Old Azari language

Old Azari language
آذری Āḏarī
Spoken in Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan
Region Middle East, Central Asia
Era 1100–1600 CE
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None

Azari (Persian: آذری Āḏarī, [ɑːzæri], also spelled Adari, Adhari) is the name used for the Iranian language composed of groups of dialects which were spoken in Azerbaijan at one time. Some linguists have also designated the southern Tati dialects of Azerbaijan like those spoken by the Tats[1] around Khalkhal, Harzand and Keringan as a remnant of Azari.[2][3][4] In addition, Old Azari is known to have strong affinities with Talysh.[5]

It was the dominant language in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by a Turkic language, now known as the Azerbaijani language.[4]


Linguistic affiliation

Azari is believed to be a part of the dialect continuum of Northwest Iranian languages. As such, its ancestor would be close to the earliest attested Northwest Iranian languages, Median. As the Northwestern and Southwestern Iranian languages had not yet developed very far apart by the first millennium AD, Azari would also still have been very similar to classical Middle Persian (also called Pahlavi).

Azari was spoken in most of Azarbaijan at least up to the 17th century, with the number of speakers decreasing since the 11th century due to the Turkification of the area. According to some accounts, it may have survived for several centuries after that up to the 16th or 17th century. Today, Iranian dialects are still spoken in several linguistic enclaves within Azarbaijan. While some scholars believe that these dialects form a direct continuation of the ancient Azari languages,[4] others have argued that they are likely to be a later import through migration from other parts of Iran, and that the original Azari dialects became extinct.[6]

The name "Azari" is derived from the old Iranian name for the region of Azarbaijan. The same name for the region, in a Turkified form, was later adopted also to designate the modern Turkic language "Azeri".

According to Vladimir Minorsky, around the 9th-10th century:[7]:

"The original sedentary population of Azarbayjan consisted of a mass of peasants and at the time of the Arab conquest was compromised under the semi-contemptuous term of Uluj("non-Arab")-somewhat similar to the raya(*ri’aya) of the Ottoman empire. The only arms of this peaceful rustic population were slings, see Tabari, II, 1379-89. They spoke a number of dialects (Adhari, Talishi) of which even now there remains some islets surviving amidst the Turkish speaking population. It was this basic population on which Babak leaned in his revolt against the caliphate.

Professor Igrar Aliyev states that[8]:

1. In the writing of medieval Arab historians (Ibn Hawqal, Muqqaddesi..), the people of Azarbaijan spoke Azari. 2. This Azari was without doubt an Iranian language because it is also contrasted with Dari but it is also mentioned as Persian. It was not the same as the languages of the Caucasus mentioned by Arab historians. 3. Azari is not exactly Dari (name used for the Khorasanian Persian which is the Modern Persian language). From the research conducted by researchers upon this language, it appears that this language is part of the NW Iranian languages and was close to Talyshi language. Talyshi language has kept some of the characteristics of the Median language.

Aliyev also mentions that the medieval Muslim historians like Baladhuri, Masudi, Ibn Hawqal and Yaqut have mentioned this language by name.[8] Medieval historians and scholars also record that the language of the region of Azarbaijan, as well as its people there, as Iranians who spoke Iranian languages. Among these writes are Istakhri, Masudi, Ibn al-Nadim, Hamza Isfahani, Ibn Hawqal, Baladhuri, Muqaddasi, Yaghubi, Hamdollah Mostowfi, and Khwarazmi.[4]

According to Gilbert Lazard[9]:

Azarbaijan was the domain of Adhari, an important Iranian dialect which Masudi mentions together with Dari and Pahlavi.

According to Professor. Richard Frye: Azari was a major Iranian language and the original language of Azerbaijan region and Azari gradually lost its stature as the prevalent language by the end of the 14th century.[10]

Historical attestations

Ebn al-Moqaffa’ (d. 142/759) is quoted by ibn Al-Nadim in his famous Al-Fihrist as stating that Azerbaijan, Nahavand, Rayy, Hamadan and Esfahan speak Fahlavi (Pahlavi) and collectively constitute the region of Fahlah.[11]

A very similar statement is given by the medieval historian Hamzeh Isfahani when talking about Sassanid Iran. Hamzeh Isfahani writes in the book Al-Tanbih ‘ala Hoduth alTashif that five "tongues" or dialects, were common in Sassanian Iran: Fahlavi, Dari, Persian, Khuzi and Soryani. Hamzeh (893-961 CE) explains these dialects in the following way[12]:

Fahlavi was a dialect which kings spoke in their assemblies and it is related to Fahleh. This name is used to designate five cities of Iran, Esfahan, Rey, Hamadan, Man Nahavand, and Azerbaijan. Persian is a dialect which was spoken by the clergy (Zoroastrian) and those who associated with them and is the language of the cities of Fars. Dari is the dialect of the cities of Ctesiphon and was spoken in the kings' /dabariyan/ 'courts'. The root of its name is related to its use; /darbar/ 'court* is implied in /dar/. The vocabulary of the natives of Balkh was dominant in this language, which includes the dialects of the eastern peoples. Khuzi is associated with the cities of Khuzistan where kings and dignitaries used it in private conversation and during leisure time, in the bath houses for instance.

Ibn Hawqal states:[4]

the language of the people of Azerbaijan and most of the people of Armenia (sic; he probably means the Iranian Armenia) is Iranian (al-farssya), which binds them together, while Arabic is also used among them; among those who speak al-faressya (here he seemingly means Persian, spoken by the elite of the urban population), there are few who do not understand Arabic; and some merchants and landowners are even adept in it".

It should be noted that Ibn Hawqal mentions that some areas of Armenia are controlled by Muslims and others by Christians.[13]

Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Al-Masudi (896-956), the Arab historian states:

The Persians are a people whose borders are the Mahat Mountains and Azarbaijan up to Armenia and Aran, and Bayleqan and Darband, and Ray and Tabaristan and Masqat and Shabaran and Jorjan and Abarshahr, and that is Nishabur, and Herat and Marv and other places in land of Khorasan, and Sejistan and Kerman and Fars and Ahvaz...All these lands were once one kingdom with one sovereign and one language...although the language differed slightly. The language, however, is one, in that its letters are written the same way and used the same way in composition. There are, then, different languages such as Pahlavi, Dari, Azari, as well as other Persian languages.[14]

Al-Moqaddasi(d. late 4th/10th century) considers Azerbaijan as part of the 8th division of lands. He states:"The languages of the 8th division is Iranian (al-‘ajamyya). It is partly partly Dari and partly convoluted (monqaleq) and all of them are named Persian".[15]

Al-Moqaddasi also writes on the general region of Armenia, Arran and Azerbaijan and states[16].:

They have big beards, their speech is not attractive. In Arminya they speak Armenian, in al-Ran, Ranian (Aranian). Their Persian is understandable, and is close to Khurasanian (Dari Persian) in sound


Ahmad ibn Yaqubi mentions that the People of Azerbaijan are a mixture of Azari 'Ajams ('Ajam is a term that developed to mean Iranian) and old Javedanis (followers of Javidan the son of Shahrak who was the leader of Khurramites and successed by Babak Khorramdin). [17]

Zakarrya b. Mohammad Qazvini's report in Athar al-Bilad, composed in 674/1275, that "no town has escaped being taken over by the Turks except Tabriz" (Beirut ed., 1960, p. 339) one may infer that at least Tabriz had remained aloof from the influence of Turkish until the time.[4]

From the time of the Mongol invasion, most of whose armies were composed of Turkic tribes, the influence of Turkish increased in the region. On ther hand, the old Iranian dialects remained prevalent in major cities. Hamdallah Mostawafi writing in the 1340s calls the language of Maraqa as "modified Pahlavi"(Pahlavi-ye Mughayyar). Mostowafi calls the language of Zanjan (Pahlavi-ye Raast). The language of Gushtaspi covering the Caspian border region between Gilan to Shirvan is called a Pahlavi language close to the language of Gilan. [18]

Following the Islamic Conquest of Iran, Middle Persian, also known as Pahlavi, continued to be used until the 10th century when it was gradually replaced by a new breed of Persian language, most notably Dari. The Saffarid dynasty in particular was the first in a line of many dynasties to officially adopt the new language in 875 CE. Thus Dari, which contains many loanwords from its predecessors, is considered the continuation of Middle Persian which was prevalent in the early Islamic era of western Iran. The name Dari comes from the word (دربار) which refers to the royal court, where many of the poets, protagonists, and patrons of the literature flourished. (See Persian literature)

The Iranic dialect of Tabriz

According to Jean During, the inhabitants of Tabriz did not speak Turkish in the 15th century.[19]

The language of Tabriz, being an Iranian language, was not the standard Khurasani dari. Qatran Tabrizi(11th century) has an interesting couplet mentioning this fact:[20]

بلبل به سان مطرب بیدل فراز گل

گه پارسی نوازد، گاهی زند دری

Translation: The nightingale is on top of the flower like a minstrel who has lost her heart It bemoans sometimes in Parsi (Persian) and sometimes in Dari (Khurasani Persian)

There are extant words, phrases, sentences and poems attested in the old Iranic dialect of Tabriz in a variety of books and manuscripts.[21]

Hamdullah Mustuwafi(14th century) mentions a sentence in the language of Tabriz:[22]:

تبارزه اگر صاحب حُسنی را با لباس ناسزا یابند، گویند "انگور خلوقی بی چه در، درّ سوه اندرین"؛ یعنی انگور خلوقی( انگوری مرغوب) است در سبد دریده

"The Tabrizians have a phrase when they see a fortunate and wealthy man in a uncouth clothes:" He is like fresh grapes in a ripped fruit basket. "

A Macaronic(mula'ma which is popular in Persian poetry where some verses are in one language and another in another language) poem from Homam Tabrizi where some verses are in Khorasani (Dari) Persian and others are in the dialect of Tabriz .[23]

بدیذم چشم مستت رفتم اژ دست // كوام و آذر دلی كویا بتی مست // دل‌ام خود رفت و می‌دانم كه روژی // به مهرت هم بشی خوش كیانم اژ دست // به آب زندگی ای خوش عبارت // لوانت لاود جمن دیل و كیان بست // دمی بر عاشق خود مهربان شو // كزی سر مهرورزی كست و نی كست // به عشق‌ات گر همام از جان برآیذ // مواژش كان بوان بمرت وارست // كرم خا و ابری بشم بوینی // به بویت خته بام ژاهنام

Another Ghazal from Homam Tabrizi where all the couplets except the last couplet is in Persian. The last couplet reads:[24]

«وهار و ول و دیم یار خوش بی // اوی یاران مه ول بی مه وهاران» Transliteration: Wahar o wol o Dim yaar khwash Bi Awi Yaaraan, mah wul Bi, Mah Wahaaraan

Translation: The Spring and Flowers and the face of the friend are all pleasant But without the friend, there are no flowers or a spring.

Another recent discovery by the name of Safina-yi Tabriz has given sentences from native of Tabriz in their peculiar Iranic dialect. The work was compiled during the Ilkhanid era. A sample expression of from the mystic Baba Faraj Tabrizi in the Safina[25]:

انانک قده‌ی فرجشون فعالم آندره اووارادا چاشمش نه پیف قدم کینستا نه پیف حدوث

Standard Persian (translated by the author of Safina himself):

چندانک فرج را در عالم آورده‌اند چشم او نه بر قدم افتاده است نه بر حدوث

Modern English:

They brought Faraj in this world in such a way that his eye is neither towards pre-eternity nor upon createdness.

The Safina (written in the Ilkhanid era) contains many poems and sentences from the old regional dialect of Azerbaijan. Another portion of the Safina contains a direct sentence in what the author has called as "Zaban-i-Tabriz"(dialect/language of Tabriz)[26]

دَچَان چوچرخ نکویت مو ایر رهشه مهر دورش

چَو ِش دَ کارده شکویت ولَول ودَارد سَر ِ یَوه

پَری بقهر اره میر دون جو پور زون هنرمند

پروکری اَنزوتون منی که آن هزیوه

اکیژ بحتَ ورامرو کی چرخ هانزمَویتی

ژژور منشی چو بخت اهون قدریوه

نه چرخ استه نبوتی نه روزو ورو فوتی

زو ِم چو واش خللیوه زمم حو بورضی ربوه

A sentence in the dialect of Tabriz (the author calls Zaban-i-Tabriz (dialect/language of Tabriz) recorded and also translated by Ibn Bazzaz Ardabili in the Safvat al-Safa [27]:

«علیشاه چو در آمد گستاخ وار شیخ را در کنار گرفت و گفت حاضر باش بزبان تبریزی گو حریفر ژاته یعنی سخن بصرف بگو حریفت رسیده است. در این گفتن دست بر کتف مبارک شیخ زد شیخ را غیرت سر بر کرد» The sentence: "Gu Harif(a/e)r Zhaatah" is mentioned in Tabrizi Dialect.

A sentence in the dialect of Tabriz by Pir Zehtab Tabrizi addressing the Qara-qoyunlu ruler Eskandar[20]:

اسکندر, رودم کشتی, رودت کشاد "Eskandar, Roodam Koshti, Roodat Koshaad!" (Eskandar, You killed my son, may your son perish!")

The word Rood for son is still used in some Iranian dialects, specially the Larestani dialect and other dialects around Fars.

Four quatrains titled fahlavvviyat from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani (d. 677/1278-79); born in Kojjan or Korjan, a village near Tabriz, recorded by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi.[21][28] A sample of one of the four quatrains from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani

همه کیژی نَهَند خُشتی بَخُشتی

بَنا اج چو کَه دستِ گیژی وَنیژه

همه پیغمبران خُو بی و چو کِی

محمدمصطفی کیژی وَنیژه


Two qet'as (poems) quoted by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi in the dialect of Tabrz (d. 838/1434-35; II, p. 142).[21][28] A sample of one these poems

رُورُم پَری بجولان

نو کُو بَمَن وُرارده

وی خَد شدیم بدامش

هیزا اَوُو وُرارده

A Ghazal and fourteen quatrains under the title of fahlaviyat by the poet Maghrebi Tabrizi (d. 809/1406-7).[21][29]

A text probably by Mama Esmat Tabrizi, a mystical woman-poet of Tabriz (d. 9th/15th cent.), which occurs in a manuscript, preserved in Turkey, concerning the shrines of saints in Tabriz.[4][30]

A phrase "Buri Buri" which in Persian means Biya Biya or in English: Come! Come! is mentioned by Rumi from the mouth of Shams Tabrizi in this poem:

«ولی ترجیع پنجم در نیایم جز به دستوری

که شمس الدین تبریزی بفرماید مرا بوری

مرا گوید بیا، بوری که من باغم تو زنبوری

که تا خونت عسل گردد که تا مومت شود نوری»

The word Buri is mentioned by Hussain Tabrizi Karbali with regards to the Shaykh Khwajah Abdur-rahim Azh-Abaadi as to "come":.[31]

In the Harzandi Iranic dialect of Harzand in Azerbaijan as well as the Iranic Karingani dialect of Azerbaijan, both recorded in the 20th century, the two words "Biri" and "Burah" means to "come" and are of the same root[32]

On the language of Maragheh

Hamdollah Mostowfi of the 13th century AD mentions the language of Maragheh as "Pahlavi Mughayr" (modified Pahlavi):[33]

Interestingly enough, the 17th century AD Ottoman Turkish traveler Evliya Chelebi who traveled to Safavid Iran also states: "The majority of the women in Maragheh converse in Pahlavi".[20]

According to the Encyclopedia of Islam[34]:"At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke "arabicized Pahlawi" (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu’arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."

Pre-Turkic Azari

The current Turkic Azeri language spoken in Azerbaijan replaced the old Pahlavi only by the beginning of the Safavid dynasty's rule in Persia. Earlier, many Turkic speaking nomads had chosen the green pastures of Azerbaijan, Aran and Shrivan for their settlement as early as the advent of the Seljuqs. However, they only filled in the pasturelands while the farmlands, villages and the cities remained Iranic in language. The linguistic conversion of Azerbaijan went hand in hand with the coversion of the Azeris into Shiism. By the late 1800s, the Turkification of Azerbaijan was near completion with the old Iranic speakers found solely in tiny isolated recesses of the mountains or other remote areas (such as Harzand, Galin Guya, Shahrud villages in Khalkhal and Anarjan). The city of Tabriz---capital of Azerbaijan, however, maintained a number of distinctly Old Azari-speaking neighborhoods well into the Qajar period of the Persian history. The poet Ruhi Onarjani still composes an entire compendium in Old (Iranic) Azari language in the 19th century.

It seems the nail was driving into the coffin of the old language in Tabriz by the selection of that city as a "second capital" of Persia/Iran in the course of the 19th century where the crown prince, Muzaffar al-Din (later, the Shah) resided for nearly 50 years. Muzaffar al-Din used Turkic Azeri as the sole language of his "court" and himself could barely speak Persian upon assuming the throne in 1892.

Some Azari Words with other Iranian languages

Azari Zazaki Persian Kurdish English
berz berz boland berz high
herz erz hêl hil throw, allow
sor ser sal sal year/sol
dêl zerri dêl dil heart
hre hire se three
des des dah deh ten

Source: Paul, Ludwig. (1998) "The Position of Zazaki Among West Iranian languages."

See also

References used

  1. ^ Tat is a general term used by Turkic tribes to designate Iranian speakers and Persians in particular. See the Dehkhoda dictionary on the definition of Tat
  2. ^ Paul, Ludwig (1998a). The position of Zazaki among West Iranian languages. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference of Iranian Studies, 11-15.09.1995, Cambridge, Nicholas Sims-Williams (ed.), 163-176. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
  3. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 496.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Azari, the Old Iranian Language of Azerbaijan", Encyclopædia Iranica, op. cit., Vol. III/2, 1987 by E. Yarshater. External link: [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ The Ancient Language of Azarbaijan, by B.W. Henning
  7. ^ V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press, 1957, pg 112
  8. ^ a b Professor Ighrar Aliyev. The History of Aturpatakan. Persian Translation by Dr. Shaadman Yusuf. Balkh Publishers. Tehran. 1999.
  9. ^ Lazard, Gilbert 1975, "The Rise of the New Persian Language" in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, pp. 595-632, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 599
  10. ^ R. N. Frye, "PEOPLES OF IRAN" in Encyclopædia Iranica. Excerpt: "The long and complex history of Azari (q.v.), a major Iranian language and the original language of the region, and its partial replacement with Azeri Turkish, the present-day language of Azerbaijan, is surveyed in detail and with a wealth of citations from historical sources elsewhere in the Encyclopaedia (see AZERBAIJAN vii). Although the original Azari gradually lost its stature as the prevalent language by the end of the 14th century, the fact that the region had produced some of the finest Persian writers and poets of classical Persian, including Qaṭrān of Tabriz, Neẓāmi of Ganja, Ḵāqāni of Širvān, Homām of Tabriz (q.v.), Awḥadi of Marāḡa, Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin of Širvān, Maḥmud of Šabestar, Ṣafi-al-Din of Urmia, ʿAbd-al-Qāder of Marāḡa, etc., has induced literary historians to talk of "The School of Azerbaijan" (Rypka)." External link: [3] (accessed April 2009)
  11. ^ : Ibn Nadeem, "Fihrist", Translated by Reza Tajaddod, Ibn Sina publishers, 1967. ابن ندیم در الفهرست می‌نویسد: (= اما فهلوی منسوب است به فهله كه نام نهاده شده است بر پنج شهر: اصفهان و ری و همدان و ماه نهاوند و آذربایجان. و دری لغت شهرهای مداین است و درباریان پادشاه بدان زبان سخن می‌گفتند و منسوب است به مردم دربار و لغت اهل خراسان و مشرق و لغت مردم بلخ بر آن زبان غالب است. اما فارسی كلامی است كه موبدان و علما و مانند ایشان بدان سخن گویند و آن زبان مردم اهل فارس باشد. اما خوزی زبانی است كه ملوك و اشراف در خلوت و مواضع لعب و لذت با ندیمان و حاشیت خود گفت‌وگو كنند. اما سریانی آن است كه مردم سواد بدان سخن رانند). ابن ندیم، محمد بن اسحاق: «فهرست»، ترجمه‌ی رضا تجدد، انتشارات ابن سینا، 1346 Original Arabic. Ibn Nadeem, Al-Fihrist. www.alwaraq.com accessed in September, 2007. فأما الفهلویة فمنسوب إلى فهله اسم یقع على خمسة بلدان وهی أصفهان والری وهمدان وماه نهاوند وأذربیجان وأما الدریة فلغة مدن المدائن وبها كان یتكلم من بباب الملك وهی منسوبة إلى حاضرة الباب والغالب علیها من لغة أهل خراسان والمشرق و اللغة أهل بلخ وأما الفارسیة فتكلم بها الموابدة والعلماء وأشباههم وهی لغة أهل فارس وأما الخوزیة فبها كان یتكلم الملوك والأشراف فی الخلوة ومواضع اللعب واللذة ومع الحاشیة وأما السریانیة فكان یتكلم بها أهل السواد والمكاتبة فی نوع من اللغة بالسریانی فارسی
  12. ^ (Mehdi Marashi, Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Ibex Publishers, Inc, 1994. pg 255)
  13. ^ Ibn Howqal,Surat al-ardh. Translation and comments by: J. Shoar, Amir Kabir Publishers, Iran. 1981. "ارمنیه دو قسمت است: داخلی و خارجی. در ارمنیه ی خارجی شهرهایی از آن مسلمانان و به دست آنان است و خود مسلمانان فرمانروای آنجا هستند و دست ارامنه از دست آن قطع گردیده است و به کلی تحت حکومت پادشاهان اسلامی است: از جمله این شهرها ارجیش، منازجرد و خلاط است. و حدود ارمنیه خارجی معین است یعنی از مشرق به بردعه و از مغرب به جزیره و از جنوب به آذربایجان و از شما به نواحی روم در سمت قالیقالا محدود است
  14. ^ (Al Mas'udi, Kitab al-Tanbih wa-l-Ishraf, De Goeje, M.J. (ed.), Leiden, Brill, 1894, pp. 77-8). Original Arabic from www.alwaraq.net: فالفرس أمة حد بلادها الجبال من الماهات وغیرها وآذربیجان إلى ما یلی بلاد أرمینیة وأران والبیلقان إلى دربند وهو الباب والأبواب والری وطبرستن والمسقط والشابران وجرجان وابرشهر، وهی نیسابور، وهراة ومرو وغیر ذلك من بلاد خراسان وسجستان وكرمان وفارس والأهواز، وما اتصل بذلك من أرض الأعاجم فی هذا الوقت وكل هذه البلاد كانت مملكة واحدة ملكها ملك واحد ولسانها واحد، إلا أنهم كانوا یتباینون فی شیء یسیر من اللغات وذلك أن اللغة إنما تكون واحدة بأن تكون حروفها التی تكتب واحدة وتألیف حروفها تألیف واحد، وإن اختلفت بعد ذلك فی سائر الأشیاء الأخر كالفهلویة والدریة والآذریة وغیرها من لغات الفرس.
  15. ^ Al-Moqaddasi, Shams ad-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Ahsan al-Taqasi fi Ma’rifa al-Aqalim, Translated by Ali Naqi Vaziri, Volume one, First Edition, Mu’alifan and Mutarjiman Publishers, Iran, 1981, pg 377 المقدسی، شمس‌الدین ابوعبدالله محمدبن احمد، احسن التقاسیم فی معرفه الاقالیم، ترجمه دكتر علینقی وزیری، جلد 1، چاپ اول، انتشارات مؤلفان و مترجمان ایران، 1361، ص 377.
  16. ^ Al-Muqaddasi, ‘The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions’, a translation of his Ahsan at-taqasim fi Ma'rifat al-Aqalim by B.A. Collins, Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, Garnet Publishing Limited,1994. pg 334
  17. ^ (Tārīkh-i Yaqūbī / talīf-i Aḥmad ibn Abī Yaqūbi ; tarjamah-i Muḥammad Ibrahim Ayati, Intirisharat Bungah-I Tarjamah va Nashr-I Kitab, 1969.
  18. ^ «مستوفی، حمدالله: «نزهةالقلوب، به كوشش محمد دبیرسیاقی، انتشارات طهوری، 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957.
  19. ^ Jean Druing, "The Spirit of Sounds: The Unique Art of Ostad Elahi", Cornwall Books, 2003. Excerpt from pg 172: "In this Maqased ol al-han (1418), Maraghi mentions the Turkish and the Shirvani tanbour, which had two strings tuned in second (which the Kurds and Lors call Farangi) and was quite popular among the inhabitants of Tabriz (a region which was not yet Turkish speaking at the time)".
  20. ^ a b c Mohammad-Amin Riahi. "Molehaazi darbaareyeh Zabaan-I Kohan Azerbaijan"(Some comments on the ancient language of Azerbaijan), ‘Itilia’at Siyasi Magazine, volume 181-182. ریاحی خویی، محمدامین، «ملاحظاتی درباره‌ی زبان كهن آذربایجان»: اطلاعات سیاسی - اقتصادی، شماره‌ی 182-181 Also available at: [4] or here: [5]
  21. ^ a b c d Fahlaviyat in Encyclopedia Iranica by Dr. Ahmad Taffazoli
  22. ^ مستوفی، حمدالله: "نزهةالقلوب"، به كوشش محمد دبیرسیاقی، انتشارات طهوری، 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957, pg 98. یك جمله از زبان تبریزیان در «نزهةالقلوب» حمدالله مستوفی : تبارزه اگر صاحب حُسنی را با لباس ناسزا یابند، گویند "انگور خلوقی بی چه، در درّ سوه اندرین"؛ یعنی انگور خلوقی( انگوری مرغوب) است در سبد دریده»
  23. ^ Gholam Reza Ensafpur, "Tarikh o Tabar Zaban-i Azarbaijan"(The history and roots of the language of Azarbaijan), Fekr-I Rooz Publishers, 1998 (1377). انصاف‌پور، غلام‌رضا:"تاریخ تبار و زبان آذربایجان"، انتشارات فكر روز، 1377
  24. ^ كارنگ، عبدالعلی: «تاتی و هرزنی، دو لهجه از زبان باستان آذربایجان»، تبریز، 1333 Karang, Abdul Ali. "Tati, Harzani, two dialects from the ancient language of Azerbaijan", Tabriz, 1333. 1952.
  25. ^ Manouchehr Mortazavi. Zaban-e-Dirin Azerbaijan (On the Old language of Azerbaijan). Bonyat Moqoofaat Dr. Afshar. 2005(1384). منوچهر مرتضوی، زبان دیرین آذربایجان، بنیاد موقوفات دکتر افشار، 1384.
  26. ^ صادقی, علی اشرف 1379: چند شعر به زبان کرجی, تبریزی و غیره ... در مجله ی زبان شناسی, سال پانزدهم, شماره ی دوم, پاییز و زمستان Ali Asghar Sadeqi, "Some poems in the Karaji, Tabrizi and others" in Zaban-Shenasi, Year 15, No. 2 (Fall and Winder), 1379 (2001). Also here: [6]
  27. ^ Rezazadeh Malak, Rahim. "The Azari Dialect" (Guyesh-I Azari), Anjuman Farhang Iran Bastan publishers, 1352(1973).
  28. ^ a b Dr. A. A. Sadeqi, "Ash'ar-e mahalli-e Jame' al-alHaann", Majalla-ye zaban-shenasi 9, 1371./1992, pp. 54-64/ [7] or here [8]:
  29. ^ M.-A. Adib Tusi "Fahlavyat-e Magrebi Tabrizi", NDA Tabriz 8, 1335/1956 [9] or [10]
  30. ^ Adib Tusi, "Fahlawiyat-e- Mama Esmat wa Kashfi be-zaban Azari estelaah-e raayi yaa shahri", NDA, Tabriz 8/3, 1335/1957, pp 242-57. Also available at: [11] or [12].
  31. ^ حافظ حسین کربلائی تبریزی، «روضات الجنان»، بنگاه ترجمه و نشر کتاب، 1344-1349 1965-1970. Karbalai Tabrizi, Hussein. "Rawdat al-jinan va Jannat al-Janan", Bungah-I Tarjumah va Nashr-I Kitab, 1344-49 (1965-1970), 2 volumes. در روضات الجنان، دفتر نخست، ص 115 «مرقد و مزار...خواجه عبدالرحیم اژابادی...در سرخاب مشخص و معین است...وی تبریزی اند منسوب به کوچۀ اچاباد(اژآباد) که کوچۀ معینی است در تبریز در حوالی درب اعلی...و از او چنین استماع افتاده که حضرت خواجه در اوایل به صنعت بافندگی ابریشم مشعوری می نموده اند و خالی از جمعیتی و ثروتی نبوده و بسیار اخلاص به درویشان داشته، روزی حضرت بابا مزید وی را دیده و به نظر حقیقت شناخته که درر معرف الهی در صدف سینه اش مختفی است، گفته: عبدالرحیم بوری بوری یعنی بیا بیا، که دیگران را نان از بازار است و تو را از خانه یعنی کلام تو از الهامات ربانی باشد.»
  32. ^ كارنگ، عبدالعلی: «تاتی و هرزنی، دو لهجه از زبان باستان آذربایجان»، تبریز،چاپخانه-ی شفق، 1333 Source: Karang, Abdul Ali. "Tati wa Harzani, Do lahjeh az zabaan-i baastaan-i Azerbaijan", Shafaq publishers, 1333(1955) (pg 91 and pg 112)
  33. ^ "حمدالله مستوفی هم كه در سده‌های هفتم و هشتم هجری می‌زیست، ضمن اشاره به زبان مردم مراغه می‌نویسد: "زبانشان پهلوی مغیر است مستوفی، حمدالله: "نزهةالقلوب"، به كوشش محمد دبیرسیاقی، انتشارات طهوری، 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957.
  34. ^ Minorsky, V. (1991a), “Maragha”, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., vol. 6:498-503."At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke "arabicized Pahlawi" (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu’arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."

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