Twenty-One Demands

Twenty-One Demands

The nihongo|Twenty-One Demands|対華二十一ヵ条要求|Taika Nijyūichikkajō Yōkyū were a set of demands made by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the nominal government of the Republic of China on January 18 1915, resulting in two treaties with Japan on May 25 1915.

Background

Japan had gained a large sphere of interest in northern China and Manchuria through its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, and had thus joined the ranks of the European imperialist powers in their scramble to establish political and economic domination over China. With the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, and the establishment of the new Republic of China under General Yuan Shikai, Japan saw an opportunity to expand its position in China.

Although China later joined on the side of the Allies in World War I, the Japanese demanded the German spheres of influence in China, and also wanted special economic rights for the Japanese nationals living in parts of China [Spence, "The New Republic.", pg 281 ]

Initial negotiations

Japan, under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu and Foreign Minister Katō Takaaki, drafted the initial list of Twenty-One Demands, which were reviewed by the "genrō" and Emperor Taishō, and approved by the Diet. This list was presented to Yuan Shikai on January 18 1915, with warnings of dire consequences if China were to reject.

The Twenty One Demands were grouped into five groups:

* Group 1 confirmed Japan's recent acquisitions in Shandong Province, and expanded Japan's sphere of influence over the railways, coasts and major cities of the province.

* Group 2 pertained to Japan's South Manchuria Railway Zone, extending the leasehold over the territory into the twenty-first century, and expanding Japan's sphere of influence in southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, to include rights of settlement and extraterritoriality, appointment of financial and administrative officials to the government and priority for Japanese investments in those areas.

* Group 3 gave Japan control of the Hanyeping mining and metallurgical complex, already deep in debt to Japan.

* Group 4 barred China from giving any further coastal or island concessions to foreign powers except for Japan.

* Group 5 contained a miscellaneous set of demands, ranging from Japanese advisors appointed to the Chinese central government and to administer the Chinese police force (which would severely intrude on Chinese sovereignty) to allowing Japanese Buddhist preachers to conduct missionary activities in China.

Knowing the negative reaction "Group 5" would cause, Japan initially tried to keep its contents secret. The Chinese government attempted to stall for as long as possible and leaked the full contents of the Twenty-One Demands to the European powers in hopes that a perceived threat to their own political/economic spheres of interest would help contain Japan.

The Japanese ultimatum

After China rejected Japan's revised proposal on April 26, the "genrō" intervened and deleted ‘Group 5’ from the document, as these had proved to be the most objectionable to the Chinese government. A reduced set of "Thirteen Demands" was transmitted on May 7 in the form of an ultimatum, with a two-day deadline for response. Yuan Shikai, competing with other local warlords to become the ruler of all China, was not in a position to risk war with Japan, and accepted appeasement, a tactic which was followed by his successors. The final form of the treaty was signed by both parties on May 25, 1915.

Consequences

The results of the revised final (Thirteen Demands) version of the Twenty-One Demands were far more negative for Japan than positive. Without "Group 5", the new treaty give Japan little that it did not already have in China.

On the other hand, the United States expressed strongly negative reactions to Japan's rejection of the Open Door Policy. In the Bryan Note issued by United States Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan on March 13 1915, the United States, while affirming Japan's "special interests" in Manchuria, Mongolia and Shandong, expressed concern over further encroachments to Chinese sovereignty.

Japan's closest ally at that time, Great Britain also expressed concern over what was perceived as Japan's overbearing, bullying approach to diplomacy, and the British Foreign Office in particular was unhappy with Japanese attempts to establish what would effectively be a Japanese protectorate over all of China.

In China, the overall political impact of Japan's actions was highly negative, creating a considerable amount of public ill-will towards Japan, resulting in the May Fourth Movement, and a significant upsurge in nationalism.

References

* Spence, Jonathan D. "The New Republic." In "The Search for Modern China". pg 281. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999
* http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/21demands.htm

ee also

* Second Sino-Japanese War
* History of the Republic of China
* Warlord era

External links

* [http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/21demands.htm Full text of the Twenty-One Demands]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Twenty-one Demands — ▪ East Asian history       (Jan. 18, 1915), claims made by the Japanese government to special privileges in China during World War I. The major European powers, which already enjoyed similar privileges in China, could not oppose Japan s move… …   Universalium

  • 21 demands of MKS — ( 21 postulatów MKS ) were a list of demands issued on 17 August 1980 by the Interfactory Strike Committee ( Międzyzakładowy Komitet Strajkowy, MKS ). The first demand was the right to create independent trade unions. Other demands called the… …   Wikipedia

  • One Life to Live miscellaneous characters — The following are minor or recurring characters from the American soap opera One Life to Live. Contents 1 Kimberly Andrews 2 Nigel Bartholomew Smythe …   Wikipedia

  • One-China policy — The One China policy (simplified Chinese: 一个中国; traditional Chinese: 一個中國 政策 ; pinyin: yī gè Zhōngguó) refers to the policy or view that there is only one state called China , despite the existence of two governments that claim to be China …   Wikipedia

  • List of One Piece episodes (season 1) — The first volume of the first season DVD compilations released in Japan by Toei Animation The first season of the One Piece anime series was produced by Toei Animation, and directed by Konosuke Uda. The season is adapted from the first eleven… …   Wikipedia

  • Formula One — F1 redirects here. For other uses, see F1 (disambiguation). For other uses, see Formula One (disambiguation). Formula One Category Single seater Country or region Worldwide …   Wikipedia

  • List of one-act plays by Tennessee Williams — Tennessee Williams One act plays by Tennessee Williams is a list of the one act plays written by American playwright Tennessee Williams. Contents 1 …   Wikipedia

  • The Diary of One Who Disappeared — (Czech: Zápisník zmizelého) is a song cycle for tenor, alto, three female voices and piano, written by Czech composer Leoš Janáček. Contents 1 Background 2 Libretto 3 …   Wikipedia

  • Section Twenty-seven of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms — is a section of the Charter that, as part of a range of provisions within the section 25 to section 31 bloc, helps determine how rights in other sections of the Charter should be interpreted and applied by the courts. It is believed that section… …   Wikipedia

  • List of One Piece episodes (season 9) — The cover of the first DVD compilation released by Toei Animation of the ninth season The ninth season of the One Piece anime series was directed by Kōnosuke Uda and produced by Toei Animation. Like the rest of the series, it follows the… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”