- Social movement
Social movements are a type of group action. They are large groupings of
individuals and/or organizations focused on specific political or socialissues, in other words, on carrying out, resisting or undoing a social change.
Modern Western social movements became possible through education (the wider dissemination of
literature), and increased mobility of labour due to the industrialisationand urbanisationof 19th century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression, education and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western cultureis responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. However others point out that many of the major social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mauin Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Political scienceand sociologyhave developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics.
Charles Tillydefines social movements as a series of contentious performances, displays and campaigns by which ordinary people made collective claims on others [Tilly, 2004] . For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics [Tilly, 2004:3] . He argues that there are three major elements to a social movement [Tilly, 2004] :
# Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims on target authorities;
# Repertoire: employment of combinations from among the following forms of
political action: creation of special-purpose associations and coalitions, public meetings, solemn processions, vigils, rallies, demonstrations, petition drives, statements to and in public media, and pamphleteering; and
# WUNC displays: participants' concerted public representation of worthiness, unity, numbers, and commitments on the part of themselves and/or their constituencies.
Sidney Tarrowdefines [Tarrow, 1994] a social movement as "collective challenges [to elites, authorities, other groups or cultural codes] by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and authorities." He specifically distinguishes social movements from political parties and interest groups.
The term "social movements" was introduced in 1850 by the German Sociologist
Lorenz von Steinin his book "History of the French Social Movement from 1789 to the Present (1850).
Charles Tilly claims that the "social movement" did not exist before the late eighteenth century: although such elements as campaigns, social movement repertoire and WUNC displays has a long history, only recently had they been combined together into a proper social movement. The "social movement" was invented in England and North America during the first decades of the nineteenth century and has since then spread across the globe. [Tilly, 2004]
Tilly argues that the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes including
parliamentarization, market capitalization, and proletarianization. [Tilly, 2004] Political movements that evolved in late 18th century, like those connected to the French Revolutionand the Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791are among the first documented social movements, although Tilly notes that the British abolitionistmovement has "some claim" to be the first social movement (becoming one between the sugar boycott of 1791 and the second great petition drive of 1806). The labor movementand socialist movementof the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical social movements, leading to the formation of communist and social democratic parties and organisations. From 1815, Britain after victory in the Napoleonic Warsentered a period of social upheaval. Similar tendencies were seen in other countries as pressure for reform continued, for example in Russia with the Russian Revolution of 1905and of 1917, resulting in the collapse of the Russian State around the end of the First World War.
In 1945, Britain after victory in the Second World War entered a period of radical reform and change. In the post-war period, women's rights, gay rights, peace, civil rights, anti-nuclear and
environmental movements emerged, often dubbed the " New Social Movements". They led inter alia to the formation of green partiesand organisations influenced by the new left. Some find in the end of the 1990s the emergence of a new global social movement, the anti-globalization movement. Some social movement scholars posit that with the rapid pace of globalization, the potential for the emergence of new "type" of social movement is latent -- they make the analogy to national movements of the past to describe what has been termed a global citizens movement.
Several key processes lie behind the history of social movements. The process of urbanization, which created large cities, facilitated
social interactionbetween scores of people. It was in cities, where people of similar goals could find each other, gather and organize, that those early social movements first appeared. Similarly, the process of industrialization which gathered large masses of workers in the same region was responsible for the fact that many of those early social movements addressed matters important to that social class. Many other social movements were created at universities, where the process of mass educationbrought many people together. With the development of communicationtechnologies, creation and activities of social movements became easier - from printed pamphlets circulating in the 18th century coffeehouses to newspapers and Internet, all those tools became important factors in the growth of the social movements. Finally, the spread of democracyand political rights like the freedom of speechmade the creation and functioning of social movements much easier.
Social movements have been and continued to be closely connected with
democratic political systems. Occasionally social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more often they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a popular and global expression of dissent. [Tilly, 2004]
Types of social movement
Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement:
** reform movements - movements dedicated to changing some norms, usually legal ones. Examples of such a movement would include a
trade unionwith a goal of increasing workers rights, a green movementadvocating a set of ecological laws, or a movement supporting introduction of a capital punishmentor right to abortion. Some reform movements may advocate a change in custom and moral norms, for example, condemnation of pornographyor proliferation of some religion. The nature of such movements is not just related to the issue but also to the methods used. There could be reformist or radical methods used to achieve the same end, such as in the case of making abortion legal and readily available.
** radical movement - movements dedicated to changing
value systems. Those involve fundamental changes, unlike the reform movements, Examples would include the American Civil Rights Movement which demanded full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans (this movement was broad and included both radical and reformist elements), regardless of race, the Polish Solidarity("Solidarność") movement which demanded the transformation of a Stalinistpolitical and economic systeminto a democracyor the South African shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondolowhich demands the full inclusion of shack dwellers into the life of cities.
* type of change
** innovation movement - movements which want to enable particular norms, values, etc. The
singularitarianismmovement advocating deliberate action to effect and ensure the safety of the technological singularityis an example of an innovation movement.
** conservative movement - movements which want to preserve existing norms, values, etc. For example, the anti-automation 19th century
Luddites movement or the modern movement opposing the spread of the genetically modified foodcould be seen as conservative movements in that they aimed to fight specific technological changes, however they are progressive in ways that movements that are simply being anti-change (e.g. being anti-immigration) for the sake of it can never be.
** group-focus movements - focused on affecting groups or society in general, for example, advocating the change of the political system. Some of these groups transform into or join a political party, but many remain outside the reformist party political system.
** individual-focused movements - focused on affecting individuals. Most
religious movements would fall under this category.
* methods of work
** peaceful movements, which are seen to stand in contrast to 'violent' movements. The American Civil Rights movement, Polish Solidarity movement or the
nonviolent, civil disobedience-orientated wing of the Indian independence movementwould fall into this category.
** violent movements - various armed movements e.g. the
Zapatista Army of National Liberation, Rote Armee Fraktion.
*old and new
**old movements - movements for change have existed since the beginning of society, most of the 19th century movements fought for specific social groups, such as the working class, peasants, whites, aristocrats, Protestants, men. They were usually centered around some materialistic goals like improving the
standard of livingor, for example, the political autonomy of the working class.
**new movements - movements which became dominant from the second half of the 20th century - like the
feminist movement, pro-choice movement, civil rights movement, environmental movement, free software movement, gay rights movement, peace movement, anti-nuclear movement, alter-globalizationmovement, etc. Sometimes they are known as new social movements. They are usually centered around issues that go beyond but are not separate from class.
**global movements - social movements with global objectives and goals. Movements such as the first (where Marx and Bakunin met), second, third and
fourth internationals, the World Social Forum, the PGA and the anarchist movement seek to change society at a global level.
**local movements - most of the social movements have a local scope. They are based on local or regional objectives, such as protecting a specific natural area, lobbying for the lowering of tolls in a certain motorway, or squatting a building about to be demolished for gentrification and turning it into a
** multi-level movements - social movements which recognize the complexity of governance in the 21st Century and aim to have an impact at the local, regional, national and international levels.
Identification of supporters
A difficulty for scholarship of movements is that for most of them, neither insiders to a movement nor outsiders apply consistent labels or even descriptive phrases. Unless there is a single leader who does that, or a formal system of membership agreements, activists will typically use diverse labels and descriptive phrases that require scholars to discern when they are referring to the same or similar ideas, declare similar goals, adopt similar programs of action, and use similar methods. There can be great differences in the way that is done, to recognize who is and who is not a member or an allied group:
* Insiders: Often exaggerate the level of support by considering people supporters whose level of activity or support is weak, but also reject those that outsiders might consider supporters because they discredit the cause, or are even seen as adversaries.
* Outsiders: Those not supporters who may tend to either underestimate or overestimate the level or support or activity of elements of a movement, by including or excluding those that insiders would exclude or include.
It is often outsiders rather than insiders that apply the identifying labels for a movement, which the insiders then may or may not adopt and use to self-identify. For example, the label for the
levellers political movementin 17th century England was applied to them by their antagonists, as a term of disparagement. Yet admirers of the movement and its aims later came to use the term, and it is the term by which they are known to history.
Caution must always be exercised in any discussion of amorphous phenomena such as movements to distinguish between the views of insiders and outsiders, supporters and antagonists, each of whom may have their own purposes and agendas in
characterizationor mischaracterization of it.
Dynamics of social movements
Social movements are not eternal. They have a life cycle: they are created, they grow, they achieve successes or failures and eventually, they dissolve and cease to exist.
They are more likely to evolve in the time and place which is friendly to the social movements: hence their evident symbiosis with the 19th century proliferation of ideas like individual rights, freedom of speech and civil disobedience. Social movements occur in liberal and authoritarian societies but in different forms. But there must always be polarizing differences between groups of people: in case of 'old movements', they were the
povertyand wealth gaps. In case of the 'new movements', they are more likely to be the differences in customs, ethics and values. Finally, the birth of a social movement needs what sociologist Neil Smelsercalls an "initiating event": a particular, individual event that will begin a chain reactionof events in the given society leading to the creation of a social movement. For example, American Civil Rights movement grew on the reaction to black woman, Rosa Parks, riding in the whites-only section of the bus (although it is important to note that Rosa Parks was not acting alone or spontaneously -- typically activist leaders lay the groundwork behind the scenes of interventions designed to spark a movement). The Polish Solidarity movement, which eventually toppled the communist regimes of Eastern Europe, developed after trade union activist Anna Walentynowiczwas fired from work. The South African shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondologrew out of a road blockade in response to the sudden selling off of a small piece of land promised for housing to a developer. Such an event is also described as a "volcanic model" - a social movement is often created after a large number of people realize that there are others sharing the same value and desire for a particular social change. Thus, one of the main difficulties facing the emerging social movement is spreading the very knowledge that it exists. Second is overcoming the free rider problem- convincing people to join it, instead of following the mentality 'why should I trouble myself when others can do it and I can just reap the benefits after their hard work'.
Many social movements are created around some
charismatic leader, i.e. one possessing charismatic authority. After the social movement is created, there are two likely phases of recruitment. The first phase will gather the people deeply interested in the primary goal and ideal of the movement. The second phase, which will usually come after the given movement had some successes and is trendy; it would look good on a résumé. People who join in this second phase will likely be the first to leave when the movement suffers any setbacks and failures.
Eventually, the social crisis can be encouraged by outside elements, like opposition from government or other movements. However, many movements had survived a failure crisis, being revived by some hardcore activists even after several decades.
ocial movement theories
Sociologists have developed several theories related to social movements [Kendall, 2005] . Chronologically they include:
collective behavior/ collective actiontheories (1950s)
relative deprivation theory(1960s)
*frame analysis theory (1980s) (closely related to
social constructionist theory)
new social movement theory(1980s)
political process theory(1980s to present)
global citizens movement
list of social movements
Teaching for social justice
* Graeme Chesters, & Ian Welsh. "Complexity and Social Movements: Multitudes at the Edge of Chaos" Routledge 2006. ISBN 0-4154-3974-4
* Susan Eckstein, ed. "Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements", Updated Edition, University of California Press 2001. ISBN 0-520-22705-0
Immanuel Ness, ed. "Encyclopedia of American Social Movements", 2004. ISBN 0-7656-8045-9
Diana Kendall, "Sociology In Our Times", Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. ISBN 0-534-64629-8
*David Snow, Sarah A. Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi, ed. [http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=9780631226697 Blackwell Companion to Social Movements] , Blackwell, 2004.
*Suzanne Staggenborg, "Social Movements", Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-542309-9
Charles Tilly, "Social Movements, 1768–2004", Boulder, CO, Paradigm Publishers, 2004 262 pp. ISBN 1-59451-042-3 (hardback) / ISBN 1-59451-043-1 (paperback)
Sidney Tarrow, "Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social Movements and Politics", Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-42271-x
Marco G. Giugni, "How Social Movements Matter", University of Minnesota Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8166-2914-5
Rod Bantjes, "Social Movements in a Global Context", CSPI, 2007, ISBN 978-1-55130-324-6
* Michael Barker, "Conform or Reform? Social Movements and the Mass Media", Fifth-Estate-Online - International Journal of Radical Mass Media Criticism. February 2007. [http://www.fifth-estate-online.co.uk/criticsm/conformorreformsocialmovements.html]
* [http://www.vcn.bc.ca/citizens-handbook/movements.pdf Social Movements: A Summary of What Works (pdf)]
* [http://www.euromovements.info/yearbook/index.php Wiki on Social Movements across Europe]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.