- Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (
18 December 1786in Eutin, Holstein, Germany- 5 June 1826in London, England[ [http://www.oldandsold.com/articles18/music-masters-8.shtml Masters Of Music - Carl Maria Von Weber] ] ) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitaristand critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
Weber's works, especially his operas "
Der Freischütz", " Euryanthe" and "Oberon" greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany. He was also an innovative composer of instrumental music. His compositions for the clarinet, which include two concertos, a concertino, a quintet and a duo concertante, are regularly performed, while his pianomusic - including four sonatas, two concertos and the " Konzertstück" (Concert Piece) in F minor - influenced composers such as Frédéric Chopin, Franz Lisztand Felix Mendelssohn. The "Konzertstück" provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections (such as Liszt's, who often played the work), and was acknowledged by Igor Stravinskyas the model for his "Capriccio" for piano and orchestra.
Weber's contribution to vocal and choral music is also significant. His body of
Catholicreligious music was highly popular in 19th century Germany, and he composed one of the earliest song-cycles, "Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten".
Weber's orchestration has also been highly praised and emulated by later generations of composers -
Hector Berliozreferred to him several times in his " Treatise on Instrumentation" while Claude Debussyremarked that the sound of the Weber orchestra was obtained through the scrutiny of the soul of each instrument.
His operas influenced the work of later opera composers, especially in Germany, such as
Heinrich Marschner, Giacomo Meyerbeerand Richard Wagner, as well as several nationalist 19th-century composers such as Glinka, and homage has been paid him by 20th century composers such as Debussy, Stravinsky, Gustav Mahler(who completed Weber's unfinished comic opera " Die drei Pintos" and made revisions of "Euryanthe" and "Oberon") and Paul Hindemith(composer of the popular " Symphonic Metamorphoses on Themes of Weber").
Weber also wrote music journalism and was interested in
folksong, and learned lithographyto engrave his own works.
Weber was the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber (who seems to have had no real claim to a "von" denoting nobility), and his second wife, Genovefa Brenner, an actress. Franz Anton started his career as a military officer in the service of the Duchy of
Holstein; later he held a number of musical directorships; and in 1787 he went on to Hamburg, where he founded a theatrical company. Weber's cousin Constanze was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Weber's father gave him a comprehensive education, which was however interrupted by the family's constant moves.
In 1796, Weber continued his musical education in
Hildburghausen, where he was instructed by the oboist Johann Peter Heuschkel.
On March 13, 1798, Weber's mother died of
tuberculosis. That same year, Weber went to Salzburg, to study with Michael Haydn; and later to Munich, to study with the singer Johann Evangelist Wallishauser, and organist J.N. Kalcher.
1798 also saw Weber's first published work, six
fughettas for piano, published in Leipzig. Other compositions of that period, amongst them a mass, and his first opera, "Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins" ("The Power of Love and Wine"), are lost; but a set of "Variations for the Pianoforte" was later lithographed by Weber himself, under the guidance of Alois Senefelder, the inventor of the process.
In 1800, the family moved to
Freiberg, in Saxony, where Weber, then 14 years old, wrote an opera called "Das stumme Waldmädchen" ("The silent forest maiden"), which was produced at the Freiberg theatre. It was later performed in Vienna, Prague, and St. Petersburg. Weber also began to write articles as a critic, e.g. in the "Leipziger Neue Zeitung" (1801).
In 1801, the family returned to Salzburg, where Weber resumed his studies with
Michael Haydn. He later continued studying in Vienna with Abbé Vogler(Georg Joseph Vogler), founder of three important music schools (in Mannheim, Stockholm, and Darmstadt); another famous pupil of Vogler was Giacomo Meyerbeer, who became a close friend of Weber.
In 1803, Weber's opera, "Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn" ("Peter Schmoll and his Neighbors") was produced in
Augsburg, and gave Weber his first success as a popular composer. Vogler, impressed by his pupil's talent, recommended him to the post of Director at the Opera in Breslau(1806), and from 1807 to 1810, Weber held a post at the court of the Duke of Württemberg, in Stuttgart.
He left his post in
Breslauin a fit of frustration, he was on one occasion arrested for debt and fraud and expelled from Württemberg, and was involved in various scandals. However he remained successful as a composer, and also wrote a quantity of religious music, mainly for the Catholic mass. This however earned him the hostility of reformers working for the re-establishment of traditional chant in liturgy.
In 1810, Weber visited several cities throughout Germany; from 1813 to 1816 he was director of the Opera in
Prague; from 1816 to 1817 he worked in Berlin, and from 1817 onwards he was director of the prestigious Opera in Dresden, working hard to establish a German Opera, in reaction to the Italian Operawhich had dominated the European music scene since the 18th century. On 4 November 1817, he married Caroline Brandt, a singer who created the title role of "Silvana". [ [http://www.oldandsold.com/articles18/music-masters-8.shtml Masters Of Music - Carl Maria Von Weber] ]
The successful premiere of "
Der Freischütz" on 18 June 1821 in Berlin) led to performances all over Europe; it remains the only one of his operas still in the regular repertoire. Fact|date=October 2008 The colorful harmonies and orchestration, use of popular themes from central European folk music, and the gloomy ("gothic") libretto, complete with an appearance of the Devil in a nocturnal forest, have all helped to ensure its popularity. Fact|date=October 2008
's poem of the same name. Weber accepted the invitation, and in 1826 he travelled to England, to finish the work and conduct the premiere on April 12.
Other famous works by Weber include: "Invitation to the Dance" (later orchestrated by Berlioz); "Polacca Brillante"; two
symphonies, a concertino and two concertosfor clarinet, a quintetfor clarinet and strings, and a concertino for horn (during which the performer is asked to simultaneously produce two notes by humming while playing - a technique known in brass playing as " multiphonics").
Weber was already suffering from
tuberculosiswhen he visited London; he died there during the night of 4 to June 5, 1826. He was buried in London, but 18 years later, his remains were transferred on an initiative of Richard Wagner and re-buried in Dresden.
His unfinished opera "
Die drei Pintos" ('The Three Pintos') was originally given by Weber's widow to Meyerbeer for completion; it was eventually completed by Gustav Mahler, who conducted the first performance in this form in Leipzig on January 20, 1888.
Weber's mastery of the orchestra was surpassed in his time only by Beethoven and Schubert. During the 19th century, his 'Polacca Brillante', 'Invitation to the Dance, Second Piano Sonata and '
Konzertstück' for piano and orchestra were frequently heard. Lisztfrequently performed Weber's music and made editions of his piano sonatas. Other 19th-century admirers included Wagner, Meyerbeer and Berlioz.
Weber's piano music all but disappeared from the repertoire, but there has been a revival of interest in these works in recent times. There are several recordings of the major works for the solo piano (including complete recordings of the piano sonatas and the shorter piano pieces, by
Garrick Ohlsson, Alexander Paleyand others), and there are recordings of the individual sonatas by Claudio Arrau(1st Sonata), Alfred Brendel(2nd Sonata), Sviatoslav Richter(3rd Sonata) and Leon Fleischer(4th Sonata). The "Invitation to the Dance", although better known in Berlioz's orchestration (as part of the ballet music for a Paris production of "Der Freischütz"), has long been played and recorded by pianists (e.g. Benno Moiseiwitsch). "Invitation to the Dance" also served as the thematic basis for Benny Goodman's swing tune "Lets Dance".
His orchestral music, clarinet works, the opera "Der Freischütz" (his most famous composition), as well as the overtures to "Oberon" and "Euryanthe" are still performed. The last two operas have, in fact, been performed more and more often since the 1990s.
:"details|List of compositions by Carl Maria von Weber|Weber's compositions, including complete lists of his works in order of opus number and Jähns catalogue number"
Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins", J. Anh. 6, 1798-9, lost;
Das Waldmädchen", (Das stumme Waldmädchen), J. Anh. 1, 1800, frags; libretto by C. von Steinsberg; rev. as "Silvana" (1810)
Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn", J. 8, 1802; libretto by Josef Türk
* "Rübezahl", J. 44-6, 1804-5; libretto by
J.G. Rhode; 3 nos. survive; ov. rev. 1811 as "Der Beherrscher der Geister"
* "Silvana", J. 87, 1810; libretto by
Franz Karl Hiemer
Abu Hassan", 1811; libretto by Franz Karl Hiemer
Der Freischütz" op.77 J.277, 1821; libretto by Johann Friedrich Kind
Euryanthe" op.81 J.291, 1823; libretto by Helmina von Chézy
* "Oberon or The Elf Kings Oath" J.306, 1826; libretto by
James Robinson Planché
Die drei Pintos" J. Anh. 5, 1821, inc; libretto by Theodore Hell; new libretto by Carl von Weber (the composer's grandson) and Gustav Mahler; score completed by Mahler based on surviving sketches and new music based on little-known pieces by Weber.
*"Missa sancta" No. 1 in Eb J.224 (1818)
*"Missa sancta" No. 2 in G op.76 J.251 (1818-19)
Vocal works with orchestra
* Cantata "Der erste Ton" for chorus and orchestra op.14 J.58 (1808 / revised 1810)
* Recitative and rondo " _it. Il momento s'avvicina" for soprano and orchestra op.16 J.93 (1810)
* Hymn "In seiner Ordnung schafft der Herr" for soloists, chorus and orchestra op.36 J.154 (1812)
* Cantata "Kampf und Sieg" for soloists, chorus and orchestra op.44 J.190 (1815)
* Scene and Aria of Atalia "Misera me!" for soprano and orchestra op.50 J.121 (1811)
* Jubel-Cantata for the 50th royal jubilee of King
Frederick Augustus I of Saxonyfor soloist, chorus and orchestra op.58 J.244 (1818)
* Piano Concerto No. 1 in C major op. 11 J.98 (1810)
* Piano Concerto No. 2 in E flat major op. 32 J.155 (1812)
* Bassoon Concerto in F major op. 75 J.127 (1811 / revised 1822)
* Clarinet Concerto No. 1 in F minor op. 73 J.114 (1811)
* Clarinet Concerto No. 2 in E flat major, Opus 74 J.118 (1811)
* Grand pot-pourri for Cello and Orchestra in D major op. 20 J.64 (1808)
* Concertino for Clarinet and Orchestra in C minor/E flat major, op. 26 J.109 (1811)
* Konzertstück for Horn and Orchestra in E minor op. 45 J.188 (1815)
* Konzertstück for Piano and Orchestra in F minor op. 79 J.282 (1821)
* Romanza Siciliana for Flute and Orchestra J.47 (1805)
* Six variations on the theme "A Schüsserl und a Reind'rl" for Viola and Orchestra J.49 (1800 / revised 1806)
* Andante and Rondo Hungarian for die Viola and Orchestra J.79 (1809)
* Variations for Cello and Orchestra in D minor J.94 (1810)
* Adagio and Rondo for Harmonichord and Orchestra in F major J.115 (1811)
Andante and Rondo Hungarian ("Andante e Rondo Ongarese") for Bassoon and Orchestra in C minor op. 35 J.158 (1813) revised as J.79
* Friese-Greene, A. (1993) " Weber", The Illustrated lives of the great composers, New ed., London : Omnibus, ISBN 0-7119-2081-8
* Henderson, D.G. and Henderson, A.H. (1990) "Carl Maria von Weber : a guide to research", Garland composer resource manuals 24, New York ; London : Garland, ISBN 0-82404-118-6
* Meyer, S.C. (2003) "Carl Maria Von Weber and the Search for a German Opera", Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-34185-X
* Reynolds, D. (Ed.) (1976) "Weber in London, 1826", London : Wolff, ISBN 0-85496-403-7
* Warrack, J.H. (1976) "Carl Maria Von Weber", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-241-91321-7
* Warrack, J.H., Macdonald, H. and Köhler, K-.H. (1985) "Early romantic masters 2: Weber, Berlioz, Medelssohn", The composer biography series, London : Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-39014-8
* [http://weber-gesamtausgabe.de Information about the new Carl Maria von Weber Edition]
* [http://www.classical.net/music/composer/works/weber/index.html The works of Carl Maria von Weber]
* [http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/search.php?query=carl+maria+von+weber&queryType=%40attr+1%3D1 Carl Maria von Weber cylinder recordings] , from the
Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Projectat the University of California, Santa BarbaraLibrary.
*WIMA|idx=Weber|name=Carl Maria von Weber
* [http://www.mariannehofer.ch/downloads/weber.mp3 Der Freischütz] Soprano (free MP3)
NAME= Weber, Carl Maria von
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Weber, Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von
composer, conductor, pianist, guitaristand critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school
DATE OF BIRTH=November 18, 1786
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=June 5, 1826
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.