Hispanic, Asian, rich, poor, illiterate, and educated. People of all ages flocked to Los Angeles with both skepticism and a desire to participate. The intermingling of races and the group's encouragement of women in leadership was remarkable, as 1906 was the height of the "Jim Crow" era of racial segregation, and fourteen years prior to women receiving suffragein the United States.
Services and worship
Worship at 312 Azusa Street was frequent, and spontaneous, with services going almost around the clock. Among those attracted to the revival were not only members of the
Holiness Movement, but Baptists, Mennonites, Quakers, and Presbyterians. An observer at one of the services wrote these words:
Los Angeles Times" was not so kind in its description:
Charles Parham was also sharp in his criticism:
The first edition of the "Apostolic Faith Publicatio"n reported a common reaction to the revival from visitors:
Among first-hand accounts were reports of the blind having their sight restored, diseases cured instantly, and
immigrantsspeaking in German, Yiddish, and Spanish all being spoken to in their native language by uneducated black members, who translated the languages into English by "supernatural ability"
Singing was sporadic and in "
a cappella" or occasionally in tongues. There were periods of extended silence. Attenders were occasionally slain in the Spirit. Visitors gave their testimony and members read aloud testimonies that were sent to the mission by mail. There was prayer for the gift of tongues. There was prayer in tongues for the sick, for missionaries, and whatever requests were given by attenders or mailed in. There was spontaneous preaching and altar calls for salvation, sanctificationand baptism of the Holy Spirit. Many people would continually shout throughout the meetings. The members of the mission never took an offering, but there was a receptacle near the door for anyone that wanted to support the revival. The core membership of the Azusa Street Mission was never much more than 50-60 individuals, with hundreds and thousands of people visiting or staying temporarily over the years.
Charles Parham, Seymour's teacher, who is now considered to be one of the founders of Pentecostalism] Seymour and the other revivalists at the Apostolic Faith Mission on Azusa Street held to five core beliefs:
#Salvation by faith alone.
Sanctification(or Holiness) of the believer.
#Tongues as evidence of Spirit Baptism.
Faith healingas part of God's redemption.
#The "very soon" return of
By October 1906,
Charles Parhamwas invited to speak for a series of meetings at Azusa Street, but was quickly un-invited. Several reasons can be given for Azusa Street's disassociation from him. Firstly, Parham had personality conflicts with Seymour, and wanted to be the chief authority figure of the movement that was taking place, but the presiding leaders of the Apostolic Faith Mission were slow to make any changes to their methods or leadership.
In a skeptical front-page story titled "Weird Babel of Tongues", a "
Los Angeles Times" reporterattempted to describe what would soon be known as the Azusa Street Revival. "Breathing strange utterances and mouthing a creed which it would seem no sane mortal could understand," the story began, "the newest religious sect has started in Los Angeles."cite web | last = Ted | first = Olsen | title = American Pentecost | publisher = ChristianityTodayLibrary.com | date = 1998-04-01 | url = http://ctlibrary.com/4276 | accessdate = 2007-05-17] Another local paper reporter in September, 1906 described the happenings with the following words:
The attenders of the meetings were often described as "Holy Rollers," "Holy Jumpers," "Tangled Tonguers" and "Holy Ghosters." Reports were published throughout the US and the world of the strange happenings in Los Angeles.
Christians from many traditions were critical, saying the movement was hyper-emotional, misused Scripture and lost focus on Christ by overemphasizing the Holy Spirit. Within a short time ministers were warning their congregations to stay away from the Azusa Street Mission. Some called the police and tried to get the building shut down. Scholarly preachers spoke harshly of the revival meetings; such as R. A. Torrey who declared that this new Pentecostal movement was "emphatically not of God, and founded by a Sodomite." G. Campbell Morgan called it, "the last vomit of Satan." Harry Ironside said it was "disgusting ... delusions and insanities." Clarence Larkin and many others were also openly critical. By the time the revival ended, it was thought by some that it was the result of Spiritualism. This was thought due to the fact that many occultists and spiritists attended the meetings and were comfortable in their midst.
LA Times article criticizing the behavior of the revivalists at Azusa Street.
Apostolic Faith publication
Also starting in September, 1906, was the publication of the revival's own newsletter, the "Apostolic Faith".cite web | title = Azusa Street Mission | publisher = The Latter Rain Page | url = http://latter-rain.com/eccle/azusa.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-17] Issues were published occasionally up until May of 1908, mostly through the work of Seymour and a white woman named Clara Lum, a member of the Apostolic Faith Mission. The "Apostolic Faith" was distributed without charge and thousands of laypersons and ministers received copies worldwide. 5000 copies of the first edition were printed, and by 1907 the press run reached over 40,000.cite web | title = William Joseph Seymour: The father of Pentecostalism | Azusa Street: The Impact | date = 2001-04-17 | url = http://spider.georgetowncollege.edu/HTALLANT/courses/his338/students/asample/WJSASIMP.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-17]
The "Apostolic Faith" publication reported the happenings at the Azusa Street Mission to the world. Its first issue's lead story was titled "Pentecost has Come". It contained a letter from
Charles Parham, an article on Pentecostfrom Acts, and a series of anecdotes of people's experience within the revival.Citation | title = Page 1 Reprint | url = http://www.dunamai.com/Azusa/azusa_Newspapers/1edition.htm
accessdate = 2007-06-28 ] One edition in 1907 wrote, "One token of the Lord’s coming is that He is melting all races and nations together, and they are filled with the power and glory of God. He is baptizing by one spirit into one body and making up a people that will be ready to meet Him when He comes." The "Apostolic Faith" brought increasing attention to the happenings at Azusa Street and the fledgling movement that was emerging from the revival.
By 1913, the revival at Azusa Street had lost momentum, and by 1915 most of the media attention and crowds had left. Seymour remained there with his wife, Jennie, for the rest of their lives as pastors of the small
African Americancongregation, though he often made short trips to help establish other smaller revivals later in life. After Seymour died of a heart attack on September 28, 1922, Jennie led the church until 1931, when the congregation lost the building.
The building was torn down and replaced by what became the Japanese-American Cultural and Community Center in Los Angeles after it lost its foreclosure in 1938.
Sending of missionaries
As "The Apostolic Faith" and many
secularpublications advertised the events of the Azusa Street Revival internationally, thousands of individuals visited the Mission in order to wittness it firsthand. At the same time, thousands of people were leaving Azusa Street with the intentions of evangelizing abroad.
Reverend K. E. M. Spooner visited the revival on Azusa Street in 1909 and became one of the Pentecostal Holiness Church’s most effective missionaries in Africa, working among the
Tswanapeople of Botswana.cite web | title = REVEREND JOHN W. BROOKS | publisher = Mighty Moments | url = http://www.mightymoments.com/Author.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-21] A. G. Garr and his wife were sent from Azusa Street as missionaries to Calcutta, India, where they managed to start a small revival. Speaking in tongues in India did not enable them to speak the native language, Bengali. Garr significantly contributed to early Pentecostalismthrough his later work in redefining the "biblical evidence" doctrine and changing the doctrine from a belief that speaking in tongues was explicitly for evangelism to a belief that speaking in tongues was a gift for "spiritual empowerment".
Missionary Bernt Bernsten traveled all the way from
North Chinato investigate the happenings after hearing that the Biblical prophecy of Acts 2:4 was being fulfilled. Other visitors left the revival to become missionaries in remote areas all over the world. So many missionaries went out from Azusa (some thirty-eight left in October 1906) that within two years the movement had spread to over fifty nations, including Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, South Africa, Hong Kong, China, Ceylonand India. Christian leaders visited from all over the world.
Birth of Pentecostal movement
By the end of 1906, most leaders from Azusa Street had spun off to form other congregations, such as the 51st Street Apostolic Faith Mission, the Spanish AFM, and the Italian Pentecostal Mission. These missions were largely composed of immigrant or ethnic groups. The Southeast
United Stateswas a particularly prolific area of growth for the movement, since Seymour's approach gave a useful explanation for charismatic spiritual climate that had already been taking root in those areas. Other new missions were based on preachers who had charisma and energy. Nearly all of these new churches were founded among immigrants and the poor.
Doctrinal differences abounded, and many separate organizations and denominations sprung from the initial revivals. The
Church of God in Christwas formed in 1907, the Assemblies of Godand United Pentecostal Churchwere formed in 1914, the Pentecostal Church of Godwas formed in 1919 at the Sharon Bible School.
Today there are more than 500 million Pentecostal and Charismatic believers across the globe. The
Pentecostaldenomination is currently the second in size only to the Roman Catholic Church, and is the fastest-growing form of Christianitytoday.cite book | last = Newmann | first = Richard | last2 = Tinney | first2 = James S. | title = Black Apostles: Afro-American Clergy Confront the Twentieth Century | publisher = G. K. Hall & Co. | date = 1978 | pages = | isbn = 0-8161-8137-3 ] The Azusa Street Revival is commonly regarded as the beginning of the modern-day Pentecostal Movement.cite web | title = Azusa Street revival (Pentecostal movement) | publisher = Encycolpedia Brittanica | url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-47092/Azusa-Street-revival | accessdate = 2007-05-17] Citation | last = Poloma | first = Margaret M. | title = The Charismatic Movement: Is there a new Pentecost? | publisher = G. K. Hall & Co. | year = 1982 | isbn = 0-8057-9701-7 | pages = ]
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