Combat Vehicle 90

Combat Vehicle 90
Combat Vehicle 90 (9040A)
Swedish CV9040.JPG
A Strf9040A in Swedish service
Type Infantry fighting vehicle
Place of origin Sweden Sweden
Service history
In service 1993-present
Used by See Operators
Wars War in Afghanistan
United Nations Mission in Liberia
Production history
Designer Hägglunds/Bofors
Manufacturer BAE Systems Hägglunds
Number built Over 1,000
Weight 23-35 tonnes (Mk0 to MkIII)
Length 6.55 m
Width 3.1 m
Height 2.7 m
Crew 3 (commander, gunner, driver)
7 troopers

40mm Bofors Autocannon,
30mm Bushmaster Cannon (MkI & MkII export model) or 35mm/50 Bushmaster Cannon (MkIII export model)
7.62 mm Browning machine gun
Engine Scania DSI 14 litres or DSI 16, V8 Diesel
550-810 hp (410- 595 kW) 2300 nm
Power/weight 24.1 hp/tonne
Transmission Automatic
Suspension torsion bar
320 km
Speed 70 km/h

The Combat Vehicle 90 (CV90) or Stridsfordon 90 (Strf 90) is a Swedish infantry fighting vehicle designed by Hägglunds where the first generation was fitted with a Bofors turret. It is currently produced by BAE Systems Hägglunds.



During the Cold War, Hägglunds started the production of a new family of Combat Vehicles called Combat Vehicle 90. In 1984, the Swedish army desired a unique vehicle with high mobility, air defence and anti-tank capability, high survivability and protection. In total five prototypes were developed; deliveries took place in 1988. These prototypes were tested during extensive trials for three years between 1988 to 1991. The first deliveries started in 1993, and now over 1000 CV90s have been delivered worldwide.[1]


Various customer requirements have led to several generations of CV90 where major differences are survivability and the electronic architecture. With higher protection follows higher curb weight, and the vehicle combat weight has risen from 23 to 35 tonnes. Power-to-weight ratio has remained approximately the same with increasingly stronger diesel engines. The track suspension system has seen upgrades in several stages. The Mk III version has a digital electronic architecture with several different CAN-buses and digital networks, and is the first IFV to boast an automatic Defensive Aid Suite (DAS) which classifies threats and in automatic mode can fire smoke and/or the main gun in suitable directions as well as instruct the driver. At the Eurosatory 2010 exhibition a version called Armadillo [2] was presented. The Armadillo shown was in Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) version that shows how flexible the original platform is, and with a bolted roof several other roles (like ambulance, control vehicle or other turreted versions) are easy to create.


The basic armor of the CV9040 provides all-round protection against 14.5 mm armour-piercing rounds. Armour protection over the frontal arc is classified but all models from CV9040B and later are said to be protected against 30 mm APFSDS. Some variants, including the CV9030N, can be fitted with MEXAS, a ceramic appliqué armor which provides all-round[citation needed] protection against 30 mm APFSDS. This armour kit is intended to provide increased protection against Improvised explosive device, Explosively formed penetrator and 30 mm caliber armour piercing rounds.[3] All CV90s are fitted with a Kevlar spall suppression liners which cover the interior spaces and provide protection for the troops inside against shrapnel and anti-personnel artillery munition.

The CV90 can be also fitted with cage armour, which provides protection against tandem-charge and shaped charge warheads. The CV90 is fitted with a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) filtration system accompanied with a chemical detector and radiation detector systems. The CV90 also use heat-absorbing filters to provide temporary protection against thermal imaging (TIS), image intensifier and infrared camera (IR). The CV 90 was designed to produce a very low and very compact structure to minimize radar and IR-signatures.

With every generation of CV90 there has been an increase in payload and corresponding protection levels. The inherent mine protection levels have risen substantially to presently defeat the heaviest (10 kg TNT) anti-tank mines.[4]


The CV90 Mk0 is powered by a DSI14 developed by Scania, which provides 550 horse power (HP) and it can reach speeds of 70 kilometers per hour. The basic CV90 has a maximum road range of 320 kilometers but the latest generation can reach up to 600 kilometers.[5][6] The CV90 offers quieter movement for improved stealth, greater speed over good terrain, and higher ground clearance for protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.


The basic CV90 is fitted with a two-man turret, armed with Bofors 40 mm caliber gun and coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. The CV90 also carries six 76-mm grenades in two clusters of three launchers positioned on each side of the turret. The grenade launchers are intended for smoke grenades.


The CV90 is equipped with a UTAAS (Universal Tank and Anti-Aircraft Sight) from Saab. Daytime optical, Thermal Imaging System (TIS) and Generation III Image Intensification (II).


Production of the CV 90 began in 1993, and over 1,000 vehicles have been ordered. In November 2000, Finland ordered 57 CV9030 vehicles.[7] Total cost was €250 million (in 2008 euros), or €4.42 million per vehicle.[8] In June 2004 Finland made another purchase, bringing the overall quantity ordered to 102.[9] This time the cost was €2.92 million (in 2008 euros) per vehicle.[9] In December 2005, Denmark ordered 45 CV9035 vehicles for a cost of €188 million or €4.18 million per vehicle.[10] The Netherlands ordered 184 combat plus 8 instruction CV9035 vehicles for a cost of €749 million.[11][citation needed]


Hägglunds have demonstrated an infrared stealth version with thermoelectric plates, capable of posing as many different objects such as ordinary cars, stones, trees etc. to an enemy IR-viewfinder. It takes 1500 plates to cover a CV90, at a cost of $100 per plate.[12]


  • CV9040: The original model with a 40 mm Bofors autocannon. Used by Sweden
  • CV9040B: Updated CV90 with fully stabilized gun, although elevation suffers because of this. Used by Sweden
  • CV9040C: Version for International Operations with additional all-round armour and tropical climate kit. Used by Sweden
  • CV9030: Export version with a 30 mm Bushmaster II autocannon. Adopted by Norway, Switzerland and Finland. Within BAE Systems Hägglunds, the Norwegian CV9030N are generally known as the CV90 Mk I while the more advanced Finnish CV9030FIN and Swiss CV9030CH vehicles are known as the CV90 MK II.[13]
  • CV9035: Armed with a Bushmaster III 35/50 cannon. Adopted by the Netherlands as CV9035NL and Denmark as CV9035DK. Within BAE Systems Hägglunds CV9035 is known as the CV90 MK III.[13]
  • CV90105: Light tank equipped with 105 mm rifled tank gun/turret. Designed by Hägglunds (BAE Systems) and GIAT (Nexter).
  • CV90120-T: Light tank equipped with tank turret and smoothbore 120 mm gun. (RUAG 120 mm Compact Tank Gun)
CV9040 AAV.
  • CV9040 AAV (TriAD): Anti-Air Vehicle, fitted with radar and 40 mm autocannon. Can also elevate its cannon higher than CV9040
  • CV90: Command Vehicle.
  • CV90: Forward Observation Vehicle, more advanced IR sensor fitted.
  • CV90: Armored Recovery Vehicle. (BgBv90 Swedish army designation)
  • CV9056: Prototype version equipped with the Bofors RB56 anti-tank missile. No units ordered.
  • Armadillo: Armoured Personnel Carrier version built on a modular CV90 Mk III chassis
  • GRKPBV90120: Self Propelled Mortar. Twin mounted, breach loaded 120 mm mortars, AMOS.

The forward observation, command and recovery vehicles are armed only with a machine gun.

The CV 90 has also been fitted with the advanced mortar system under the name Grkpbv 90120 (granatkastarpansarbandvagn, "tracked armoured mortar vehicle") or formerly SSG 120 (Splitterskyddad granatkastare, "lightly armoured mortar"). Now cancelled the vehicle was a project between Hägglunds and Patria.

Sweden originally planned for a mix of CV9040 and CV9025, tests of the 25 mm turret being carried out on on an Ikv 91 chassis, but finally decided on the 40 mm version, due to the much higher potential of the larger calibre.[14]

Combat service

Swedish CV9040C on training exercises

With production having begun in 1993, the CV90 had remained untested in live combat until November 2007, when Norwegian Army CV90s from 2nd Battalion saw heavy combat during Operation Harekate Yolo in Afghanistan. During the first week of November, Norwegian ISAF forces from 2nd Battalion and Kystjegerkommandoen based in Mazar-e-Sharif, responded to a Taliban attack on Afghan National Army forces in the Ghowrmach district. Having been heavily outnumbered by the Taliban forces, the Norwegians used mortars and, in particular, CV90s, to effectively beat down the attack. The operation left an unknown number of Taliban casualties, but Norwegian news sources say as many as 45 to 65 Taliban fighters may have been killed, and many more wounded.[15]

Norwegian CV9030 during a patrol in Afghanistan.

The CV90 was later used extensively by ISAF-forces of the Norwegian Army's Telemark Battalion in May 2008, when the battalion, during Operation Karez in the Badghis Province, came under heavy machine gun and RPG fire from Taliban fighters. The attack left 13 Taliban fighters dead, and unknown number of wounded. No allied casualties were reported.[16]

In January 2010, a Norwegian soldier driving a CV9030 was killed when it drove over an IED in Ghowrmach, Afghanistan.[17]

Swedish CV90s have also seen service in Liberia.[18] As of the spring of 2011, Sweden operates 9 CV9040s in Afghanistan. Swedish CV90s have seen combat with insurgents on at dozens occasions.[citation needed]

In February 2010 Denmark sent 10 CV9035DK's to Afghanistan in order to bolster their contingent in Helmand Province. The Danish contingent has suffered numerous casualties since they began operations in the province in the autumn of 2006. The vehicles are from the Danish Royal Lifeguard Regiment, based in the Northern part of Seeland. They are working alongside with MOWAG Piranha IIIC, MOWAG Eagle IV, M113 G3DK and Leopard 2A5DK, all contributed by Denmark, in the Helmand Province. By April 2010 two of the ten vehicles have been hit with IEDs, in both cases protecting the crew and passengers of personal injury.[19] The vehicles lost two wheels and tracks, and were sent back to the manufacturer in Sweden for further investigation. On the 7th of August 2010, a CV9035DK hit an IED in Afghanistan. 2 were killed and 3 wounded. The explosion was so powerful the vehicle was turned over.[20]


  •  Norway: 104 CV9030N. 17 of these have been upgraded with air-condition, additional mine protection and rear-view cameras, and are designated CV9030NF1.[26][27]
  •  Switzerland: 186 CV9030CH[27]
  •  Sweden: 509 vehicles, including 42 CV9040C with additional armour.[28][29][30]

Evaluation operators


See also


  1. ^ Combat Vehicle 90 (CV 90), 2002, 
  2. ^ BAE To Unveil CV90 Armadillo at Eurosatory, 2010, 
  3. ^
  4. ^ armadillo2010
  5. ^ http://
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Finland goes for CV9030 from Patria Hägglunds Oy". BAE Systems Sweden. 2000-11-02. Retrieved 2009-11-07. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Valmiusyhtymille nykyaikainen taisteluajoneuvo". The Finnish Ministry of Defence. 2000-11-02. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  9. ^ a b "A New Order for CV90 from the Finnish Defence Forces". BAE Systems Sweden. 2004-06-30. Retrieved 2009-11-07. [dead link]
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^
  12. ^ Thermo-electric plates turn a tank into a car Pictures, 13 September 2011. Accessed: 13 September 2011.
  13. ^ a b Army Guide web site: BAE Systems Hägglunds CV 90 site (direct link blocked)
  14. ^ Ulfhielm, Hans. "Svensk stridsfordonsanskaffning 1920-1990". In Bo Kjellander (in Swedish). Pansar Trupperna: 1942-1992. Sweden: Arméns Pansarcetrum, Skövde. pp. 213–215. ISBN 91-630-1253-7. 
  15. ^ "Vi har trent for dette lenge". 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  16. ^ Norske ISAF-soldater: «Plutselig smalt det. De traff overalt» - Nyheter - Utenriks -
  17. ^
  18. ^ CV90 in Liberia
  19. ^ [2] Nye køretøjer står stille i Helmand
  20. ^ [3]
  21. ^ "New export success – Denmark buys CV9035". 2005-12-16. Retrieved 2007-03-20. [dead link]
  22. ^ "Finland goes for CV9030 from Patria Hägglunds Oy". 2000-11-02. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  23. ^ "A new order for CV90 from the Finnish Defence Forces". 2004-06-30. Retrieved 2007-03-20. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Major order for Land Systems Hägglunds". 2004-12-10. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  25. ^ "Inventarisatie van bestaand defensiematerieel", Ministry of Defense, 7 May 2008
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b "Army Technology - CV 90". Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  28. ^ "Försvarets materielverk - Strf 90 - Stridsfordon 90" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  29. ^ "Försvarets materielverk - Strf 9040C - Stridsfordon 9040C" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  30. ^ "Delivery of final CV90 to Swedish Ministry of Defence". 2002-09-24. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  31. ^ "CANADIAN FORCES LOOKS AT CV90 FOR NEW CLOSE COMBAT VEHICLE". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 

External links

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