List of Finnish monarchs

List of Finnish monarchs

This is a list of the monarchs of Finland until it became a republic in 1919; that is, the Kings of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union, the Grand Dukes of Finland (identical with the Tsars of Russia), up to the two-year Regent period following the independence in 1917, with a brief flirtation with a truly domestic monarchy.


Part of the Kingdom of Sweden, from the Middle Ages until 1809

Finland as an integral part of Sweden under the King of Sweden (Ruotsin kuningas).

Some texts suggest the Swedish rule of Finland started as early as during the Houses of Sverker and Eric (Sverker I of Sweden 1130–1156 and Eric the Saint 1156–1160). But the first historic documents suggesting rule by Swedish kings in Finland not limited to sparse crusades and conquests are dated at around 1249.

The House of Bjelbo

Rulers of the Kalmar Union and Regents (Valtionhoitaja, Riksföreståndare)

Kaarle Knuutinpoika
  • 1389–1412 : Margaret I of Scandinavia (Margareeta), widow of King Haakon of Sweden, mother of Olav IV, and heiress of Estonia, a Danish dominion
  • 1396–1439 : Eric of Pomerania (Eerik XIII Pommerilainen, died 1459), a first cousin twice removed of Haakon I of Sweden
  • 1438–1440 : Carl Knutsson Bonde, Regent (Kaarle Knuutinpoika)
  • 1441–1448 : Christopher of Bavaria (Kristoffer Baijerilainen)
  • 1448–1448 : Regents Bengt and Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna ((Pentti Jönsinpoika Häräntähti and Niilo Jönsinpoika Häräntähti))
  • 1448–1457 : Charles VIII of Sweden (Kaarle VIII Knuutinpoika), he had been 1442–48 chatelain and margrave of Viipuri county
  • 1457–1457 : Regents Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna the archbishop and Eric Axelsson Tott ((arkkipiispa Jöns Pentinpoika and herra Eerik Akselinpoika))
  • 1457–1464 : Christian I of Sweden (Kristian I)
  • 1464–1465 : Charles VIII of Sweden (Kaarle VIII)
  • 1465–1465 : Regent Kettil Karlsson Vasa the bishop ((piispa Kettil Kaarlenpoika Vaasa))
  • 1465–1466 : Regent Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna the archbishop
  • 1466–1467 : Regent Eric Axelsson Tott, also 1457–81 chatelain and margrave of Viipuri county
  • 1467–1470 : Charles VIII of Sweden (Kaarle VIII)
  • 1470–1497 : Regent Sten Sture the elder (Sten Sture vanhempi) - also, 1483–1501 chatelain and margrave of Viipuri county
  • 1497–1501 : John II of Sweden (Hans of Denmark, Juhana II, Hannu, Tanskan Hannu)
  • 1501–1503 : Regent Sten Sture the elder (Sten Sture vanhempi)
  • 1504–1511 : Regent Svante Niilonpoika (Svante Niilonpoika, Ekesiön herra, he did not use the name of Sture)
  • 1512–1512 : Regent Eric Trolle
  • 1512–1520 : Regent Sten Sture the younger (Sten Sture nuorempi, he took the name of Sture of his great-grandmother's family, for imago reasons and for its prestige)
  • 1520–1521 : Christian II of Sweden (Kristian II)

The House of Vasa

Juhana III

The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken

The House of Hesse

The House of Holstein-Gottorp

Kustaa III

Grand Principality of Finland in Russian Empire 1809–1917

The Grand Principality of Finland in the Russian Empire (1809–1917) with the Emperor of Russia as the Grand Prince of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas).

The House of Romanov

Nikolai II

Interim period 1917–19

Elected King of Finland 1918

Regents (valtionhoitaja) using the powers reserved for the monarch.

The House of Hesse

For later heads of state after the proclamation of the republic, see List of Presidents of Finland.

See also


  1. ^ During Svinhufvud's regency, Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse was elected as the King of Finland on October 9, 1918. He never took office and renounced the throne on December 14, 1918.

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