Norm (sociology)

Norm (sociology)

Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These rules may be explicit or implicit. Failure to stick to the rules can result in severe punishments, the most feared of which is exclusion from the group." [ [ Social Norms] ] They have also been described as the "customary rules of behavior that coordinate our interactions with others." [ [ Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume (Eds), 'Social Norms' in "New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition," London: Macmillan, (forthcoming)] ] The social norms indicate the established and approved ways of doing things, of dress, of speech and of appearance. These vary and evolve not only through time but also vary from one age group to another and between social classes and social groups. What is deemed to be acceptable dress, speech or behaviour in one social group may not be accepted in another. Deference to the social norms maintains one's acceptance and popularity within a particular group; ignoring the social norms risks one becoming unacceptable, unpopular or even an outcast from a group. What is deemed acceptable to young people is often unacceptable to elderly people; this difference is caused by the different social norms that operate and are tacitly agreed-upon in such different groups of people. Social norms tend to be tacitly established and maintained through body language and non-verbal communication between people in their normal social discourse. We soon come to know when and where it is appropriate to say certain things, to use certain words, to discuss certain topics or wear certain clothes and when not to. We also come to know through experience what types of people we can and cannot discuss certain topics with or wear certain types of dress around. Mostly this knowledge is derived experientially.


Social norms can also be viewed as statements that regulate behavior and act as informal social controls. They are usually based in some degree of consensus and are maintained through social sanctions. In order to explain the content of normative rules, three different models are identified:
*Focus on the actions of one's personal ego,
*Focus on ego's reactions to actions of alter, and
*Negotiation between ego and alter.

Game-theoretical analysis of norms

A general formal framework that can be used to represent the essential elements of the social situation surrounding a norm is the repeated game of game theory.

A norm gives a person a rule of thumb for how they should behave. However, a rational person only acts according to the rule if only it is optimal for them. The situation can be described as follows. A norm gives an expectation of how other people act in a given situation (macro). A person acts optimally given the expectation (micro). In order for a norm to be stable, people's actions must reconstitute the expectation without change (micro-macro feedback loop). A set of such correct stable expectations is known as a Nash equilibrium. Thus, a stable norm must constitute a Nash equilibrium.

There exist various norms throughout the world. What accounts for the vast variety? From a game theoretical point of view, there are two explanans for this. One is the difference in games. Different parts of the world may give different environmental contexts and different people may have different values, which may result in a difference in games. The other is equilibrium selection not explicable by the game itself. Equilibrium selection is closely related to coordination. For a simple example, driving is common throughout the world, but in some countries people drive on the right and in other countries people drive on the left (see coordination game). A framework called comparative institutional analysis is proposed to deal with the game theoretical structural understanding of the variety of social norms.

Example (gift exchange)

The Norm of Reciprocity:

In the western world, it is a custom to exchange gifts on various holidays. It is so deeply ingrained in the minds of people that many do not think of acting otherwise.

Now, suppose you become fed up with exchanging gifts. It is not necessarily easy to change your actions. Unilaterally changing your actions to stop giving gifts may give others the impression that you are a selfish person, and that impression is probably not in your interest. Notice, that your friends may be following the norm for the same reasons as you. If that is the case, you are wrongly coordinating due to the customary norm of gift exchange and are trapped in a prisoner's dilemma game. Coordination with communication may be necessary to get out of the prisoner's dilemma situation.

ee also

*breaching experiment
*convention (norm)
*intercultural competence
*norm (philosophy)
*peer pressure
*rule complex


* Axelrod, Robert, 1984, "The Evolution of Cooperation," New York: Basic Books
* Becker, Howard S, 1982, "Culture: A Sociological View," "Yale Review," 71(4): 513-27
*Bicchieri, Cristina. 2006. The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics ofSocial Norms, New York: Cambridge University Press
* Blumer, Herbert, 1956, "Sociological Analysis and the 'Variable,'" "American Sociological Review," 21(6): 683-90
* Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson, 1985, "Culture and the Evolutionary Process," Chicago: University of Chicago Press
* Burt, Ronald S, 1987, "Social Contagion and Innovation: Cohesive Versus Structural Equivalence," "American Journal of Sociology" 92(6): 1287-1335
* Cialdini, R., 2007, Descriptive Social Norms as Underappreciated Sources of Social Control, "Psychometrika," vol. 72, no. 2, 263-268,
* Durkheim, Emile, 1915, "The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life," New York: Free Press
*Elster, Jon, 1989, Social norms and economic theory, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3, no. 4, 99-117
*Fehr, Ernst, Urs Fischbacher, and Simon Gächter, 2002, Strong reciprocity, human cooperation, and the enforcement of social norms, Human Nature, 13, 1-25
* Fine, Gary Alan, 2001, "Social Norms", ed. by Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation
*Hechter, Michael and Karl-Dieter Opp, eds, 2001, Social Norms, New York:Russell Sage Foundation
* Heiss, Jerold, 1981, "Social Roles," In "Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives, edited by Morris Rosenburg and Ralph H. Turner, New York: Basic Books.
* Hochschild, Arlie, 1989, "The Economy of Gratitude," In "The Sociology of Emotions: Original Essays and Research Papers", edited by David D. Franks and E. Doyle McCarthy, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press
* Horne, Christine, 2001, "Social Norms", ed. by Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation
*Kahneman and Miller (1986) Norm Theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives, Psychological Review, 80, 136-153
* Kollock, Peter, 1994. "The Emergence of Exchange Structures: An Experimental Study of Uncertainty, Commitment, and Trust." "American Journal of Sociology" 100(2): 313-45
* Kohn, Melvin L, 1977, "Class and Conformity: A Study in Values," 2d ed Chicago: University of Chicago Press
* Macy, Michael W and John Skvoretz, 1998, "The Evolution of Trust and Cooperation Between Strangers: A Computational Model," "American Sociological Review," 63(5): 638-60
* Mark, Noah, 1998, "Birds of a Feather Sing Together," "Social Forces" 77(2): 453-85
* McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P.J., 2003, Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markers, "Current Anthropology," 44(1): 122-129 [ Full text]
* Opp, Karl-Dieter, 1982, "The Evolutionary Emergence of Norms," "British Journal of Social Psychology," 21(2): 139-49
* Posner, Eric, 1996, "The Regulation of Solidary Groups: The Influence of Legal and Nonlegal Sanctions on Collective Action," "University of Chicago Law Review" 63(1): 133-97 []
*Posner, Eric. 2000. Law and Social Norms. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press
*Prentice, D. A. and Miller, D. T. (1993) Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 243-256
* Schultz, P.W., Nolan, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N. J., Griskevicius, V., 2007, The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms, "Psychological Science," vol. 18, no. 5, 429-434, 2007 []
* Scott, John Finley, 1971, "Internalization of Norms: A Sociological Theory of Moral Commitment," Englewoods Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall
*Ullmann-Margalit, Edna, 1977, The Emergence of Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press
*Yamagishi, Toshio, Karen S. Cook, and Motoki Watabe. 1998. "Uncertainty, Trust, and Commitment Formation in the United States and Japan," "American Journal of Sociology," 104(1), 165-94
* Young, H. Peyton, 2008. "social norms." "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd Edition. [ Abstract.]


External links

* [ Common Knowledge in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
* [ Model Citizenship] Real World Examples of Expected Normative Behavior

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Norm (philosophy) — Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express. Normative sentences imply “ought to” types of statements and assertions, in distinction… …   Wikipedia

  • Norm (social) — Sociology …   Wikipedia

  • norm — norm, social norm, normative In sociology a norm is a shared expectation of behaviour that connotes what is considered culturally desirable and appropriate. Norms are similar to rules or regulations in being prescriptive, although they lack the… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Norm — or NORM may refer to: Contents 1 In academia 1.1 In mathematics 2 People 3 Miscellaneous 4 …   Wikipedia

  • Sociology of the body — is a branch of sociology studying the representations and social uses of the human body in modern societies. Early theoriesAccording to Thomas Laqueur, [Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender From the Greeks to Freud (Massachusetts , Harvard …   Wikipedia

  • norm — normless, adj. /nawrm/, n. 1. a standard, model, or pattern. 2. general level or average: Two cars per family is the norm in most suburban communities. 3. Educ. a. a designated standard of average performance of people of a given age, background …   Universalium

  • Sociology of emotions — Emotions are on one hand constitutive of, embedded in, and on the other hand manipulated or instrumentalized by entities that are studied by sociology on a micro level, such as social roles and norms and feeling rules the everyday social… …   Wikipedia

  • norm-formation — /ˈnɔm fɔˌmeɪʃən/ (say nawm faw.mayshuhn) noun (in sociology) the development of common behaviour and beliefs by general agreement within a reference group …   Australian-English dictionary

  • Convention (norm) — A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. Certain types of rules or customs may become law and regulatory legislation may be introduced to… …   Wikipedia

  • Normalization (sociology) — Sociology …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”