The Costoboci (Latin: Costoboci, Costobocae, Castabocae, Coisstoboci, Ancient Greek: Κοστωβῶκοι, Κοστουβῶκοι or Κοιστοβῶκοι) were an ancient people located, during the Roman imperial era, between the Carpathian Mountains and the river Dniester.
The Costoboci invaded the Roman empire in AD 170 or 171, pillaging its Balkan provinces as far as central Greece, until they were driven out by Romans. Shortly afterwards, their own territory was invaded and occupied by Vandal Astingi and the Costoboci disappeared from history.
Some scholars considered this tribe is first mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder, published ca. AD 77, as a Sarmatian tribe named the Cotobacchi living in the lower Don valley.. Other scholars have challenged this identification and have recognised the "Cotobacchi" as a distinct tribe.
In his Geographia (published between 135 and 143 AD), the Greek geographer Ptolemy seems to indicate that the Costoboci inhabited northwestern  or northeastern Dacia. In addition, some scholars identify the people called Transmontanoi (literally: "people beyond the mountains") by Ptolemy, located North of the Carpathians, as Dacian Costoboci. These Costoboci transmontani, according to Gudmund Schütte, inhabited also the Dacian town of Setidava mentioned by Ptolemy, located by Schütte in modern SE Poland.
Some scholars associate the Costoboci with the Lipiţa culture. However Roger Batty, reluctant to correlate material culture with group identity, argues that Lipiţa culture belonged either to a subgroup of Costoboci or to some population they ruled over. This culture developed on the northern side of the Carpathians in the Upper Dniester and Prut basins in the Late La Tène period.
The bearers of this culture had a sedentary lifestyle, practicing agriculture, cattle-breeding, iron-working and pottery. The settlements were not fortified and contained sunken floored buildings, surface buildings, storage pits, hearths, ovens and kilns. There are numerous pottery finds of various types, both wheel and hand-made, with analogies in shape and decoration in the pre-Roman Dacia. The pottery of the northern Lipiţa sites from the upper Zolota Lypa basin is similar to that of the Zarubintsy culture.
The culture disappeared during the 3rd century AD.
An imperial-era funerary inscription in Rome was dedicated to Zia or Ziais the Dacian, the daughter of Tiatus and the wife of Pieporus, a king of the Costoboci. The monument was set up by Natoporus and Drilgisa, Zia's grandsons. The inscription was first published by the Italian scholar Mariangelus Accursius in the 16th century, but it is now lost.
- Drilgisa: a Thracian or Dacian name. It is considered a variant with the infix -l- of the name Drigis(s)a, the name of the Roman veteran Aurelius Drigisa from Moesia Inferior and of the legionary Titus Aurelius Drigissa from Moesia Superior. The final element -gis(s)a is frequent in Dacian onomastics.
- Natoporus: a Thracian or Dacian name. A soldier Natopor is known from several ostraca found at Mons Claudianus in eastern Egypt. A Roman military diploma was issued in 127 in Mauretania Caesariensis for a Dacian soldier and his two children, a son Nattoporis and a daughter Duccidava. It is a name ending in -por, a frequent Thracian and Dacian onomastic element. On a military diploma issued in 127 in Germania Inferior, a Dacian soldier's father is named Natusis, a name formed with the same first element nat- and a suffix -zi-/-si-.
- Pieporus: a Thracian or Dacian name. It is a name ending in -por, a frequent Thracian and Dacian onomastic element.
- Tiatus: a Thracian or Dacian name. Tiatus is maybe a name starting in thia-, typical for Dacians. A name Tiato is attested on a fragmentary dipinto found at Maximianon, a Roman fort in eastern Egypt.
- Zia or Ziais: a Thracian or Dacian name. Zia is a female name attested in Moesia Inferior.
The name of the tribe is attested in a variety of spellings in Latin: Costoboci, Costobocae, Castaboci, Castabocae, Coisstoboci and in Ancient Greek: Κοστωβῶκοι, Κοστουβῶκοι, Κοιστοβῶκοι. According to Ion I. Russu, this is a Thracian compound name meaning "the shining ones". The first element is the perfect passive participle Cos-to-, derived from the Proto-Indo-European root kʷek̂-, kʷōk̂- "to seem, see, show", and the second element is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root bhā-, bhō- "to shine", extended by the suffix -k-. Ivan Duridanov considered it a Dacian name with unclear etymology.
Origin and tribal identity
The origin of the Costoboci is uncertain. The mainstream view is that they were a Dacian tribe, among the so-called "Free Dacians" not subjected to Roman rule. However some scholars suggested they were Sarmatian, Slavic, Germanic, Celtic, or Dacian with a Celtic superstratum.
- Onomastics: The royal family of the Costoboci at the time of king Pieporus (2nd c) had Dacian or Thracian names.
- The rubric Dacpetoporiani on the Tabula Peutingeriana. This has been interpreted by some scholars as an elision of "Daci Petoporiani" referring to the Dacians of king Petoporus. Schütte argued Petoporus is one and the same with Pieporus, the king of the Costoboci.
- Archaeology: The Costoboci have been linked, on the basis of their geographical location, with the Lipiţa culture. This culture's features, especially its pottery styles and burial customs, have been identified as Dacian by scholars, leading to the conclusion that the Costoboci were an ethnic-Dacian tribe. According to Jazdewski, in the early Roman period, on the Upper Dniestr, the features of the Lipita culture indicate ethnic Thracians under strong Celtic cultural influence, or who had simply absorbed Celtic ethnic components.
- Name analogies: According to Schütte, the Dacian element -bokoi is also occurring in the name of another Dacian tribe, the Sabokoi.
Conflict with Rome
During the rule of Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Empire fought the Marcomannic Wars, a vast and protracted struggle against Marcomanni, Quadi, and other tribes along the middle Danube. The Costoboci also joined the anti-Roman coalition.
The invasion of 170/1
In AD 167 the Roman legion V Macedonica, returning from the Parthian War, moved its headquarters from Troesmis in Moesia Inferior to Potaissa in Dacia Porolissensis, to defend the Dacian provinces against the Marcomannic attacks. Other auxiliary units from Moesia Inferior participated in the middle Danube campaigns, leaving the lower Danube frontier defenses weakened. Taking the opportunity, in 170 or 171, the Costoboci invaded Roman territory. Meeting little opposition, they swept through and raided the provinces of Moesia Inferior, Moesia Superior, Thracia, Macedonia and Achaea.
Crossing the Danube, the Costoboci burnt down a district of Histria which was thus abandoned. Their attacks also affected Callatis and the walls of the city required reparations. Two funerary inscriptions discovered at Tropaeum Traiani in Moesia Inferior commemorate Romans killed during the attacks: Lucius Fufidius Iulianus, a decurion and duumvir of the city and a man named Daizus, son of Comozous. A vexillatio made of detachments of the legions I Italica and V Macedonica was deployed at Tropaeum in this period, perhaps to defend against these attacks. The raiders then moved west reaching Dardania. A tombstone found at Scupi in Moesia Superior was dedicated to Timonius Dassus, a decurion from the Roman auxiliary cohort II Aurelia Dardanorum, who fell in combat against the Costoboci. Their offensive continued southwards, through Macedonia into Greece.
Thereafter, the barbarians reached near Athens where they sacked the famous shrine of the Mysteries at Eleusis. In May or June 171, the orator Aelius Aristides delivered a public speech in Smyrna, lamenting the damage recently inflicted to the sacred site. The extent of damage was limited. Three local inscriptions praise an Eleusinian priest for saving the ritual's secrets. On one of these inscriptions there is mention of the "crimes of the Sarmatians" which has been variously interpreted by scholars: that the name of the Sarmatians was used as an umbrella term for raiders crossing the lower Danube, that it shows that the Costoboci were a Sarmatian tribe, or that it attests a joint invasion by Costoboci and Sarmatians.
Even though much of the invasion force was spent, the local resistance was insufficient and the procurator Lucius Iulius Vehilius Gratus Iulianus was sent to Greece with a vexillatio to clear out the remnants of the invaders. The Costoboci were thus defeated.
In the same period the Costoboci may have attacked Dacia. A bronze hand dedicated to Jupiter Dolichenus by a soldier from a cohort stationed in Dacia was found at Myszków in Western Ukraine. It has been suggested that this may have been loot from a Costobocan raid.
The coming of the Vandals
Soon after AD 170, the Vandal Astingi, under their two kings, Raus and Raptus, reached the northern borders of Roman Dacia and offered the Romans their alliance in return for subsidies and land. Sextus Cornelius Clemens, the governor of the province, refused their demands, but he encourged them to attack the troublesome Costoboci, while offering protection for their women and children. The Astingi occupied the territory of the Costoboci but they were soon attacked by another Vandal tribe, the Lacringi. Both Astingi and Lacringi eventually became Roman allies, allowing the Romans to focus on the middle Danube in the Marcomannic wars.
Scholars variously suggest that the remnants of this tribe were subdued by the Vandals or fled, seeking refuge in the neighbouring territories of the Carpi or in the Roman province of Dacia.
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