Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern
Appalachian Regional Commission's charter.
United Statesthat stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia. Although part of the Appalachian Mountainsextend through New Englandand into Canada, they are not considered part of the Appalachia geographical region.
Over twenty million people live in Appalachia, an area roughly the size of the
United Kingdom, covering mostly mountainous, often isolated areas from the border of Mississippiand Alabamain the south to Pennsylvaniaand New Yorkin the north. Appalachia also includes parts of the states of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, and the entire state of West Virginia. The region contains few intermediate-sized cities, and only two large metropolitan areas are located entirely within the region— Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Knoxville, Tennessee. (However, the expansive region served by the Appalachian Regional Commissionincorporates some additional urban areas, including Birmingham, Alabama, the northern part of the Atlanta metropolitan area, western fringes of the Charlotte area, western fringes of the Piedmont Triad, western fringes of the Washington metropolitan areaand the eastern fringes of the Nashville metropolitan area.)
Appalachia has historically been the domain of numerous native communities, including the Cherokee and Shawnee.
Prior to the 20th century, some parts Appalachia were geographically isolated from the rest of the country; much of the region, though, had been connected through the coming of the pioneering roads, early iron, timber and coal speculations and ventures, and the railroads. As a result, many pioneers stayed in the region and preserved the culture of their ancestors (most of them Scots-Irish, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, German, and English), who settled the region in the 18th century. The region's culture includes a strong oral tradition (including music and song), self-sufficiency, modesty, and strong religious faith.
Coaldeposits in the region were tapped in the latter half of the 19th century and drew a new wave of immigrants from Ireland, Italy, and Central Europe. With this industrializationcame increased urbanization.
Long characterized as economically underdeveloped, Appalachia, in fact, was rich in minerals and saw a tremendous amount of wealth lifted from the region by outside corporations and business interests. A larger question over how Appalachians became impoverished through brutal land speculation and labor policies continues to be examined by historians.
Though the region is often characterized as educationally deficient, the inhabitants of the region established log cabin colleges as early as the 1790s and instilled a strong sense of education, literature, music and the arts. Appalachians have also preserved much historical lore today. For example, Appalachian people have preserved significant historical medical knowledge. [Anthony Cavender, "Folk Medicine." "The Encyclopedia of Appalachia" (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 2006), 866-868.] People in the community know where to find, identify, harvest, and prepare various herbs that are medicinally used. Ancient arts, such as beelining, would be more likely to be familiar to an Appalachian person than one from other areas.
In 1965, the US Congress established an economic development agency called the
Appalachian Regional Commission(ARC). In the terminology of this agency, "Appalachia" applies to the whole territory of its mandate, in recognition of similarities of lifestyle and culture throughout the region. This similarity may come from the great migration of people from the northern to the southern part of Appalachia in the 19th century.
In the 20th century, many from the area migrated to northern & midwestern cities such as
Detroit, and Chicagoin search of jobs, and these cities still contain enclaves of Appalachian culture.
In the 1940s through the 60s, Wheeling, West Virginia became a cultural center of the region because it had a
clear channelAM radio station WWVA, which could be heard throughout the entirety of eastern USA at night. Although stations such as Pittsburgh's KDKA and KQV were 50 kilowattclear channels that dated back to the early 1920s (as well as spanning all the east coast in signal strength), WWVA prided itself on ruraland farm programming that appealed to a wider audience in the rural region.
As a scientific technical term, "Appalachia" may be used to describe some (particularly the central section), or all, of the Appalachian mountain range, for example as a geological formation, or an environmental habitat.
Appalachia as an academic interest was the product of a critical scholarship that emerged across the disciplines in the 1960s and 1970s. With a renewed interest in issues of power, scholars could not dismiss the social inequity, class conflict, and environmental destruction encountered by America's so-called "hillbillies." Appalachia's emergence in academia is a result of the intersection between social conditions and critical academic interests, and has resulted in the development of many
Appalachian studiesprograms in colleges and universities across the region, as well as in the Appalachian Studies Association.
Some of Appalachia's best known writers include
James Still("River of Earth", "From the Mountain, From the Valley: New and Collected Poems"), Harriette Arnow("The Dollmake"r, "Hunter's Horn"), Jesse Stuart("Taps for Private Tussie", "The Thread That Runs So True"), Denise Giardina("The Unquiet Earth", "Storming Heaven"), Lee Smith ("Fair and Tender Ladies", "On Agate Hil"l), Silas House("Clay's Quilt", "A Parchment of Leaves"), Wilma Dykeman("The Far Family", "The Tall Woman"), Maurice Manning ("Bucolics", "A Companion for Owls"), Anne Shelby ("Appalachian Studies", "We Keep a Store"), George Ella Lyon ("Borrowed Children", "Don't You Remember?"), Pamela Duncan("Moon Women", "The Big Beautiful"), Chris Offutt("No Heroes", "The Good Brother"), Charles Frazier("Cold Mountain", "Thirteen Moons"), Lisa Alther("Kinflicks"), Cormac McCarthy("The Orchard Keeper", "Child of God"), Sharyn McCrumb("The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter"), Robert Morgan ("Gap Creek"), Jim Wayne Miller ("The Brier Poems"), Gurney Norman("Divine Right's Trip", "Kinfolks"), Breece D'J Pancake("The Stories of Breece D'J Pancake"; nominated for Pulitzer Prize), Elizabeth Madox Roberts("The Great Meadow, "The Time of Man"), Thomas Wolfe("Look Homeward Angel", "You Can't Go Home Again") and Rachel Carson("The Sea Around Us", "Silent Spring"; Presidential Medal of Freedom).
Appalachian Regional Commission
Appalachian Regional Commission(ARC) was created by the U.S. Congressin 1965 to bring poor areas of the 13 U.S. states of the main (southern) range of the Appalachians into the mainstream of the American economy. The commission is a partnership of federal, state, and local governments, and was created to promote economic growth and improve the quality of life in the region. The region as defined by the ARC [cite web
title=Counties in Appalachia
publisher=Appalachian Regional Commission
accessdate=2008-08-22] includes roughly 408 counties, including all of West Virginia and counties in 13 other states: Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The ARC is a planning, research, advocacy and funding organization; it does not have any governing powers.
The ARC's geographic range of coverage was defined broadly so as to cover as many economically underdeveloped areas as possible; it extends well beyond the area usually thought of as "Appalachia". For instance, parts of Alabama and Mississippi were included in the commission because of problems with unemployment and poverty similar to those in Appalachia proper, and the ARC region extends into Northeastern states, which are never considered part of Appalachia culturally. The ARC's wide scope also [ [http://www.dispatch.com/news/special/APPALACHIA/SUNDAY/] ] Citation broken|date=August 2008 grew out of the "pork barrel" phenomenon, as politicians from outside the traditional Appalachia area saw a new way to bring home federal money to their areas.
The economy of Appalachia traditionally rested on agriculture, mining, timber, and in the cities, manufacturing. In the late twentieth century, tourism and second home developments have assumed an increasingly major role.
Coal mining, the industry most frequently associated with Appalachia in outsiders' minds, remains important; however, its economic role should not be overstated. Coal is mined only in some portions of the area traditionally thought of as Appalachia [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/c_bearing_areas.pdf] ] [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/c_locations.pdf] ] . Coal mining employment across the country has generally dropped over the last several decades with increased mechanization, notwithstanding a spike in employment accompanying the coal industry boomlet that started in about 2004 [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/e_sector.pdf] ] . While with annual earnings of $55,000, Appalachian miners make more than most other local workers, Appalachian coal mining employed just under 50,000 in 2004. [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/c_profile.pdf] ] , [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/c_employment_state_region_method.pdf] ] Restrictions on high sulfur coal in the 1980s resulted in the closure of some mines. The high, continuing "legacy" costs associated with earlier mining activities — retiree health care, environmental reclamation, and black lung diseasecompensation — impact Appalachian coal economics. The region still has very large coal reserves [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/c_reserves.pdf] ] , however the least expensive, most accessible, thickest seams have largely been mined out, complicating the area's ability to compete with very low cost Colombian, Western U.S. and especially Powder River Basinstrip mines. About two-thirds of Appalachia's coal is produced by underground mining, the rest by surface mining. [ [http://www.nma.org/pdf/c_production_method.pdf] ] , often referred to as strip mining. Mountaintop removal, a form of surface mining, is a highly controversial mining practice in central Appalachia due to its negative impacts on the natural and human environment.
Poverty in Appalachia
Povertyin this region has been a problem for many years but was not brought to the attention of the rest of the United States until 1964 when US President Lyndon B. Johnsondelivered a speech from a sagging front porch in a poor Appalachian mining town.
In Appalachia, severe poverty and desolation is paired with the necessity for careful, cultural sensitivity. Many Appalachian people fear that the birth of a new modernized Appalachia will lead to a death of their traditional values and heritage. Because of the isolation of the region, Appalachian people have been unable to catch up to the
modernizationthat lowlanders have achieved. In the 1960s, many people in Appalachia had a standard of livingcomparable to third worldcountries. The film series "West Virginia", produced during the term of Governor Gaston Caperton makes the point that at least on some level images of poverty were contrived.Fact|date=March 2008 Lyndon B. Johnson was the first president to bring attention to the growing problem of poverty in Appalachia. Standing on the front porch of a family suffering from a problem that had been so long ignored, he declared his " War on Poverty". The Appalachian Regional Development Act (1964), which created the Appalachian Regional Commission(ARC), stated that Appalachia was a shambles:
:The Appalachian region of the United States, while abundant in natural resources and rich in potential, lags behind the rest of the nation... its people have not shared properly in the nation’s
Since the creation of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) in 1965, the region has seen dramatic progress. New roads, schools, health care facilities, water and sewer systems, and other improvements have brought a better life to many Appalachian residents.
In 1960, 219 counties in the 13-state Appalachian Region were considered economically distressed . Now that list has been cut in half, to 108 counties, but these are "hard-core" pockets of poverty, seemingly impervious to all efforts at improving their lot. Casto, James E., APPALACHIA, May–August 1999 [http://www.arc.gov/index.do?nodeId=1282 Arc.gov] ]
Nevertheless, after 40 years poverty remains undefeated in Appalachia.
Martin County, Kentucky, the site of Johnson’s 1964 speech, is currently ranked as "distressed" by the ARC. (Distressed is the worst ranking.) The per capita incomein Martin County is $10,650, and 37% of its residents live below the poverty line.
5 July, 1999, President Bill Clintonmade a public statement concerning the situation in Tyner, Kentucky. "I'm here to make a simple point," Clinton told the enthusiastic crowd. "This is the time to bring more jobs and investment to parts of the country that have not participated in this time of prosperity. Any work that can be done by anybody in America can be done in Appalachia." Like Johnson, Clinton also brought attention to the areas of poverty in Appalachia.
The region's poverty has been documented often since the early 1960s. John Cohen documents rural lifestyle and culture in "The High Lonesome Sound", while photojournalist Earl Dotter has been visiting and documenting poverty, healthcare and mining in Appalachia for nearly forty years.Earl Dotter, " [http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2008/dotter/1a.htm Coalfield Generations: Health, Mining and the Environment] " "Southern Spaces", 16 July 2008.]
Etymology and pronunciation
The words "Appalachia" and "Appalachian" most likely derive from "
Apalachee", a Muskogean-speaking tribe historically located in northern Florida, first encountered by the Narvaez expedition in 1528, as reported by Cabeza de Vaca. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first appearance of "Apalchen" is on Diego Gutierrez' map of 1562; the first use for the mountain range is the map of Jacques le Moyne de Morguesin 1565. [Walls, David (1977), "On the Naming of Appalachia," In "An Appalachian Symposium", pp. 56-76.]
The name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", and even "Alleghania." In the early 19th century,
Washington Irvingproposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. [ Stewart, George R. (1967). "Names on the Land". Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.]
In northern U.S. dialects, the mountains are pron-en|æpəˈleɪtʃənz or IPA|/æpəˈleɪʃənz/. The cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced IPA|/æpəˈleɪʃ(i)ə/, also IPA|/æpəˈleɪtʃ(i)e/, all with a third syllable like "lay".
In southern U.S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced the IPA| [æ.pəˈlæ.tʃənz] , and the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced|ˈ [æ.pəˈlæ.tʃ(i)ə] . The third syllable is like the "la" in "latch".
*The motion pictures "
Coal Miner's Daughter" (based on the life of noted country singer Loretta Lynn), " Where the Lilies Bloom" and " Songcatcher" (see also "Songcatcher" below) attempt an accurate portrayal of life in Appalachia.
Songcatcher(2000) - written and directed by Maggie Greenwald, starring Aiden Quinn and Emmy Rossum. The film takes place in rural Appalachia in 1907 and features the "lost" ballads of the Scots-Irish brought over in the 1800s and a musicolgists' quest to preserve them.
Rage Against the Machinemade reference to the poverty of Appalachia in the song Ashes in the Fall on the album The Battle of Los Angeles.
The Waltons", a long-running family TV serial, based on Earl Hamner's youth, was set in the mountains of Virginia.
*The Appalachian town of
Big Stone Gap, Virginiahas been the setting of several best-selling novels, including "The Trail of the Lonesome Pine" by John Fox, Jr.and the "Big Stone Gap" series by Adriana Trigiani.
Stranger with a Camera[ [http://www.appalshop.org] ] " is a documentary film about the representation of Appalachian communities by outsiders in film and video.
Country Boys" is a documentary film by David Sutherland showing three years in the lives of two teenagers growing up in eastern Kentucky.
Homer Hickam's book " Rocket Boys" and its movie adaptation " October Sky" are slightly fictionalized versions of his childhood and teenage years in Coalwood, a coal camp in Southern West Virginia.
*The 1972 film "Deliverance" takes place in southern Appalachia. The film is often held responsible for perpetuating negative stereotypes of the region.
*The 1987 film "
Matewan" fictionalizes a real-life clash between West Virginia coal miners, supported by union organizers, and coal companies in the 1920s. Scenes depicting the town were actually shot in Thurmond, West Virginia.
*The "1632" series, an
alternate history book seriescreated by Eric Flint, features the fictional town of Grantville, West Virginia(based upon the real-life town of Mannington, West Virginia) transported to Germanyin the time of the Thirty Years' War.
Large-format photographer Shelby Lee Adams, himself a native from Appalachia, has portrayed the Appalachian family life sympathetically in several books.
Aaron Coplandcomposed music for a balletcalled " Appalachian Spring".
Frederick Deliuswrote a tone poementitled "Appalachia".
*cite video | people = Kopple, Barbara (Director)
Harlan County, USA
medium = documentary film | publisher = Cabin Creek Productions
Harlan County, Kentucky| year = 1976
Catherine Marshallwrote "Christy", loosely based on her mother's years as a teacher in the Appalachian region. This became the basis of a short-lived television series of the same name in 1994.
*In the popular arcade racing game "
Cruis'n USA", Appalachia appears as one of the courses.
*Since the 2004 season, "
Saturday Night Live" has shown an occasional sketch called "Appalachian Emergency Room" about the hijinks at an anonymous rural hospital. [http://snl.jt.org/skit.php?i=9]
*In the 2005 film adaptation of The Dukes Of Hazzard, the Dukes stop at a red light in Atlanta in which they are approached by a group of African Americans who call them rednecks Luke Duke (Johnny Knoxville) responds under his breath "Appalachian Americans".
*The book "Prodigal Summer" by
Barbara Kingsolverexplores the ecology of the region and how the removal of the predators, wolves and coyotes, has affected the environment.
*The book "Rough Lumber: Stories from Spurlock Creek," by Justine Felix Rutherford, describes growing up in rural West Virginia during the
*Heavy Metal band Baroness has a song entitled "O'Appalachia" on their first full length album Red Album
Appalachia's geography presents special challenges to transportation. In
Europe, while mountain ranges presented challenges to transport, they could mostly be avoided. In North America, however, the Appalachian Mountainspresented a barrier that could not be easily out-flanked. Initially, European settlers found gaps in the mountains; among them the Cumberland Gapand the Wilderness Road.
Native American trails were the first in Appalachia. One of the earliest used by Europeans was
Nemacolin's path, a trail between the Potomac and the Monongahela river, going from Cumberland, Maryland, to the mouth of Redstone Creek, where Brownsville, Pennsylvaniais situated.
French and Indian Warcreated a need for roads through Appalachia. In 1755, General Edward Braddockof the Coldstream Guardswas sent to rout the French from Fort Duquesnealong the Nemacolin's path. From Fort Cumberland, Braddock's army cut a military trail through the wilderness. This would become known as Braddock's Road. Another was a British military trail built in 1758 by General John Forbes of England from Chambersburg to Pittsburgh during the French and Indian War, later known as the Pittsburgh Road and the Conestoga Road.
The first modern road to be built through Appalachia was the
National Roadstarting at Cumberland, an early hub of Appalachia, generally following Braddock's Road heading west first to Wheeling, VA. Other roads soon followed such as the Northwestern Turnpikeand James River and Kanawha Turnpike.
The creation in 1936 of the
Appalachian Trail, which stretches from Georgia to Maine, also helped open the area to hikers and outdoor enthusiasts from all over the world.
George Washingtonhad identified the Potomac and James rivers as the most promising locations for canals to be built to join with the western rivers. Washington proposed a canal to connect the Potomac Riverand the Ohio Riverand founded the Potowmack Company. In 1824, the holdings of the Potowmac Company were ceded to the Chesapeake and Ohio Company. Construction began with a groundbreaking ceremony on July 4 1828by President John Quincy Adams. It followed the course of the Potomac River to Cumberland, MD. Had it been completed it would have continued west from Cumberland along the Potomac River and then followed the Savage River crossing the eastern continental divide near present day Deep Creek Lake, and eventually following the Youghiogheny Riverto navigable waters.
James River and Kanawha Canalwas a project first proposed by Washington when he was a young man surveying the mountains of western Virginia. In 1785, the James River Company was formed, with George Washington as honorary president, to build locks around the falls at Richmond. By then, Washington was quite busy since he was elected president in 1789. The goal was to reach the Kanawha Riverat its head of navigation about 30 miles east of what is today Charleston, West Virginia. The canal eventually extended 196.5 miles west of Richmond, Virginia, to Buchanan, Virginia. By 1851 westward progress had stopped due to increasing competition from the railroads.
Even today river systems provide transport through barge traffic on the
Ohio Riversystem. The Monongahela Riveris navigable its entire length, deep into the interior of West Virginia, with a series of lock/dams ensuring a 9' depth.
The next major transportation leap for Appalachia was the railroad. The
Baltimore and Ohiowas the first to cross. It was finished to Piedmont, Virginia on July 21, 1851, Fairmont, Virginia on June 22, 1852, and its terminus at Wheeling, Virginia on January 1, 1853.
In 1855 the
Norfolk and Western Railway, under the direction of Frederick J. Kimball, began to push across Appalachia. Starting from Big Lick the lines extended to the Pocahontas coalfields in western Virginiaand West Virginiaand on north to Columbus, Ohioand Cincinnati, Ohio.
Southern Railway linked
Charleston, South Carolinaand Memphis, Tennessee, crossing Appalachia in 1857 in the Asheville, North Carolinaarea, although rail expansion halted with the start of the Civil War.
By 1867 the
Chesapeake and Ohio Railwayhad reached the eastern edge of the mountains and was also reaching for the Ohio valley via the New River and Kanawha Valleys of West Virginia. The West Virginiastretch of the C & O was the site of the legendary competition between John Henryand a steam-powered machine; the competition is said to have taken place in a tunnel south of Talcott, West Virginianear the Greenbrier River. In 1888, the C&O built the Cincinnati Division, from Huntington, West Virginiadown the south bank of the Ohio River in Kentuckyand across the river at Cincinnati, connecting with the "Big Four" and other Midwestern Railroads. Henry G. Davisstarted the West Virginia Central and Pittsburgh Railwayin 1880 in the ensuing years it opened a huge swathe of timber and coal territory in northern West Virginia to use. It started in Piedmont, West Virginiaand pushed west creating such towns as Elkins, Davis and Thomas. It pushed east to Cumberland, Marylandwhere it connected with traffic from the C&0 Canal and National Road. West from Elkins, West VirginiaDavis created the Coal & Coke Railwayto Charleston completing another crossing. These eventually formed the core of the Western Maryland Railway. The Western Maryland's Connellsville Extension was built west from Cumberland, Maryland, to Connellsville, Pennsylvania, beginning around 1906 and was completed in 1912.
Today the crossing of the
Eastern Continental Divideby the West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway is now abandoned and is used as a Rails to Trailsarea. The other crossings are either part of CSXor Norfolk Southern Railwayand remain the only rail crossings of Appalachia. Cumberland, Marylandstill serves as a major rail hub for Appalachia where two main lines head west.
In 1880 the
Good Roads Movementwas formed. They knew outside of cities, roadswere dirt or gravel, mudin the winter and dust in the summer. In its early years, the main goal of the movement was education for road building in rural areas between cities, such as Appalachia, to help rural populations gain the social and economic benefits enjoyed by cities where citizens benefitted from railroads, trolleys and paved streets. This eventually led to the auto trailsystem of highways. The first crossing Appalachia was the Lincoln Highwaywhich would later become US 30. This was closely followed by the Dixie Highwayfirst planned in 1914, to connect the US Midwestwith the Southern United Statescrossing Appalachia following what is now US 25. Other auto trails crossing Appalachia include Jefferson Davis Highway, Lakes-to-Sea Highway, Lee Highway, and National Old Trails Highway.
The next great leap in transportation was the creation of the
U.S. Highway systemin 1926, replacing the auto trails. The longest primary US highway contained in Appalachia is US 11traversing the eastern side. US 21was another primary US highway, but much of its route has been decommissioned and replaced with Interstate 77, these make/made up the North-South routes. East-West Routes include US 30, US 33, US 40, US 50, US 60, and US 70. Many spur routes such as US 220and US 119service various parts of Appalachia.
Pennsylvania Turnpikewas the first long-distance rural controlled access highway in the United States and also the first one to cross Appalachia. It was known as the "tunnel highway" because of the seven mountain tunnels along its Appalachian route. In October 1, 1940the first section of Turnpike opened, running from US 11near Carlisle (southwest of Harrisburg) west to US 30at Irwin (east of Pittsburgh). Crossing was completed with the Western Extension, from Irwin to US 22east of Pittsburgh, opened August 7, 1951. The remainder opened to traffic on December 26, 1951, taking the highway west almost to the Ohio state line.
The Turnpike remained the only superhighway crossing Appalachia until the interstate system that was authorized by the
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. Today 7 Interstates cross Appalachia east to west starting with Interstate 86, Interstate 80, Interstate 70, Interstate 64, Interstate 26, and Interstate 40. There are 3 interstates crossing North to South. These include Interstate 75, Interstate 77and Interstate 81.
However, despite the fact that the region is crisscrossed by many U.S. and
Interstatehighways, those routes primarily serve cross-country traffic rather than the locals themselves. Towns closer to the major highways and nearer to the many larger cities fringing the region ( Pittsburgh, Wheeling, Columbus, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Washington, D.C., etc.) are disproportionately better-off than rural regions in the mountainous interior. Instead of being tied to the land, jobs in the towns tend to emphasize industryand services—important signs of a more diversified economy. Nonetheless, aside from the major urban centers along its perimeter, the entire Appalachian region still suffers from population decline and the loss of younger residents to the cities.
To reverse decline and spur economic growth, Appalachian governors have prioritized the creation of a modern highway system accessible to local residents as the key to economic development. As a result, in 1965, the Appalachian Regional Commission created the
Appalachian Development Highway System(ADHS) which was the first highway system designed specifically to service Appalachia. The ADHS was designed to generate economic development in previously isolated areas, supplement the interstate system, connect Appalachia to the interstate system, and provide access to areas within the Region as well as to markets in the rest of the nation. The ADHS is currently authorized at 3,090 miles, including 65 miles added in January 2004.
These routes are known as corridors. They are build to a higher standard than US Highways, but less than Interstate standard, although some such as Corridor E were built to be interstates.
Other Appalachia-related topics:
Appalachian Trail by state
Social and Economic Stratification in Appalachia
Appalachian State University
*Abramson, Rudy and Haskell, Jean, editors (2006). "
Encyclopedia of Appalachia", University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-456-8
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last = Kephart
year = 1922
title = Our Southern Highlanders
edition = New and revised edition
publisher = Macmillan
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first = Jeff
last = Biggers
year = 2006
title = The United States of Appalachia: How Southern Mountaineers Brought Independence, Culture and Enlightenment to America
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publisher = Shoemaker and Hoard
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first = Harry M. | last = Caudill | year = 1962 | authorlink = Harry M. Caudill
title = Night Comes to the Cumberlands | publisher = Little, Brown and Company |id = ISBN 0-316-13212-8
*Dotter, Earl. " [http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2008/dotter/1a.htm Coalfield Generations: Health, Mining and the Environment] " "Southern Spaces", 16 July 2008.
*cite journal | last = Sarnoff | first = Susan
title = Central Appalachia – Still the Other America | journal = Journal of Poverty
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year = 2003 | url = http://www.journalofpoverty.org/JOPABS/JPOABS21.HTM
doi = 10.1300/J134v07n01_06
* Walls, David (1977). [http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wallsd/on-the-naming-of-appalachia.shtml "On the Naming of Appalachia"] "An Appalachian Symposium". Edited by J. W. Williamson. Boone, NC: Appalachian State University Press.
* Olson, Ted (1998). "Blue Ridge Folklife". University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-023-0
* Williams, John Alexander (2002). "Appalachia: A History". University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-5368-9
* Light, Melanie and Ken Light (2006). "Coal Hollow". Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520246546
* [http://www.dispatch.com/news/special/APPALACHIA/SUNDAY/ "Appalachia: Hollow Promises"] , a comprehensive 1999 series of articles on the region and the ARC published in the Columbus Dispatch
* [http://www.appalachian-center.org/ Appalachian Center for Economy and the Environment]
* [http://www.aca-dla.org Digital Library of Appalachia]
* [http://cva.morehead-st.edu/ Morehead State University Center for Virtual Appalachia]
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