- Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813,
Leipzig, Germany - 13 February 1883, Venice, Italy) was a German composer, conductor, theatredirector and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or " music dramas", as they were later called). Unlike most other great opera composers, Wagner wrote both the scenarioand librettofor his works.
Wagner's compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for
contrapuntaltexture, rich chromaticism, harmonies and orchestration, and elaborate use of leitmotifs: musical themes associated with particular characters, locales or plot elements. Wagner pioneered advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, which greatly influenced the development of European classical music.
He transformed musical thought through his idea of "
Gesamtkunstwerk" ("total artwork"), the synthesis of all the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, epitomized by his monumental four-opera cycle " Der Ring des Nibelungen" (1876). To try to stage these works as he imagined them, Wagner built his own opera house.
on 22 May 1813, the ninth child of Carl Friedrich Wagner, who was a clerk in the Leipzig police service. [cite web
title=My Life — Volume 1 by Richard Wagner
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/5197] Wagner's father died of
typhussix months after Richard's birth, following which Wagner's mother, Johanna Rosine Wagner, began living with the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer, who had been a friend of Richard's father. In August 1814 Johanna Rosine married Geyer, and moved with her family to his residence in Dresden. For the first 14 years of his life, Wagner was known as Wilhelm Richard Geyer. Wagner may later have suspected that Geyer was in fact his biological father, and furthermore speculated incorrectly that Geyer was Jewish. [cite web
title='A Vulture is Almost an Eagle' ...: The Jewishness of Richard Wagner
date=13 March 2002
publisher=David Conway (Post-Graduate Student at Department of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, University College, London)]
Geyer's love of the theatre was shared by his stepson, and Wagner took part in performances. In his autobiography Wagner recalled once playing the part of an angel. The boy Wagner was also hugely impressed by the Gothic elements of Weber's
Der Freischütz. Late in 1820, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzel's school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher. He could not manage a proper scale but preferred playing theatre overtures by ear. Geyer died in 1821, when Richard was eight. Consequently, Wagner was sent to the Kreuz Grammar School in Dresden, paid for by Geyer's brother. The young Wagner entertained ambitions as a playwright, his first creative effort (listed as 'WWV 1') being a tragedy, "Leubald" [Wagner, Richard "Mein Leben" English translation at: http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/wglf110.txt This sketch is referred to alternatively as "Leubald und Adelaide."] begun at school in 1826, which was strongly influenced by Shakespeareand Goethe. Wagner determined to set it to music; he persuaded his family to allow him music lessons.
By 1827, the family had moved back to Leipzig. Wagner's first lessons in composition were taken in 1828-31 with Christian Gottlieb Müller. In January 1828 he first heard
Beethoven's 7th Symphony and then, in March, Beethoven's 9th Symphony performed in the Gewandhaus. Beethoven became his inspiration, and Wagner wrote a piano transcription of the 9th Symphony, piano sonatas and orchestral overtures.
In 1829 he saw the dramatic soprano
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrienton stage, and she became his ideal of the fusion of drama and music in opera. In his autobiography, Wagner wrote, "If I look back on my life as a whole, I can find no event that produced so profound an impression upon me." Wagner claimed to have seen Schröder-Devrient in the title role of Fidelio; however, it seems more likely that he saw her performance as Romeo in Bellini's " I Capuleti e i Montecchi." [ Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992). The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-02-871359-1 p133.] He enrolled at the University of Leipzigin 1831 where he became a member of the StudentenverbindungCorps Saxonia Leipzig. He also took composition lessons with the cantor of Saint Thomas church, Christian Theodor Weinlig. Weinlig was so impressed with Wagner's musical ability that he refused any payment for his lessons, and arranged for one of Wagner's piano works to be published. A year later, Wagner composed his "Symphony in C major", a Beethovenesque work which gave him his first opportunity as a conductor in 1832. He then began to work on an opera, "Die Hochzeit" (The Wedding), which he never completed.
In 1833, Wagner's older brother Karl Albert managed to obtain Richard a position as
choirmaster in Würzburg. In the same year, at the age of 20, Wagner composed his first complete opera, " Die Feen" ("The Fairies"). This opera, which clearly imitated the style of Carl Maria von Weber, would go unproduced until half a century later, when it was premiered in Munichshortly after the composer's death in 1883.
Meanwhile, Wagner held brief appointments as musical director at opera houses in
Magdeburgand Königsberg, during which he wrote " Das Liebesverbot" ("The Ban on Love"), based on William Shakespeare's " Measure for Measure". This second opera was staged at Magdeburgin 1836, but closed before the second performance, leaving the composer (not for the last time) in serious financial difficulties.
On 24 November 1836, Wagner married actress Christine Wilhelmine "Minna" Planer. In June 1837 they moved to the city of
Riga, then in the Russian Empire, where Wagner became music director of the local opera. A few weeks afterwards, Minna ran off with an army officer who then abandoned her, penniless. Wagner took Minna back; however, this was but the first debâcle of a troubled marriage that would end in misery three decades later.
By 1839, the couple had amassed such large debts that they fled Riga to escape from creditors (debt would plague Wagner for most of his life). During their flight, they and their Newfoundland dog, "Robber", took a stormy sea passage to
London, from which Wagner claimed to draw the inspiration for "Der Fliegende Holländer" ("The Flying Dutchman" - it was actually based on a sketch by Heinrich Heine[See Barry Millington, "The Wagner Compendium", London, 1992, rev. ed. 2001, p. 277.] ). The Wagners spent 1840 and 1841 in Paris, where Richard made a scant living writing articles and arranging operas by other composers, largely on behalf of the Schlesinger publishing house. He also completed " Rienzi" and "Der Fliegende Holländer" during this time.
Wagner completed writing his third opera, "
Rienzi", in 1840. Largely through the agency of Meyerbeer, it was accepted for performance by the DresdenCourt Theatre ("Hofoper") in the German state of Saxony. Thus in 1842, the couple moved to Dresden, where "Rienzi" was staged to considerable acclaim. Wagner lived in Dresden for the next six years, eventually being appointed the Royal Saxon Court Conductor. During this period, he staged "Der fliegende Holländer" and "Tannhäuser", the first two of his three middle-period operas.
The Wagners' stay at Dresden was brought to an end by Richard's involvement in leftist
politics. A nationalist movement was gaining force in the independent German States, calling for constitutional freedoms and the unification of the weak princely states into a single nation. Richard Wagner played an enthusiastic role in this movement, receiving guests at his house who included his colleague August Röckel, who was editing the radical left-wing paper "Volksblätter", and the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin.
Widespread discontent against the Saxon government came to a head in April 1849, when King
Frederick Augustus IIof Saxony dissolved Parliament and rejected a new constitution pressed upon him by the people. The May Uprising broke out, in which Wagner played a minor supporting role. The incipient revolutionwas quickly crushed by an allied force of Saxon and Prussian troops, and warrants were issued for the arrest of the revolutionaries. Wagner had to flee, first to Paris and then to Zürich. Röckel and Bakunin failed to escape and endured long terms of imprisonment.
Exile, Schopenhauer and Mathilde Wesendonck
Wagner spent the next twelve years in exile. He had completed "Lohengrin" before the Dresden uprising, and now wrote desperately to his friend
Franz Lisztto have it staged in his absence. Liszt, who proved to be a friend in need, eventually conducted the premiere in Weimarin August 1850.
Nevertheless, Wagner found himself in grim personal straits, isolated from the German musical world and without any income to speak of. Before leaving Dresden, he had drafted a scenario that would eventually become his mammoth cycle "
Der Ring des Nibelungen". He wrote the libretto for a single opera, "Siegfried's Tod" ("Siegfried's Death") in 1848. After arriving in Zurich he expanded the story to include an opera about the young Siegfried. He completed the cycle by writing " Die Walküre" and " Das Rheingold" and revising the later operas to agree with his new concept. His wife Minna, who had disliked the operas he had written after "Rienzi", was falling into a deepening depression. Finally, he fell victim to erysipelas, which made it difficult for him to continue writing.
Wagner's primary published output during his first years in
Zürichwas a set of notable essays: "The Art-Work of the Future" (1849), in which he described a vision of opera as " Gesamtkunstwerk", or "total artwork", in which the various arts such as music, song, dance, poetry, visual arts, and stagecraft were unified; " Judaism in Music" (1850), a tract directed against Jewish composers; and "Opera and Drama" (1851), which described ideas in aestheticsthat he was putting to use on the "Ring" operas.
By 1852 Wagner had completed the libretto of the four Ring operas, and he began composing "
Das Rheingold" in November 1853, following it immediately with "Die Walküre" in 1854. He then began work on the third opera, "Siegfried" in 1856, but finished only the first two acts before deciding to put the work aside to concentrate on a new idea: " Tristan und Isolde".
Wagner had two independent sources of inspiration for "Tristan und Isolde". The first came to him in 1854, when his poet friend
Georg Herweghintroduced him to the works of the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. Wagner would later call this the most important event of his life. His personal circumstances certainly made him an easy convert to what he understood to be Schopenhauer's philosophy, a deeply pessimistic view of the human condition. He would remain an adherent of Schopenhauer for the rest of his life, even after his fortunes improved.
One of Schopenhauer's doctrines was that music held a supreme role amongst the arts. He claimed that music is the direct expression of the world's essence, which is blind, impulsive will. Wagner quickly embraced this claim, which must have resonated strongly despite its direct contradiction with his own arguments, in "Opera and Drama", that music in opera had to be subservient to the cause of drama. Wagner scholars have since argued that this Schopenhauerian influence caused Wagner to assign a more commanding role to music in his later operas, including the latter half of the "Ring" cycle, which he had yet to compose. Many aspects of Schopenhauerian doctrine undoubtedly found their way into Wagner's subsequent libretti. For example, the self-renouncing cobbler-poet
Hans Sachsin " Die Meistersinger", generally considered Wagner's most sympathetic character, is a quintessentially Schopenhauerian creation (despite being based on a real person). Schopenhauer asserted that goodness and salvation result from renunciation of the world and turning against and denying one's own willing.
Wagner's second source of inspiration was the poet-writer
Mathilde Wesendonck, the wife of the silk merchant Otto von Wesendonck. Wagner met the Wesendoncks in Zürich in 1852. Otto, a fan of Wagner's music, placed a cottage on his estate at Wagner's disposal. By 1857, Wagner had become infatuated with Mathilde.
Though Mathilde seems to have returned some of his affections, she had no intention of jeopardising her marriage, and kept her husband informed of her contacts with WagnerFact|date=March 2007. Nevertheless, the affair inspired Wagner to put aside his work on the "Ring" cycle (which would not be resumed for the next twelve years) and begin work on "Tristan und Isolde", based on the Arthurian love story.
The uneasy affair collapsed in 1858, when Minna intercepted a letter from Wagner to Mathilde. After the resulting confrontation, Wagner left Zürich alone, bound for
Venice. The following year, he once again moved to Paris to oversee production of a new revision of " Tannhäuser", staged thanks to the efforts of Princess de Metternich. The premiere of the Paris "Tannhäuser" in 1861 was an utter fiasco, due to disturbances caused by members of the Jockey Club. Further performances were cancelled, and Wagner hurriedly left the city.
In 1861, the political ban against Wagner in Germany was lifted, and the composer settled in Biebrich,
Prussia, where he began work on "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg". Despite the failure of "Tannhäuser" in Paris, the possibility that " Der Ring des Nibelungen" would never be finished and Wagner's unhappy personal life, this opera is by far his sunniest work. Wagner's second wife Cosima would later write, "when future generations seek refreshment in this unique work, may they spare a thought for the tears from which the smiles arose." In 1862, Wagner finally parted with Minna, though he (or at least his creditors) continued to support her financially until her death in 1866.
Between 1861 and 1864 Wagner tried to have "Tristan und Isolde" produced in
Vienna. Despite over 70 rehearsals the opera remained unperformed, and gained a reputation as being "unplayable", which further added to Wagner's financial woes.
Patronage of King Ludwig II
Wagner's fortunes took a dramatic upturn in 1864, when King Ludwig II assumed the throne of
Bavariaat the age of 18. The young king, an ardent admirer of Wagner's operas since childhood, had the composer brought to Munich. He settled Wagner's considerable debts, and made plans to have his new operas produced. After grave difficulties in rehearsal, "Tristan und Isolde" premiered to enormous success at the National Theatre in Munich on 10 June 1865, the first Wagner premiere in almost 15 years.
In the meantime, Wagner became embroiled in another affair, this time with Cosima von Bülow, the wife of the conductor
Hans von Bülow, one of Wagner's most ardent supporters and the conductor of the "Tristan" premiere. Cosima was the illegitimate daughter of Franz Lisztand the famous Countess Marie d'Agoult, and 24 years younger than Wagner. Liszt disapproved of his daughter seeing Wagner, though the two men were friends. In April 1865, she gave birth to Wagner's illegitimate daughter, who was named Isolde. Their indiscreet affair scandalized Munich, and to make matters worse, Wagner fell into disfavor amongst members of the court, who were suspicious of his influence on the king. In December 1865, Ludwig was finally forced to ask the composer to leave Munich. He apparently also toyed with the idea of abdicating in order to follow his hero into exile, but Wagner quickly dissuaded him.
Ludwig installed Wagner at the villa
Tribschen, beside Switzerland's Lake Lucerne. "Die Meistersinger" was completed at Tribschen in 1867, and premiered in Munich on 21 June the following year. In October, Cosima finally convinced Hans von Bülow to grant her a divorce, but not before having two more children with Wagner. They had another daughter, named Eva, and a son named Siegfried. Richard and Cosima were married on 25 August 1870. On Christmas Day of that year, Wagner presented the " Siegfried Idyll" for Cosima's birthday. The marriage to Cosima lasted to the end of Wagner's life.
In 1871, he decided on the small town of
Bayreuthas the location of his new opera house. The Wagners moved there the following year, and the foundation stone for the Bayreuth Festspielhaus("Festival House") was laid. In order to raise funds for the construction, " Wagner Societies" were formed in several cities, and Wagner himself began touring Germany conducting concerts. However, sufficient funds were only raised after King Ludwig stepped in with another large grant in 1874. Later that year, the Wagners moved into their permanent home at Bayreuth, a villa that Richard dubbed " Wahnfried" ("Peace/freedom from delusion/madness", in German).
The Festspielhaus finally opened in August 1876 with the premiere of the "Ring" cycle and has continued to be the site of the
Bayreuth Festivalever since.
", his final opera. The composition took four years, during which he also wrote a series of increasingly reactionary essays on religion and art.
Wagner completed "Parsifal" in January 1882, and a second Bayreuth Festival was held for the new opera. Wagner was by this time extremely ill, having suffered through a series of increasingly severe angina attacks. During the sixteenth and final performance of "Parsifal" on 29 August, he secretly entered the pit during Act III, took the baton from conductor
Hermann Levi, and led the performance to its conclusion.
After the Festival, the Wagner family journeyed to
Venicefor the winter. On 13 February 1883, Richard Wagner died of a heart attackin the Palazzo Vendraminon the Grand Canal. His body was returned to Bayreuth and buried in the garden of the Villa Wahnfried.
Franz Liszt's memorable piece for pianoforte solo, "La lugubre gondola", evokes the passing of a black-shrouded funerary
gondolabearing Richard Wagner's remains over the Grand Canal.
Wagner's music dramas are his primary artistic legacy. These can be divided chronologically into three periods.
Wagner's early stage began at age 19 with his first attempt at an opera, "
Die Hochzeit" ("The Wedding"), which Wagner abandoned at an early stage of composition in 1832. Wagner's three completed early-stage operas are " Die Feen" ("The Fairies"), " Das Liebesverbot" ("The Ban on Love"), and " Rienzi". Their compositional style was conventional, and did not exhibit the innovations that marked Wagner's place in musical history. Later in life, Wagner said that he did not consider these immature works to be part of his oeuvre; he was irritated by the ongoing popularity of Rienzi during his lifetime. These works are seldom performed, though the overture to "Rienzi" has become a concert piece.
Wagner's middle stage output is considered to be of remarkably higher quality, and begins to show the deepening of his powers as a dramatist and composer. This period began with "Der fliegende Holländer" ("The Flying Dutchman"), followed by "Tannhäuser" and "Lohengrin". These works are widely performed today.
Wagner's late stage operas are his masterpieces that advanced the art of opera. Some are of the opinion that "
Tristan und Isolde" (" Tristan and Iseult") is Wagner's greatest single opera. " Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" ("The Mastersingers of Nuremberg") is Wagner's only comedystill in the repertoire (his early "Das Liebesverbot" is forgotten) and one of the lengthiest operas still performed. " Der Ring des Nibelungen", commonly referred to as the "Ring" cycle, is a set of four operas based loosely on figures and elements of Teutonic myth, particularly from later period Norse mythology. Taking 26 years to complete, and requiring roughly 15 hours to perform, the "Ring" cycle has been called the most ambitious musical work ever composed. Wagner's final opera, " Parsifal", which was written especially for the acoustics of Wagner's Festspielhaus in Bayreuth and which is described in the score as a "Bühnenweihfestspiel" (festival play for the consecration of the stage), is a contemplative work based on the Christian legend of the Holy Grail.
Wagner drew largely from Northern European
mythologyand legend, notably Icelandic sources such as the Poetic Edda, the " Volsunga Saga" and the German " Nibelungenlied". Through his operas and theoretical essays, Wagner exerted a strong influence on the operatic medium. He was an advocate of a new form of opera which he called "music drama", in which all the musical and dramatic elements were fused together. Unlike other opera composers, who generally left the task of writing the libretto(the text and lyrics) to others, Wagner wrote his own libretti, which he referred to as "poems". Further, Wagner developed a compositional style in which the orchestra's role is equal to that of the singers. The orchestra's dramatic role includes its performance of the leitmotifs, musical themes that announce specific characters, locales, and plot elements; their complex interleaving and evolution illuminates the progression of the drama.
Wagner's musical style is often considered the epitome of classical music's Romantic period, due to its unprecedented exploration of emotional expression. He introduced new ideas in
harmonyand musical form, including extreme chromaticism. In "Tristan und Isolde", he explored the limits of the traditional tonal system that gave keys and chords their identity, pointing the way to atonalityin the 20th century. Some music historians date the beginning of modern classical musicto the first notes of "Tristan", the so-called Tristan chord.
* (1832) "
Die Hochzeit" ("The Wedding") (abandoned before completion)
* (1833) "
Die Feen" ("The Fairies")
* (1836) "
Das Liebesverbot" ("The Ban on Love")
* (1837) "Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen" ("Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes")
* (1865) "
Tristan und Isolde" ("Tristan and Isolde")
* (1867) "
Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" ("The Mastersingers of Nuremberg")
Der Ring des Nibelungen" ("The Ring of the Nibelung"), consisting of:
** (1869) "
Das Rheingold" ("The Rhinegold")
** (1870) "
Die Walküre" ("The Valkyrie")
** (1871) "Siegfried" (previously entitled "Jung-Siegfried" or "Young Siegfried", and "Der junge Siegfried" or "The young Siegfried")
** (1874) "
Götterdämmerung" ("Twilight of the Gods") (originally entitled "Siegfrieds Tod" or "The Death of Siegfried")
* (1882) "
Apart from his operas, Wagner composed relatively few pieces of music. These include a single
symphony(written at the age of 19), a Faust symphony (of which he only finished the first movement, which became the Faust Overture), and some overtures, choral and piano pieces, and a re-orchestration of Gluck's "Iphigénie en Tauride". Of these, the most commonly performed work is the " Siegfried Idyll", a piece for chamber orchestra written for the birthday of his second wife, Cosima. The "Idyll" draws on several motifs from the "Ring" cycle, though it is not part of the "Ring". The next most popular are the " Wesendonck Lieder", properly known as "Five Songs for a Female Voice", which were composed for Mathilde Wesendonck while Wagner was working on "Tristan". An oddity is the "American Centennial March" of 1876, commissioned by the city of Philadelphia for the opening of the Centennial Exposition, for which Wagner was paid $5,000.
A vocal and instrumental piece which is not often performed and somewhat forgotten, "
Das Liebesmahl der Apostel" ("The Love-Meal of the Apostles") is a piece for male choruses and orchestra, composed in 1843. Wagner had just successfully played " Rienzi" in Dresden. However, "Der fliegende Holländer" witnessed a bitter failure. Wagner, who had been elected at the beginning of the year to the committee of a cultural association in the city of Dresden, received a commission to evoke the theme of Pentecost. The premiere took place at the Dresdner Frauenkircheon 6 July 1843, and was performed by around a hundred musicians and almost 1,200 singers. The concert was very well received.
After completing "Parsifal", Wagner apparently intended to turn to the writing of symphonies. However, nothing substantial had been written by the time of his death.
overtures and orchestral passages from Wagner's middle and late-stage operas are commonly played as concert pieces. For most of these, Wagner wrote short passages to conclude the excerpt so that it does not end abruptly. This is true, for example, of the Parsifal prelude and Siegfried's Funeral Music. A curious fact is that the concert version of the Tristan prelude is unpopular and rarely heard; the original ending of the prelude is usually considered to be better, even for a concert performance.Fact|date=July 2007
One of the most popular
wedding marches played as the bride's processional in English-speaking countries, popularly known as "Here Comes the Bride", takes its melody from the " Bridal Chorus" of "Lohengrin". In the opera, it is sung as the bride and groom leave the ceremony and go into the wedding chamber. The calamitous marriage of Lohengrin and Elsa, which reaches irretrievable breakdown twenty minutes after the chorus has been sung, has failed to discourage this widespread use of the piece.
Wagner was an extremely prolific writer, authoring hundreds of books, poems, and articles, as well as voluminous correspondence, throughout his life. His writings covered a wide range of topics, including
politics, philosophy, and detailed analyses (often self-contradictory) of his own operas. Essays of note include " Art and Revolution" (1849), " Opera and Drama" (1851), an essay on the theory of opera, and " Das Judenthum in der Musik" ("Jewishness in Music", 1850), a polemic directed against Jewish composers in general, and Giacomo Meyerbeerin particular. He also wrote an autobiography, "My Life" (1880). In his later years Wagner became a vociferous opponent of experimentation on animals and in 1879 he published an open letter,' "Against Vivisection" ', in support of the animal rights activist Ernst von Weber. [ Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992). "ibid" pages 174-177.]
Theatre design and operation
Wagner was responsible for several theatrical innovations developed at the
Bayreuth Festspielhaus, an opera housespecially constructed for the performance of his operas (for the design of which he appropriated many of the ideas of his former colleague, Gottfried Semper, which he had solicited for a proposed new opera house at Munich). These innovations include darkening the auditorium during performances, and placing the orchestra in a pit out of view of the audience. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus is the venue of the annual Richard Wagner Festival, which draws thousands of opera fans to Bayreutheach summer.
The orchestra pit at Bayreuth is interesting for two reasons:
# The first violins are positioned on the right-hand side of the conductor instead of their usual place on the left side. This is in all likeliness because of the way the sound is intended to be directed towards the stage rather than directly on the audience. This way the sound has a more direct line from the first violins to the back of the stage where it can be then reflected to the audience.
# Double basses, cellos and harps (when more than one used, e.g. "Ring") are split into groups and placed on either side of the pit.
Wagner's influence and legacy
In his lifetime, and for some years after, Wagner inspired fanatical devotion, and was occasionally considered by fans to have a near god-like status. His compositions, in particular
Tristan und Isolde, broke important new musical ground. For years afterward, many composers felt compelled to align themselves with or against Wagner. Anton Brucknerand Hugo Wolfare indebted to him especially, as are César Franck, Henri Duparc, Ernest Chausson, Jules Massenet, Alexander von Zemlinsky, Hans Pfitznerand dozens of others. Gustav Mahlersaid, "There was only Beethoven and Wagner". The twentieth century harmonic revolutions of Claude Debussyand Arnold Schoenberg(tonal and atonal modernism, respectively) have often been traced back to "Tristan". The Italian form of operatic realism known as verismoowes much to Wagnerian reconstruction of musical form.
Wagner made a major contribution to the principles and practice of
conducting. His essay "On conducting" (1869) advanced the earlier work of Hector Berliozand proposed that conducting was a means by which a musical work could be re-interpreted, rather than simply a mechanism for achieving orchestral unison. The central European conducting tradition which followed Wagner's ideas includes artists such as Hans von Bülow, Arthur Nikisch, Wilhelm Furtwänglerand Herbert von Karajan.
Wagner also made significant changes to the conditions under which operas were performed. It was Wagner who first demanded that the lights be dimmed during dramatic performances, and it was his theatre at Bayreuth which first made use of the sunken orchestra pit, which at Bayreuth entirely conceals the orchestra from the audience.
Wagner's influence on literature and philosophy is significant.
Friedrich Nietzschewas part of Wagner's inner circle during the early 1870s, and his first published work The Birth of Tragedyproposed Wagner's music as the Dionysianrebirth of European culture in opposition to Apollonian rationalist decadence. Nietzsche broke with Wagner following the first Bayreuth Festival, believing that Wagner's final phase represented a pandering to Christian pieties and a surrender to the new demagogic German Reich. In the twentieth century, W. H. Audenonce called Wagner "perhaps the greatest genius that ever lived", while Thomas Mannand Marcel Proustwere heavily influenced by him and discussed Wagner in their novels. He is discussed in some of the works of James Joyce. Wagner is one of the main subjects of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, which contains lines from Tristan und Isolde and refers to The Ring and Parsifal. Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarméand Paul Verlaineworshipped Wagner. Many of the ideas his music brought up, such as the association between love and death (or Eros and Thanatos) in "Tristan", predated their investigation by Sigmund Freud.
Not all reaction to Wagner was positive. For a time, German musical life divided into two factions, Wagner's supporters and those of
Johannes Brahms; the latter, with the support of the powerful critic Eduard Hanslick, championed traditional forms and led the conservative front against Wagnerian innovations. They were supported by the conservative leanings of some German music schools, including the Conservatoire at Leipzigunder Ignaz Moschelesand that at Kölnunder the direction of Ferdinand Hiller[see Grove, "Hiller, Ferdinand"] . Even those who, like Debussy, opposed him ("that old poisoner"), could not deny Wagner's influence. Indeed, Debussy was one of many composers, including Tchaikovsky, who felt the need to break with Wagner precisely because his influence was so unmistakable and overwhelming. Others who resisted Wagner's influence included Gioachino Rossini("Wagner has wonderful moments, and dreadful quarters of an hour").
Wagner in popular music and film
Wagner's concept of leitmotif and integrated musical expression has been a strong influence on many 20th and 21st century
film scores, including such examples as John Williams's music for Star Warsand Howard Shore's soundtracks for Peter Jackson's three Lord of the Ringsfilms. The rock composer Jim Steinmancreated what he called Wagnerian Rock. The rock subgenre heavy metalis also said by some to show influence of Wagner (as well as other classical composers). In Germany Rammsteinand Joachim Wittwho has named three of his albums "Bayreuth", claim inspiration from Wagner's music. Klaus Schulze(German electronic composer and Wagner admirer) dedicated his 1975 album "Timewind" to Wagner's death (two 30-min tracks, "Bayreuth Return" and "Wahnfried 1883"). He also used the alias Richard Wahnfriedfor a part of his discography.
Adapted versions of Wagner's
Ride of the Valkyriesare used in the Francis Ford Coppolafilm " Apocalypse Now" and in Tonino Valerii's western " My Name is Nobody".
An unusual manifestation of Wagner was in the 1957
Bugs Bunnycartoon film, " What's Opera, Doc?", adapting music from various of his operas to fit in with the traditional topic of Elmer Fuddhunting Bugs.
Movies about Wagner
The 1913 silent film [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0003330/ "Richard Wagner"] was directed by
Carl Froelichand had Giuseppe Beccein the lead role who also wrote the musical score as Wagner's music was going to be too expensive. A documentary with the [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1045194/ same title] was made in 1925.
The 1955 film "
Magic Fire" was about some significant events in Wagner's life. It starred Alan Badelas Wagner.
A film of the composer's life, [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0085107/ "Wagner"] , was made in 1983 for a TV mini-series by the director
Tony Palmer. The cast included Richard Burton, John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardsonand Vanessa Redgrave.
Wagner is also portrayed in
Ken Russel's " Lisztomania", and his music is featured frequently in the film.
Wagner's operas, writings, his politics, beliefs and unorthodox lifestyle made him a controversial figure during his lifetime. In September 1876
Karl Marxcomplained in a letter to his daughter Jenny: "Wherever one goes these days one is pestered with the question: what do you think of Wagner?" Following Wagner's death, the debate about his ideas and their interpretation, particularly in Germany during the 20th century, continued to make him politically and socially controversial in a way that other great composers are not. Much heat is generated by Wagner's comments on Jews, which continue to influence the way that his works are regarded, and by the essays he wrote on the nature of race from 1850 onwards, and their putative influence on the anti-Semitism of Adolf Hitler.
Opinion on Jews and Judaism
pseudonymin the " Neue Zeitschrift für Musik", he published " Das Judenthum in der Musik" in 1850 (originally translated as "Judaism in Music," by which name it is still known, but better rendered as "Jewishness in Music.") The essay attacks Jewish contemporaries (and rivals) Felix Mendelssohnand Giacomo Meyerbeer, and accused Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture. Wagner stated the German people were repelled by their alien appearance and behavior: "with all our speaking and writing in favour of the Jews' emancipation, we always felt instinctively repelled by any actual, operative contact with them." He argued that because Jews had no connection to the German spirit, Jewish musicians were only capable of producing shallow and artificial music. They therefore composed music to achieve popularity and, thereby, financial success, as opposed to creating genuine works of art.
The initial publication of the article attracted little attention, but Wagner wrote a self-justifying letter about it to Liszt in 1851, claiming that his "long-suppressed resentment against this Jewish business" was "as necessary to me as gall is to the blood". ["Selected Letters", ed. Millington and Spencer: letter of 18 April 1851, pp. 221-2] As a pamphlet under his own name in 1869, Wagner republished a greatly expanded version of "Das Judenthum", leading to several public protests at performances of "
Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg". Wagner repeated similar views in several later articles, such as "What is German?" (1878), and his subsequent memoirs often recorded his comments about Jews. Although many have argued he suggested only Jews should suppress their Jewishness, others have interpreted sections of his writing more aggressively, to mean wiping out or burying the Jewish people.
Some biographers [ Gutman, Robert (1968, revised 1990). "Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind and His Music". Harcourt Brace Jovanovich ISBN 0-14-021168-3 pbk (1971), 015677615 4 pbk (1990) ] have suggested that
antisemitic stereotypes are also represented in Wagner's operas. The characters of Mime in the "Ring", Sixtus Beckmesser in "Die Meistersinger," and Klingsor in "Parsifal" are sometimes claimed as Jewish representations, though they are not explicitly identified as such in the libretto. Moreover, in all of Wagner's many writings about his works, there is no mention of an intention to caricatureJews in his operas; nor does any such notion appear in the diaries written by Cosima Wagner, which record his views on a daily basis over a period of eight years.
Despite his very public views on Jews, throughout his life Wagner had Jewish friends, colleagues and supporters. [ Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992). "ibid" page 164.]
Racism and Nazi appropriation
Some biographers have asserted that Wagner in his final years came to believe in the racialist philosophy of
Arthur de Gobineau, and according to Robert Gutman, this is reflected in the opera " Parsifal" [Gutman, Robert (1990) "ibid" page 418 ff] , but the latter conclusion remains unproven, as has been argued by more recent Wagner biographers (Lucy Beckett etc). Wagner showed no significant interest in Gobineau until 1880, when he read Gobineau's " An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races." [ Gutman (1990), "ibid", page 406] Wagner had completed the libretto for " Parsifal" by 1877, and the original drafts of the story date back to 1857. Wagner's writings of his last years indicate some interest in Gobineau's idea that Western society was doomed because of miscegenationbetween "superior" and "inferior" races. However, he does not seem to have subscribed to Gobineau's belief in the superiority of the supposed Germanic or " Nordic race". [cite web |url=http://www.monsalvat.no/racism.htm#Gobineau |title=Wagner, Gobineau and "Parsifal": Gobineau as the inspiration for "Parsifal" |publisher=Derrick Everett]
Wagner's writings on race and his antisemitism reflected some trends of thought in Germany at the end of the 19th century.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, expanded on Gobineau's and Wagner's ideas his 1899 book " The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century", a work proclaiming the superiority of Aryanraces, which had a wide circulation and later became required reading for members of the Naziparty. Chamberlain greatly admired Wagner's work and married Wagner's daughter, Eva, becoming a central part of the Bayreuth Circle, and thus contributing to the association of Wagner's name and works with racism and anti-semitism. Adolf Hitlerwas an admirer of Wagner's music, lifestyle and anti-Jewish sentiments and saw in Wagner's operas an embodiment of his own heroic mythology of the German nation. There continues to be debate about the extent to which Wagner's views might have influenced Nazi thinking. As with the works of Nietzsche, the Nazis used those parts of Wagner's thought that were useful for propagandaand ignored or suppressed the rest. For example Joseph Goebbelsbanned "Parsifal" in 1939, shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, due to the perceived pacifistic overtones of the opera. [ [http://www.monsalvat.no/banned.htm "The 1939 Ban on Parsifal" on the Parsifal Home Page] ] Although Hitler himself was obsessed by "the Master", many in the Nazi hierarchy were not, and, according to the historian Richard Carr, deeply resented the prospect of attending these lengthy epics at Hitler's insistence. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/secondworldwar/story/0,,2117058,00.html Charlotte Higgins, "How the Nazis took flight from Valkyries and Rhinemaidens"] , The Guardian3 July 2007]
As a consequence of this appropriation by Nazi propaganda, Wagner's operas have never been staged in the modern state of
Israel. Although his works are broadcast on Israeli government-owned radio and television stations, attempts to stage public performances in Israel have been halted by protests, including protests from Holocaust survivors. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/1428634.stm BBC report] of Daniel Barenboim's concert in Jerusalem, 8 July 2001]
List of compositions by Richard Wagner
*Articles on Wagner's
essays::* Art and Revolution:* Das Judenthum in der Musik:* Opera and Drama
Wagner tuba, a musical instrument commissioned by Wagner specially for " Der Ring des Nibelungen".
* Borchmeyer, Dieter 2003, "Drama and the World of Richard Wagner", Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691114972
* Burbidge, Peter and Sutton, Richard(eds.) 1979, "The Wagner Companion", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521296571
* Dahlhaus, Carl (Mary Whittall trans.) 1979, "Richard Wagner's Music Dramas", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521223973
* Dallas, Ian 1990, "The New Wagnerian", Freiburg Books. ISBN 978-8440474759
* Gregor-Dellin, Martin 1983, "Richard Wagner - His Life, His Work, His Century", Harcourt. ISBN 978-0151771516
* Grey, Thomas S. 2008 "The Cambridge Companion to Wagner", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521644396
* Gutman, Robert W. 1990, "Wagner - The Man, His Mind and His Music", Harvest Books. ISBN 978-0156776158
* Lee, M. Owen 1998, "Wagner: The Terrible Man and His Truthful Art", University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0802047212
* Magee, Bryan 2001, "The Tristan Chord: Wagner and Philosophy", Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0805071894
* Magee, Bryan 1988, "Aspects of Wagner", Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192840127
* May, Thomas 2004, "Decoding Wagner", Amadeus Press. ISBN 978-1574670974
* Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992). The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-02-871359-1
* Newman, Ernest 1933, "The Life of Richard Wagner", 4 vols., - the classic biography, superseded by newer research but still full of many valuable insights. ISBN 978-0685148242
* Nicholson, Christopher 2007, "Richard and Adolf: Did Richard Wagner incite Adolf Hitler to commit the
Holocaust?", Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-9652293602
* Runciman, J.F. 1913, "Wagner",
Project Gutenbergedition. [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14441 here] .
* Salmi, Hannu 2005, "Wagner and Wagnerism in Nineteenth-Century Sweden, Finland, and the Baltic Provinces: Reception, Enthusiasm, Cult", Eastman Studies in Music. University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1580462075
* Salmi, Hannu 2000, "Imagined Germany. Richard Wagner's National Utopia", Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-0820444161
* Scruton, Roger 2003, "Death-Devoted Heart: Sex and the Sacred in Wagner's 'Tristan and Isolde"', Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195166910
* Shaw, George Bernard 1898, "The Perfect Wagnerite"
* Spencer, Stewart 2000, "Wagner Remembered", Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0571196531
* Stone, M. 1997, "The Ring Disc: An Interactive Guide to Wagner's Ring Cycle", Media Cafe. ISBN 978-0965735704
* Tanner, M. 1995, "Wagner", Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691102900
* Wagner, Cosima (Geoffrey Skelton trans.), "Diaries", 2 vols. ISBN 978-0151226351
* Wagner, Richard (ed. and trans. Stewart Spencer and Barry Millington ), "Selected Letters of Richard Wagner", Dent, 1987. ISBN 0460046438; W. W. Norton and Company, 1987. ISBN 978-0393025002
* Wagner, Richard (Andrew Gray trans.) 1992, "My Life", Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0306804816 - Wagner's often unreliable autobiography, covering his life to 1864, written between 1865 and 1880 and first published privately in German in a small edition between 1870 and 1880. The first (edited) public edition appeared in 1911. Gray's translation is the most comprehensive available.
* Wagner`s Ring Motifs, An Audio Guide. Translated by Stewart Spencer. Auricula, ISBN 978-3-936196-05-4
* [http://www.wagneroperas.com Wagner Operas] - site featuring photographs, video, MIDI files, scores, libretti, and commentary.
* [http://www.rwagner.net/ RWagner.net] . Contains libretti of Wagner's operas, with English translations.
* [http://www.trell.org/wagner/ Richard Wagner Web Site] . An assortment of articles on Wagner and his operas.
* [http://www.rain.org/~karpeles/wedmch.html Photo of Wagner's manuscript for the Bridal Chorus] .
* [http://users.belgacom.net/wagnerlibrary/ The Wagner Library] . English translations of Wagner's prose works, including some of Wagner's more notable essays.
* "My Life" at Project Gutenberg [http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/w#a1325] - an early, incomplete, and not always accurate translation
* [http://www.richard-wagner-postkarten.de/ The Richard Wagner Postcard-Gallery] . A gallery of historic postcards with motives from Richard Wagner's operas.
* [http://greatcaricatures.com/articles_galleries/gill/galleries/html/1869_0418_wagner.html 1869 Caricature of Richard Wagner by André Gill]
* [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ gallica.bnf.fr] Pictures of [http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/ConsultationTout.exe?O=07722511 Richard Wagner] and his [http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/ConsultationTout.exe?O=07722510 family] .
* [http://kreusch-sheet-music.net/eng/?page=show&query=Richard%20Wagner&order=op www.kreusch-sheet-music.net] - Free Scores by Wagner
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/artist/4jbd/ The BBC Wagner profile]
* [http://www.bayreuther-festspiele.de/ Bayreuth Festival]
* [http://www.carolinaclassical.com/articles/wagner.html Richard Wagner: Zenith of German Romanticism]
* [http://www.wahnfried.de/_engl/archiv/index.html The National Archive of the Richard Wagner Foundation]
* [http://www.smerus.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/vulture_.htm 'A Vulture is almost An Eagle' - the Jewishness of Richard Wagner]
* [http://www.faqs.org/faqs/music/wagner/general-faq/preamble.html The humanities.music.composers.wagner FAQ] .
* [http://www.richard-wagner-museum.ch/en/index/index.php Richard Wagner Museum] in the country manor Triebschen beside Lucerne, Switzerland where he and Cosima lived and worked from 1866 to 1872.
* [http://mondediplo.com/2001/10/06wagner "Better to know" by Edward Said, Le Monde diplomatique]
* [http://www.wagner-tuba.com The Wagner Tuba]
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Wilhelm Richard Wagner
composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist
DATE OF BIRTH=22 May 1813
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=13 February 1883
PLACE OF DEATH=
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