Image registration

Image registration
Registering and summing multiple exposures of the same scene improves signal to noise ratio, allowing to see things previously impossible to see. In this picture, the distant Alps are made visible, although they are tens of kilometers into the haze.

Image registration is the process of transforming different sets of data into one coordinate system. Data may be multiple photographs, data from different sensors, from different times, or from different viewpoints.[1] It is used in computer vision, medical imaging, military automatic target recognition, and compiling and analyzing images and data from satellites. Registration is necessary in order to be able to compare or integrate the data obtained from these different measurements.


Algorithm classification

Intensity-based vs feature-based

Image registration or image alignment algorithms can be classified into intensity-based and feature-based.[2] One of the images is referred to as the reference or source and the second image is referred to as the target or sensed. Image registration involves spatially transforming the target image to align with the reference image.[2] Intensity-based methods compare intensity patterns in images via correlation metrics, while feature-based methods find correspondence between image features such as points, lines, and contours.[2] Intensity-based methods register entire images or subimages. If subimages are registered, centers of corresponding subimages are treated as corresponding feature points. Feature-based method established correspondence between a number of points in images. Knowing the correspondence between a number of points in images, a transformation is then determined to map the target image to the reference images, thereby establishing point-by-point correspondence between the reference and target images.[2]

Transformation models

Image registration algorithms can also be classified according to the transformation models they use to relate the target image space to the reference image space. The first broad category of transformation models includes linear transformations, which include translation, rotation, scaling, and other affine transforms. Linear transformations are global in nature, thus, they cannot model local geometric differences between images.[2]

The second category of transformations allow 'elastic' or 'nonrigid' transformations. These transformations are capable of locally warping the target image to align with the reference image. Nonrigid transformations include radial basis functions (thin-plate or surface splines, multiquadrics, and compactly-supported transformations[2]), physical continuum models (viscous fluids), and large deformation models (diffeomorphisms).

Spatial vs. frequency domain methods

Spatial methods operate in the image domain, matching intensity patterns or features in images. Some of the feature matching algorithms are outgrowths of traditional techniques for performing manual image registration, in which an operator chooses corresponding control points (CPs) in images. When the number of control points exceeds the minimum required to define the appropriate transformation model, iterative algorithms like RANSAC can be used to robustly estimate the parameters of a particular transformation type (e.g. affine) for registration of the images.

Frequency-domain methods find the transformation parameters for registration of the images while working in the transform domain. Such methods work for simple transformations, such as translation, rotation, and scaling. Applying the Phase correlation method to a pair of images produces a third image which contains a single peak. The location of this peak corresponds to the relative translation between the images. Unlike many spatial-domain algorithms, the phase correlation method is resilient to noise, occlusions, and other defects typical of medical or satellite images. Additionally, the phase correlation uses the fast Fourier transform to compute the cross-correlation between the two images, generally resulting in large performance gains. The method can be extended to determine rotation and scaling differences between two images by first converting the images to log-polar coordinates. Due to properties of the Fourier transform, the rotation and scaling parameters can be determined in a manner invariant to translation.

Single- vs. multi-modality methods

Another classification can be made between single-modality and multi-modality methods. Single-modality methods tend to register images in the same modality acquired by the same scanner/sensor type, while multi-modality registration methods tended to register images acquired by different scanner/sensor types.

Multi-modality registration methods are often used in medical imaging as images of a subject are frequently obtained from different scanners. Examples include registration of brain CT/MRI images or whole body PET/CT images for tumor localization, registration of contrast-enhanced CT images against non-contrast-enhanced CT images for segmentation of specific parts of the anatomy, and registration of ultrasound and CT images for prostate localization in radiotherapy.

Automatic vs. interactive methods

Registration methods may be classified based on the level of automation they provide. Manual, interactive, semi-automatic, and automatic methods have been developed. Manual methods provide tools to align the images manually. Interactive methods reduce user bias by performing certain key operations automatically while still relying on the user to guide the registration. Semi-automatic methods perform more of the registration steps automatically but depend on the user to verify the correctness of a registration. Automatic methods do not allow any user interaction and perform all registration steps automatically.

Similarity measures for image registration

Image similarities are broadly used in medical imaging. An image similarity measure quantifies the degree of similarity between intensity patterns in two images.[2] The choice of an image similarity measure depends on the modality of the images to be registered. Common examples of image similarity measures include cross-correlation, mutual information, sum of squared intensity differences, and ratio image uniformity. Mutual information and normalized mutual information are the most popular image similarity measures for registration of multimodality images. Cross-correlation, sum of squared intensity differences and ratio image uniformity are commonly used for registration of images in the same modality.


There is a level of uncertainty associated with registering images that have any spatio-temporal differences. A confident registration with a measure of uncertainty is critical for many change detection applications such as medical diagnostics.

In remote sensing applications where a digital image pixel may represent several kilometers of spatial distance (such as NASA's LANDSAT imagery), an uncertain image registration can mean that a solution could be several kilometers from ground truth. Several notable papers have attempted to quantify uncertainty in image registration in order to compare results.[3][4] However, many approaches to quantifying uncertainty or estimating deformations are computationally intensive or are only applicable to limited sets of spatial transformations.


Image registration has applications in remote sensing (cartography updating), and computer vision. Due to the vast applications to which image registration can be applied, it is impossible to develop a general method that is optimized for all uses.

Medical image registration (for data of the same patient taken at different points in time such as change detection or tumor monitoring) often additionally involves elastic (also known as nonrigid) registration to cope with deformation of the subject (due to breathing, anatomical changes, and so forth). Nonrigid registration of medical images can also be used to register a patient's data to an anatomical atlas, such as the Talairach atlas for neuroimaging.

It is also used in astrophotography to align images taken of space. Using control points (automatically or manually entered), the computer performs transformations on one image to make major features align with a second image.

Image registration is essential part of panoramic image creation. There are many different techniques that can be implemented in real time and run on embedded devices like cameras and camera-phones.

See also


  1. ^ Lisa Gottesfeld Brown, A survey of image registration techniques (abstract), ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) archive, Volume 24 , Issue 4, December 1992), Pages: 325 - 376
  2. ^ a b c d e f g A. Ardeshir Goshtasby: 2-D and 3-D Image Registration for Medical, Remote Sensing, and Industrial Applications, Wiley Press, 2005.
  3. ^ Simonson, K., Drescher, S., Tanner, F., A Statistics Based Approach to Binary Image Registration with Uncertainty Analysis. IEEE Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 29, No. 1, January 2007
  4. ^ Domokos, C., Kato, Z., Francos, J., Parametric estimation of affine deformations of binary images. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2008

External links

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