MRT (Bangkok)

MRT (Bangkok)
Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
Bangkok Metro logo.svg
MRT logo.png
Info
Owner Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand
Locale Bangkok, Thailand
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 1
Number of stations 18
Daily ridership Over 200,000
Operation
Began operation 3 July 2004
Operator(s) Bangkok Metro PCL
Number of vehicles 19 three-car Siemens Modular Metro
Technical
System length 20 km (12.43 mi)

The MRT (Mass Rapid Transit), sometimes referred to as the Bangkok Metro, is Bangkok's underground metro system in Thailand. It was constructed under a concession concept. For the first MRT line, officially known as Chaloem Ratchamongkhon or informally as the "Blue Line", most civil infrastructure were provided by the government sector, Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand (MRTA), and handed over to their concessionaire under a 25-year concession agreement. Bangkok Metro Company Limited (BMCL) is the only private sector company that won a bid in MRTA's concession contract for the blue line. As MRTA's concessionaire, BMCL provides M&E equipment, including electrical trains, signalling systems, SCADA, communication, PSD, etc. for the subway project and fully operates the system. To maintain the system, BMCL has subcontracted in 10 years to Siemens which was the M&E system supplier since system opening and 7 years maintenance contract to two local maintenance services for north and south line. The MRT line is officially known in Thai as rotfaifa mahanakhon (รถไฟฟ้ามหานคร) or "metropolitan electric train", but it is more commonly called rotfai taidin (รถไฟใต้ดิน), literally, "underground train". The metro has a fleet of 19 trains; the 19th train entered service in October, 2007 after a major accident.

Besides the MRT, Bangkok also has the elevated rail system BTS or informally the Skytrain, and the elevated Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link (SARL), serving several stations in the city before reaching the airport.

Contents

History

Platform screen door at all stations
Inside of the train

The construction of the first Bangkok Metro line, officially known as Chaloem Ratchamongkhon (Thai สายเฉลิมรัชมงคล) – "Celebration of Royal Auspice" – or informally as the "Blue Line", began on 19 November 1996. The project suffered multiple delays not only because of the 1997 economic crisis, but also due to challenging civil engineering works of constructing massive underground structures deep in the water-logged soil upon which the city is built.

The Blue Line was opened for a limited public trial period of several weeks starting on 13 April 2004. On 3 July 2004 the line was officially opened at 19:19 local time by HM King Bhumibol and Queen Sirikit, who were accompanied by other members of the royal family. Within 30 minutes of its opening, sightseers filled the system to its maximum capacity, but after the initial rush ridership has settled down to around 180,000 riders daily — considerably lower than projections of over 400,000, despite fares being slashed in half from 12-38 baht to 10-15 baht per trip. From 2006 until 2008, fares ranged between 14-36 baht per trip. The fare was raised to 16-41 Baht on 1 January 2009.

Operation

The entrance to Huai Khwang station

The 21-kilometer, 18-station Blue line presently runs from Bang Sue to Hua Lamphong via Phra Ram 9 and has a carrying capacity of 40,000 people in each direction per hour. Similar to the Skytrain, the Metro uses trains supplied by Siemens which travel up to 80 km/h. Passengers can conveniently connect to the Skytrain at Si Lom, Sukhumvit and Chatuchak Park stations. The metro has a large depot in Huai Khwang district, which is located between Phra Ram 9 and Thailand Cultural Centre stations.

Considering that Bangkok is a low-lying plain which is prone to flooding, all of the Metro's station entrances are raised about one metre above the ground level and are equipped with built-in floodgates in order to avoid water inundating the system. Lifts and ramps are found at all stations, providing easy access for passengers in wheelchairs. Stations have multiple passage ways (generally four) which allow passengers to connect to any corner of the adjacent surface intersection. Passageways between exits are very spacious and some are beginning to open as malls. Maps depicting the local area and exit points are posted on the walls on the way out.

Due to safety considerations, platform screen doors are installed. Uniformed security personnel and security cameras are present at each and every platform. Currently 19 three-car metro trains, of the Siemens Modular Metro type, are used. Each metro train consists of two motor cars and a centre trailer car.[1]

Ticketing

The ticketing system uses RFID contactless technology with round black tokens issued for single trips and contactless stored value cards for frequent travellers. In the near future, a joint ticketing system will be set up so that passengers can use a single ticket on the Metro as well as on the Skytrain. Multi-storey park & ride facilities are provided at Lat Phrao and Thailand Cultural Centre. Motorists who park their cars at these premises will be issued with additional contactless smartcards and they need to have them electronically stamped at their destination station. The turnstiles accept cards or paid for tokens, both available from from a booth or ticket machines, which do take notes. All luggage must be lifted above them when going through otherwise they sense the luggage going first as the paid for passenger and then the person carrying it is blocked.

There are one, three and thirty day cards. All are for unlimited travel and for that time only from first use. One day costs 100 baht, three day costs 280 baht and thirty days costs 1200 baht. At 40 baht per day, even when you do not need to use it, the thirty day pass is not very good value so most Thai people still pay per journey.

List of stations

Blue Line

In the table below, an italicized name indicates that the station is under construction and not yet in operation.

Code Station Name Transfer coordinates
Blue Line
Bang Sue-Tha Phra Extension (under construction[2])
Tha Phra (under construction) Terminal/Interchange
BSicon exTRAM.svg MRT Blue Line: Hua Lamphong-Bang Khae Extension  (under construction)
Charan Sanit Wong 13
(under construction)
For Charansanitwong 13 neighbourhood, Thonburi Commercial Collage
Yaek Fai Chai (under construction) For Bang Khun Si market, Nakhon Luang market, Phran Nok area
Bang Khun Non
(under construction)
BSicon exTRAM.svg MRT Orange Line  (proposed)

BMTA Eng Logo.svg BMTA bus/taxi link to Taling Chan floating market, Southern Bus Terminal (Taling Chan)

Bang Yi Khan (under construction) BMTA Eng Logo.svg BMTA bus/taxi link to Southern Bus Terminal (Taling Chan), CentralPlaza Pinklao
Sirindhorn (under construction) BSicon TRAM.svg SRT Light Red Line: Bang Bamru-Makkasan Extension  (proposed)
For Krung Thon Bridge area
Bang Phlat (under construction) For Bang Phlat District office
Bang O (under construction) For Yanhee International Hospital
Bang Pho (under construction) BSicon BOOT.svg Chao Phraya Express Boat : Bang Pho Pier
Tao Pun (under construction) BSicon exTRAM.svg MRT Purple Line  (under construction)
Hua Lamphong-Bang Sue
18
BAN
Bang Sue Current terminal
BSicon exTRAM.svg SRT Dark Red Line  (planned) : Bang Sue Junction
BSicon exTRAM.svg SRT Light Red Line  (under construction) : Bang Sue Junction

Transfer
State Railway of Thailand Southern, Northern and Northeastern Lines (inter-city rails) : Bang Sue Junction

13°48′8.75″N 100°32′27.36″E / 13.8024306°N 100.5409333°E / 13.8024306; 100.5409333
17
KAM
Kamphaeng Phet For Chatuchak Weekend Market and the market of Marketing Organization for Farmers (MOF market/Or Tor Kor market) 13°47′51.83″N 100°32′54.07″E / 13.7977306°N 100.5483528°E / 13.7977306; 100.5483528
16
CHA
Chatuchak Park BSicon TRAM.svg Sukhumvit Line : Mo Chit with outdoor Park & Ride lot
BMTA Eng Logo.svg BMTA bus/taxi link to Northern and Northeastern Bus Terminal (Mo Chit 2), Don Mueang and Rangsit suburbs
For Chatuchak Park, Chatuchak Weekend Market
13°48′9.85″N 100°33′13.21″E / 13.8027361°N 100.5536694°E / 13.8027361; 100.5536694
15
PHA
Phahon Yothin BSicon exTRAM.svg Sukhumvit Line: Saphan Mai Extension  (planned) : Lat Phrao Intersection
For CentralPlaza Lardprao, Sofitel Centara Grand Hotel, International Civil Aviation Organization Thailand , Thai Airways International, Union Mall and PTT Public Company Limited

BMTA Eng Logo.svg BMTA bus/taxi link to Kasetsart University, Meyo hospital, Saphan Mai market, northern suburbs of Bang Khen and Sai Mai

13°48′46.25″N 100°33′41.22″E / 13.8128472°N 100.56145°E / 13.8128472; 100.56145
14
LAT
Lat Phrao BMTA Eng Logo.svg BMTA bus/taxi link to the Department of Export Promotion Ministry of Commerce (Thailand), Chandrakasem Rajabhat University, Elephant Building, Major Cineplex Ratchayothin SCB Park Plaza, Criminal Court , Appeal Court , Civil Court , The Bangkok North Municipal Court, residental area along Lat Phrao Road 13°48′23.21″N 100°34′22.54″E / 13.8064472°N 100.5729278°E / 13.8064472; 100.5729278
13
RAT
Ratchadaphisek For Soi Choke Chai Ruam Mit, Olympia Thai Tower, The Travellers Hotel, Chaophaya Park Hotel, near Khlong Bang Sue[3] 13°47′56.58″N 100°34′28.37″E / 13.79905°N 100.5745472°E / 13.79905; 100.5745472
12
SUT
Sutthisan For Muang Thai Patra Complex, Muang Thai Patra market, Golden Years Hospital, Sutthisan Police Station 13°47′24.12″N 100°34′27.02″E / 13.7900333°N 100.5741722°E / 13.7900333; 100.5741722
11
HUI
Huai Khwang For Swissôtel Le Concorde, The Emarald Hotal, Huai Khwang market 13°46′43.13″N 100°34′26.64″E / 13.7786472°N 100.5740667°E / 13.7786472; 100.5740667
10
CUL
Thailand Cultural Centre BSicon exTRAM.svg MRT Orange Line  (proposed) with Park & Ride facility

For Embassy of The People's Republic of China in Thailand , Big C Extra Ratchadapisek and Robinson department stores, as well as the Esplanade Cineplex
About 20-minute walk (or taxi) to the performing-arts venue at Thailand Cultural Centre, Siam Niramit Theatre

13°45′58.11″N 100°34′12.75″E / 13.7661417°N 100.5702083°E / 13.7661417; 100.5702083
9
RAM
Phra Ram 9 For Fortune Town shopping center including a large Tesco Lotus store and IT mall, CentralPlaza Rama IX, at Phra Ram 9 intersection 13°45′26.57″N 100°33′54.56″E / 13.7573806°N 100.5651556°E / 13.7573806; 100.5651556
8
PET
Phetchaburi BSicon TRAM.svg Suvarnabhumi Airport Link : Makkasan (City Air Terminal)
BSicon exTRAM.svg SRT Light Red Line  (proposed)

BSicon BOOT.svg Khlong Saen Saep Express Boat : Asok Pier
For Srinakharinwirot University, Don Bosco School, Saint Dominic School, Rutnin Eye Hospital, Islamic Bank of Thailand

13°44′56.90″N 100°33′48.20″E / 13.749139°N 100.563389°E / 13.749139; 100.563389
7
SUK
Sukhumvit BSicon TRAM.svg Sukhumvit Line: Asok
For Siam Society, Asok and Sukhumvit business area
13°44′15.36″N 100°33′40.91″E / 13.7376°N 100.5613639°E / 13.7376; 100.5613639
6
SIR
Queen Sirikit National Convention Centre For the Stock Exchange of Thailand, QSNCC and Khlong Toei Market 13°43′23.04″N 100°33′36.36″E / 13.7230667°N 100.5601°E / 13.7230667; 100.5601
5
KHO
Khlong Toei For Plai Nern Palace and Bon Kai market 13°43′20.57″N 100°33′14.26″E / 13.7223806°N 100.5539611°E / 13.7223806; 100.5539611
4
LUM
Lumphini For Suan Lum Night Bazaar, Lumpinee Boxing Stadium and Lumphini Park; Dropping point to Sathon and Wireless Road 13°43′32.07″N 100°32′45.10″E / 13.725575°N 100.545861°E / 13.725575; 100.545861
3
SIL
Si Lom BSicon TRAM.svg Silom Line: Sala Daeng
For Lumphini Park, Chulalongkorn Hospital, Si Lom business area and Patpong night market
13°43′45.44″N 100°32′15.21″E / 13.7292889°N 100.5375583°E / 13.7292889; 100.5375583
2
SAM
Sam Yan For Chulalongkorn University, Chamchuri Square, Snake Farm of the Thai Red Cross Society, Wat Hua Lamphong 13°43′55.49″N 100°31′50.76″E / 13.7320806°N 100.5307667°E / 13.7320806; 100.5307667
1
HUA
Hua Lamphong Current terminal
BSicon exTRAM.svg SRT Dark Red Line  (proposed) : Hua Lamphong Railway Station

Transfer
State Railway of Thailand Southern, Eastern, Northern and Northeastern Lines (inter-city rails) : Hua Lamphong Railway Station
BSicon BOOT.svg Chao Phraya Express Boat : Marine Department Pier (780 m from the station)
For Yaowarat Road (Chinatown), Golden Buddha, Wat Traimit

13°44′14.17″N 100°31′4.05″E / 13.7372694°N 100.5177917°E / 13.7372694; 100.5177917
Hua Lamphong-Bang Khae Extension (under construction[2])
Wat Mangkon (under construction) For Yaowarat Road (Bangkok's Chinatown), Wat Mangkon Kamalawat
Wang Burapha (under construction) BSicon exTRAM.svg MRT Purple Line: Tao Pun-Rat Burana Extension  (proposed)
For old quarter of Wang Burapha and Phahurat shopping sites
Sanam Chai (under construction) For Pak Khlong Talat flower market, Memorial Bridge (Saphan Phut night market), Wat Pho, Wat Phra Kaew, and Museum Siam (National Discovery Museum)
Itsaraphap (under construction) For Wat Arun and Bangkok Yai neighbourhood
Tha Phra (under construction) Interchange
BSicon exTRAM.svg MRT Blue Line: Bang Sue-Tha Phra Extension  (under construction)
For Tha Phra intersection neighbourhood, Wat Tha Phra, Bangkok Yai District office
Bang Phai (under construction) For Bang Phai neighbourhood
Bang Wa (under construction) BSicon exTRAM.svg Silom Line: Bang Wa Extension  (under construction) : Bang Wa
For Siam University
Phetchakasem 48 (under construction)
Phasi Charoen (under construction) For Seacon Square Bangkae shopping mall
Bang Khae (under construction) For Bang Khae market
Lak Song (under construction) Terminal at Kanchanaphisek Outer Ring Road with park & ride facilities
BMTA Eng Logo.svg BMTA bus/taxi link to Nong Khaem western suburb and Nakhon Pathom Province
For The Mall Shopping Center Bangkae

Expansion plans

Blue Line
Overview
System Bangkok Metro (MRT)
Status 18 stations built and extension of 21 stations is under construction.
Locale Bangkok, Thailand
Termini Hua Lamphong
Bang Sue
Stations 18
Operation
Character Underground/Elevated
Technical
Line length 27 km (16.78 mi)

Various expansion plans of the Metro have been proposed. As of 2011, the MRT Purple Line and the two extension lines of the blue line are also under construction. It is planned that, eventually, the combined route distance of the Metro alone will total 91 km with 3 Metro lines covering all of the major areas of Bangkok. The Blue line, once completely extended, will form a lariat-shaped loop encircling the city.

Extension of the blue line can be summarised as follows:

  • Blue Line extension[4]:
  1. Bang SueBang Phlat – Tha Phra (13 km) (under construction operational in 2015)
  2. Hua Lamphong – Tha Phra – Bang Khae (14 km) (under construction operational in 2015)
  1. Bang Sue - Bang Yai northern section (under construction operational in 2013).
  2. Bang Sue - Kiak Kai extension (serving the new parliament complex; planned).
  3. Kiak Kai - Wang Burapha section (underground; planned).
  4. Wang Burapha - Rat Burana southern section (underground / elevated; planned).
  • Orange Line: Bang Kapi – Dindaeng – Taling Chan (37.5 km, Change from Bang Kapi – Sam Sen – Bang Bamru)

Other expansion plans for the metro include:

  • Yellow Line: Lat Phrao – Sri Nagarindra – Samut Prakan
  • Pink Line:Saen Saep – Ram-Inthra Rd. – Chaeng Watthana Road – Tiwanon-Ngamwongwan Road intersection. (35 km)

[Note] that these plans do not include the extension proposed for the Skytrain, SRT Lines and airport link which is under the control of BMA and State Railway Thailand. BMCL itself expects to be the operator for the extension project and other lines but the final decision is still dependent on MRTA (government sector).[citation needed]

As per the BMCL's annual report, earning of profit from operation is still far away and BMCL is still subsidized by main share holder which is CH Karnchange. An accumulated deficit from now is estimated between 1,000 and 1,500 Million baht.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the deficit is partially mitigated by initial public offering and the earning per share is still giving with no hope to public share holder from now.[citation needed]

Connectivity to other rail transit systems

Bangkok rail transit system map (showing State Railway, BTS, MRT and SARL lines)
Legend
( State Railway Northern & Northeastern Lines )
Abbreviated in this map
( State Railway Southern Line )
Transverse abbreviated in this map Junction from right
Bang Sue Junction / Bang Sue MRT
Station on track + Hub
Unknown BSicon "utKBHFl" + Hub
Unknown BSicon "utHSTq" Urban tunnel turning from right
Kamphaeng Phet
Pradiphat
Stop on track
Unknown BSicon "uINTa" + Hub
+ Hub
Unknown BSicon "utINT" + Hub
Mo Chit / Chatuchak Park
Samsen
Station on track Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track
Saphan Khwai / Phahon Yothin
Chitralada Palace (not in service)
Unknown BSicon "eHST" Unknown BSicon "ueHST" Urban tunnel stop on track
Sena Ruam (planned) / Lat Phrao
Yommarat
Stop on track Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track
Ari / Ratchadaphisek
Unknown BSicon "ÜWc2" Unknown BSicon "ÜWor" Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track
Sanam Pao / Sutthisan
Unknown BSicon "ÜWo+l" Unknown BSicon "ÜWc4" Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track
Victory Monument / Huai Khwang
( State Railway Eastern Line )
Junction from left Transverse abbreviated in this map
Urban station on track + Hub
Urban head station + Hub
Urban tunnel station on track
Phaya Thai BTS / Phaya Thai SARL / Thailand Cultural Centre
Bangkok (Hua Lamphong) / National Stadium
Interchange end + Hub
Urban head station Urban stop on track Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track
Ratchathewi / Ratchaprarop / Phra Ram 9
Hua Lamphong / Siam
Unknown BSicon "utINTa" + Hub
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange + Hub
Left side of urban cross-platform interchange + Hub
Urban station on track + Hub
Urban tunnel station on track + Hub
Makkasan / Phetchaburi
Sam Yan / Ratchadamri
Urban tunnel stop on track Urban stop on track Unknown BSicon "uÜWol"
Waterway turning to left + Unknown BSicon "uÜWclu"
Unknown BSicon "utKRZ" Urban track turning from right
Unknown BSicon "utSTRlf" Unknown BSicon "uKRZo"
Urban tunnel turning from right + Unknown BSicon "uÜWcro"
Unknown BSicon "uÜWo+r" Urban tunnel straight track Urban stop on track
Ramkhamhaeng
Sala Daeng / Si Lom
Unknown BSicon "uINT" + Hub
Unknown BSicon "utINT" + Hub
Urban stop on track Urban tunnel straight track Urban stop on track
Chit Lom / Hua Mak
Chong Nonsi / Lumphini
Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track Urban stop on track Urban tunnel straight track Urban stop on track
Phloen Chit / Ban Thap Chang
Sueksa Witthaya (planned) / Khlong Toei
Unknown BSicon "ueHST" Urban tunnel stop on track Urban stop on track Urban tunnel straight track Urban stop on track
Nana / Lat Krabang
Surasak / QSNCC
Urban stop on track Urban tunnel stop on track
Unknown BSicon "uINT" + Hub
Unknown BSicon "utINT" + Hub
Enter urban tunnel
Asok / Sukhumvit
Sathon Pier Saphan Taksin
Pier Urban station on track Unknown BSicon "utSTRlf" Unknown BSicon "uKRZo" Unknown BSicon "utSTRrf" Urban End station in tunnel Airport
Suvarnabhumi Airport
Taksin Bridge
Urban bridge over water Urban stop on track
Phrom Phong
Krung Thonburi
Urban stop on track Urban stop on track
Thong Lo
Wongwian Yai
Urban End station Urban stop on track
Ekkamai
Urban stop on track
Phra Khanong
Urban stop on track
On Nut
Urban stop on track
Bang Chak
Urban stop on track
Punnawithi
Urban stop on track
Udom Suk
Urban stop on track
Bang Na
Urban End station
Bearing

Major accident record

Entrance to Silom Station (Interchange with BTS Sala Daeng Station)

On 17 January 2005, just after 09:15, an empty train returning to the depot collided with a peak-hour train filled with passengers at the Thailand Cultural Centre station. 140 people were hurt, most of whom sustained only minor injuries, and the entire Metro network was shut down for two weeks.

After initial investigations, it was found that the empty train had run into problems shortly before the accident, grinding to a halt on a curve leading to the depot. The driver applied its brake and was waiting to be towed to the maintenance centre close to Thailand Cultural Centre station.

A rescue train was attempting to connect to the stalled train when the driver was told to release the brake while coupling had not yet been successful. It was then that the empty train began to roll backwards at a speed of ten metres per second, before smashing into the other train, which was carrying passengers. Therefore, it was believed that the incident was caused by negligence due to insufficient training of operation staff.[5] This accident also resulted in two damaged trains with heavily damaged areas limited to the two leading cars. The colliding speed was suspected to be about 60 km/h due to the appearance of damaged areas. However, one train, which was rebuilt from the repair of the minor-damaged cars, was already fitted for operation at the end of 2006 and the remaining one was still under heavy repair until mid of 2007; it was released into service in October, 2007. The cost resulting from the accident might be a much higher figure than BMCL quoted, and it was expected to be at least 400 million baht, which was totally insured by a local insurance company.

The Metro resumed full operation on 1 February 2005, and passenger numbers soon rose back to pre-crash levels, partly due to a temporary promotional fare scheme which allowed passengers to travel any distance on the MRT for only ten baht (~0.33 USD).

See also

Bangkok Rapid Transit System
Primary lines
  BTS Sukhumvit Line (extension planned)
  BTS Silom Line (extension under construction)
  MRT Blue Line (extension under construction)
SRT Airport Rail Link
  MRT Purple Line (under construction)
  SRT Light Red Line (under construction)
  SRT Dark Red Line (planned)
  MRT Orange Line (planned)
  MRT Yellow Line (planned)
Secondary lines
  Chula-Siam Monorail (planned)
  Grand Square Monorail (planned)
  Ramkhamhaeng-Thonglor Monorail (planned)
  MRT Pink Line (planned)
  BTS Bang Na-Suvarnabhumi (planned)
Cancelled projects
  MRT Brown Line (merged with orange line)
  MRT Grey Line (cancelled)
  MRT Light Blue Line (cancelled)
  Bangkok Elevated Road and Train System (cancelled)
  Lavalin Skytrain (cancelled)

References

  1. ^ "Bangkok's first underground metro open". International Railway Journal. findarticles.com. July, 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BQQ/is_7_44/ai_n6131837. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  2. ^ a b http://www.nationmultimedia.com/2011/02/18/business/Seven-deals-move-Blue-Line-extension-closer-30148981.html
  3. ^ http://www.panoramio.com/photo/31795302
  4. ^ www.nationmultimedia.com/2011/02/18/business/Seven-deals-move-Blue-Line-extension-closer-30148981.html
  5. ^ "Thai subway shut for safety probe". BBC News. 17 January 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4180109.stm. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 

External links

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