List of cruisers of the Russian Navy

List of cruisers of the Russian Navy

=Cruisers of the Russian Imperial Navy (1873–1917)=

Note on official classification. Until 1892, there was no firm name for ships of this type. They were classified as armoured frigates, armoured corvettes and even screw corvettes. The "Cruiser" designation appeared in 1878, but only for auxiliary non-protected ships. Starting in 1892 and up to 1907, all of these ships were divided between 1st rank cruisers and 2nd rank cruisers, although this division did not coincide with the delineation between armoured cruisers & protected cruisers. The designation "auxiliary cruiser" officially appeared in 1904. According to the new classification table of 1907, all cruisers, except auxiliary ships, were divided between "armoured cruisers" and "cruisers".

Armoured cruiser

This type of warship was invented by Russians [Beeler, p222 ] [Smirnov G., Smirnov V. Istoriya sozdaniya i sluzby pervykh bronenosnykh kreiserov (russkikh i angliyskikh) // [http://battleship.spb.ru/0478/history.html "Modelist-Konstruktor"] (The history of creation and service of first armoured cruisers (Russian & English)).
Moiseev (ref. № 1), p. 15.
] . The ships were intended to conduct the traditional cruiser operations against merchant ships and their protectors. For this reason, they had been armed with heavy main guns and medium armour to fight with light cruisers. The ships also possessed relatively high speed to escape from an opponent's battleships. All of them were officially classified as 1st rank cruisers and were assigned to the Baltic Fleet.

*"General-Admiral", Armoured Frigate (1873) - Voyaged in Atlantic Ocean 1893, used as training vessel since early 1900s, Minelayer "Narova" 1909, training vessel 1920, reconstructed as Minelayer "25 Oktiabria" 1924, mother-ship 1937, decommissioned 1944, BU 1953
*"Gertsog Edinburgskii", Armoured Frigate (ex-"Aleksandr Nevskii" - renamed on slip) (1875) - Served at Far East 1879–1884 and at Mediterranean Sea 1897–c.1900, used as training vessel since early 1900s, reconstructed as Minelayer "Onega" 1909, hulked as mine depot 1914 (named "№ 4", "Barrikada", "№ 9"), BU 1949
*"Minin", Armoured Frigate (1869) - Rebuilt during completion as seagoing cruiser and commissioned 1878, reclassified as 1st rank cruiser 1892, Reconstructed as minelayer "Ladoga" 1909, Mined 1915
*"Vladimir Monomakh" class Armoured Frigates (2 units)
**"Vladimir Monomakh" (1882) - Served at Far East 1890–1892 & 1894–1902, torpedoed at the Battle of Tsushima 1905
**"Dmitrii Donskoi" (1883) - Served at Atlantic Ocean 1893 and far East 1895–1901, damaged and scuttled after the Battle of Tsushima to prevent capture1905
*"Admiral Nakhimov", Cruiser (1885) - Served at Far East 1888–1891, 1894–1898 & 1899–1902 and at Mediterranean Sea 1893, torpedoed at the Battle of Tsushima 1905
*"Pamiat‘ Azova", Cruiser (1888) - Voyaged Northern Pacific 1890–1892, served here 1893–1900, converted to training vessel "Dvina", submarine base 1915, renamed "Pamiat‘ Azova" 1917, torpedoed at Kronstadt 1919
*"Riurik" class Cruisers of 1st Rank (3 units)
**"Riurik" (1892) - Served at the Far East 1895–1904, sunk at the Battle of the Japanese Sea 1904
**"Rossia" (1895) - Served at Far East 1895–1906, flagship of Rear Admiral Karl Jessen during the Russo-Japanese War, laid up 1918, BU 1922
**"Gromoboi" (1899) (transitional type to squadron cruisers) - Served at Far East 1900–1906, laid up 1918, BU 1922

*"Bayan" class (4 units)
**"Bayan" (1900, La Seyne) - Served at Far East 1903–1904, sunk by shells and blown up to prevent capture 1904, refloated by Japans and renamed "Aso" 1908, minelayer 1920, hulked 1930, sunk as target 1932
**"Admiral Makarov" (1906, La Seyne) - Voyaged Mediterranean Sea 1908–1909 & 1909–1910, laid up 1918, BU 1922
**"Pallada" (1906) - Torpedoed near Odensholm Island 1914 (594 men lost)
**"Bayan" (1907) - Laid up 1918, BU 1922
*"Riurik" (1906, Barrow-in-Furness) - Voyaged Mediterranean Sea 1910, flagship of Admiral Nikolai Essen during the World War I, laid up 1921, BU 1924

Protected cruiser

Russia had nearly not developed this British-designed type of ship, and had instead concentrated on armoured cruisers. Most of these ships were classified officially as 1st rank cruisers, they were assigned to the Baltic Fleet, with the exception of a handful of ships.

*"Vitiaz‘" class Screw Corvettes (2 units)
**"Vitiaz‘" (1884) - Voyaged to Far East 1886–1889 & 1891–1893, wrecked in Korea Strait 1893
**"Rynda" (1885) - Voyaged to Far East 1886–1889, served here 1893–1896, Training vessel 1906, laid up 1918, BU 1922
*"Admiral Kornilov", Cruiser (1887, Saint-Nazaire) - Served at Far East 1899–1891 & 1893– 1902, reclassified to Cruiser of 2nd Rank 1905 and Training vessel 1907, decommissioned 1911
*"Pallada" class Cruisers of 1st Rank (3 units). In fact, it turned out, they were not suitable to cruiser's duty due to low speed and extra low range. Two of them were used as fire-watch ships at Port Arthur, the third became excellent training cruiser for naval cadets.
**"Pallada" (1899) - Served at Far East 1902–1904, sunk at Port Arthur 1904, refloated by Japan and renamed "Tsugaru", reconstruct as minelayer 1920, decommissioned 1922, sunk as target 1924
**"Diana" (1899) - Served at Far East 1902–1906, interned by France 1904, released 1905, laid up 1918, BU 1922
**"Avrora" (1900) - Served at Far East 1902–1906, interned by U.S.A. 1905, released 1905, participated October Revolution (1917), Training cruiser and cadets' training base 1922–1961, memory ship since 1948, preserved at Saint Petersburg
*"Varyag" (1899, Philadelphia) - Served at Far East, scuttled after the Battle of Chemulpo 1904, refloated by Japain, renamed "Soya", purchased by Russia 1916, renamed "Varyag" and transferred to Arctic Sea Flotilla 1916, seized by the British 1918, used as floating barracks, sold to Germany for BU 1921, wrecked 1922
*"Askol‘d" (1900, Kiel) - Served at Far East 1902–1914, interned by China to prevent capture1904, released 1905, served at Mediterranean Sea 1914–1916, transferred to Arctic Sea Flotilla 1916, captured by Britain 1918, renamed "Gloria IV", returned to Soviet Russia 1922 and sold for BU
*"Bogatyr‘" class (5 units). Reclassified to "cruisers" in 1907
**"Bogatyr‘" (1901, Stettin) - Served at Far East 1902–1906, voyaged Mediterranean Sea 1907–1910, laid up 1918, BU 1922
**"Kagul" (ex-"Otchakov", renamed 1906) (1902 Black Sea Fleet) - Renamed "Otchakov" 1917, captured by Germany 1918, captured by Britain and delivered to White Army 1918, renamed "General Kornilov", interned by France in Bizerte, returned to Soviet Russia 1924 and sold for BU, BU 1933
**"Pamiat‘ Merkuria" (ex-"Kagul", renamed 1906) (1902 Black Sea Fleet) - Destroyed by British troops 1919, repaired, reclassified to light cruiser and renamed "Komintern" 1922, scuttled as breakwater 1942
**"Oleg" (1903) - sent to Far East 1905, flagship of Rear Admiral Oskar Enkvist at the Battle of Tsushima (1905), interned by U.S.A. after the battle, released 1905, voyaged at Mediterranean Sea late 1900s, torpedoed 1919, BU 1938
**"Vitiaz‘" - Burnt on slip 1901

*"Novik" class (2 units)
**"Novik" (1900, Danzig or Elbing) - Served at Far East 1903–1904, damaged and scuttled to prevent capture 1904, refloated by Japans, commissioned as light cruiser "Suzuya", BU 1913
**"Boyarin" (1901, Copenhagen) - Served at Far East 1903–1904, mined near Port Arthur 1904
*"Zhemtchug" class (2 units)
**"Zhemtchug" (1903) - Served at Far East 1905–1914, interned by U.S.A. after the Battle of Tsushima (1905), released 1905 and transferred to Siberian Flotilla, sunk in Penang 1914
**"Izumrud" (1903) - Sent to Far East 1905, wrecked and blown up to prevent capture 1905, found by divers 1989

*"Prut", Cruiser (1903; ex-Turkish "Mecidiye", ex-"Abdül Mecid ") - Mined near Odessa 1915, refloated by Russians, repaired and commissioned 1916, captured by Germany, returned Turkey and renamed "Mecidiye" 1918, Training vessel 1940, decommissioned 1947, BU 1952
*"Muravyov-Amurskii" class (2 units). Both cruisers were ordered in Germany for Siberian Flotilla. At the beginning of the World War I were confiscated by Germans and commissioned to Kaiserliche Marine.
**"Muravyev-Amurskii" (1914) - Since 1914 "SMS Pillau", ceded to Italy and renamed "Bari", sunk 1943
**"Admiral Nevel‘skoi" (1914) - Since 1914 "SMS Elbing", sunk at the Battle of Jutland 1916

Yacht cruisers

These ships were simply yacts equipped with large calibre artillery. "Svetlana" was protected, but the others were not.

*"Pamiat‘ Merkuriya", Cruiser (1880, Le Havre; ex-Dobroflot liner "Yaroslavl‘ 1") - Purchased to Black Sea Fleet 1882, reclassified Cruiser of 1st Rank 1892, decommissioned 1907
*"Svetlana", Cruiser of 1st Rank (1896, Le Havre) - Sunk at the Battle of Tsushima 1905
*"Almaz", Cruiser of 2nd Rank (1903) - Interned by U.S.A. after the Battle of Tsushima (1905), released 1905, reclassified to aviso in 1906 and yach 1908, equipped by hydroplanes (first in the Russian Navy) 1914 and non-officially classified as hydroplane cruiser, captured by White Army 1919, internrd by France in Bizerte 1920, returned to Soviet Russia 1924, sold for BU and BU 1934

Torpedo cruisers

The Russian Navy classified these ships as "minnyi kreiser" (Torpedo Cruiser): something between cruiser and torpedo boat, and the direct predecessor of destroyers, but were rather larger and stronger than the destroyesrs of the 1900s. The ships were purposed to struggle with an opponent's torpedo boats, as well as to serve as a torpedo boat squadron leader, escort ship, tow-ship, and other missions. Later, the first Russian destroyers were originally classified as torpedo cruisers.

*"Leytenant Ilyin" class (2 units)
**"Leytenant Ilyin" (1886 Baltic Fleet) - Aviso 1907, decommissioned 1911
**"Kapitan Saken" (1886 Black Sea Fleet) - Harbour vessel "Bombory" 1907, decommissioned 1909
*"Kazarskii" class (6 units)
**"Kazarskii" (1889 Elbing, Black Sea Fleet) - Aviso 1907, laid up 1925
**"Voyevoda" (1892 Elbing, Baltic Fleet) - Aviso 1907, captured by Finland 1918, sold fo Finland 1922, served as gunboat until 1940
**"Posadnik" (1892 Elbing, Baltic Fleet) - Served at Mediterranean Sea in late 1890s, aviso 1907, captured by Finland 1918, sold to Finland 1922, used as gunboat, minelayer and patrol boat until 1927, BU 1964
**"Vsadnik" (1893 Siberian Flotilla) - Sank in Port Arthur 1904, refloated by Japan and commissioned as Gunboat " Makikumo" 1906, BU 1914
**"Gaidamak" (1893 Siberian Flotilla) - Scuttled in Port Arthur 1904, refloated by Japan and commissioned as Gunboat "Shikinami" 1906, BU 1914
**"Griden‘" (1893 Black Sea Fleet) - Aviso 1907, delivered to Corps of Frontier Guard
*"Abrek" (1896) - Operated at Mediterranean Sea 1899–1904, delivered to Corps of Frontier Guard 1908, mobilized as aviso 1914, laid up 1921–1926, mother ship 1940, BU 1948

Battlecruisers

Rather typical ships of their class.

*"Izmail" or "Borodino" class (4 units)
**"Izmail" (1915) - Non completed, BU 1931
**"Borodino" (1915) - Non completed, sold for BU 1922
**"Kinburn" (1915) - Non completed, sold for BU 1922
**"Navarin" (1916) - Non completed, sold for BU 1922

Non-protected & auxiliary cruisers

Commissioning of these ships was an extraordinary measure taken during the periods of political crises of 1878 and 1904–1905. Auxiliary cruisers, which were used in 1904–1905, were specially constructed or reconstructed as ships of "double destination": ocean liners at the times of peace and cruisers during war. Most of them were officially classified as cruisers and auxiliary cruisers and belonged to the Baltic Fleet (but two).
*"Rossia", Cruiser (1868; ex-German liner "Holsatia") - Purchased 1878, delivered to Dobroflot 1878, purchased by Navy and commissioned as Training vessel "Dnestr" 1894, hulked 1910.
*"Moskva", Cruiser (1866; ex-German liner "Hammonia") - Purchased 1878, delivered to Dobroflot as "Moskva 1" 1878, wrecked 1882
*"Peterburg", Cruiser (1870; ex-German liner "Thuringia") - Purchased 1878, delivered to Dobroflot as "Peterburg 1" 1878, purchased by Navy and commissioned as Training vessel "Berezan‘" 1893, Transport 1909, floating workshop 1916, submarine base 1921, BU 1931
*"Aziya", Cruiser (1874; ex-American liner "Columbus") - Purchased 1878, served at Far East and Mediterranean Sea 1879–1882, Cruiser of 2nd Rank 1892, reconstruct to coal transport in early 1900s, decommissioned 1911, recommissioned 1914, laid up 1918, BU 1923
*"Afrika", Cruiser (1877; ex-American liner "Saratoga") - Purchased 1878, served Far East 1879–1882, Cruiser of 2nd Rank 1892, equipped by radio station (first of the Russian Navy) 1897, Training vessel and divers' base 1906, laid up 1918, BU 1923
*"Evropa", Cruiser (1878; ex-American liner "State of California") - Purchased 1878, operated at Far East 1879–1880, delivered to Dobroflot 1885, renamed "Yaroslavl‘ 2", captured by Finland 1918
*"Zabiyaka", Cruiser (1878, Philadelphia) - Served at Far East and Mediterranean Sea 1879–1882, reclassified to Cruiser of 2nd Rank and transferred to Siberian Flotilla 1892–1893, sank in Port Arthur 1904
*"Kuban‘", Auxiliary Cruiser (1889; ex-German liner "Auguste Victoria", ex-"Augusta Victoria", ex-"Normannia") - Purchased 1904, decommissioned 1906, BU 1907
*"Don", Auxiliary Cruiser (1891; ex-German liner "Fürst Bismarck") - Purchased 1904, sold to Dobroflot 1906 as "Moskva 4", resold to Austrian Navy and converted to submarines' base "Gaa" 1909, seized by Italy 1919, reconstructed as liner "San Giusto", BU 1924
*"Ural", Auxiliary Cruiser (1890; ex-German liner "Kaiserin Maria Theresia", ex-"Spree") - Purchased 1904, sunk at the Battle of Tsushima 1905
*"Terek", Auxiliary Cruiser (1889; ex-German liner "Columbia", ex-Spanish cruiser "Rapido", ex-German liner "Columbia") - Purchased 1904, decommissioned 1906, BU 1907
*"Dnepr", Auxiliary Cruiser (1894; ex-Dobroflot liner "Peterburg 2") - Commissioned 1904, returned to Dobroflot 1905 and served under the old name, commissioned 1914 as transport "Don", captured by Germany 1918, captured by Britain 1918, delivered to White Army 1919, interned by France at Bizerte 1920, sold for BU 1922
*"Rion", Auxiliary Cruiser (1901; ex-Dobroflot liner "Smolensk") - Commissioned 1904, returned to Dobroflot 1905 and served under the old name, commissioned as Training vessel "Rion" 1913, Transport 1914, captured by White Army 1919, interned by France in Bizerte 1920, returned to Soviet Russia 1924 and sold for BU
*"Rus‘", Auxiliary Cruiser (1887; ex-German liner "Lahn") - Purchased 1904 and reconstruct as balloon-carrying ship, sold for BU 1906
*"Oriol", Auxiliary Cruiser (1909; ex-Dobroflot liner "Oriol 2") - Commissioned to Siberian Flotilla 1914, used as training vessel, captured by White Army 1918, returned to Dobroflot 1920, sold to Britain 1922, renamed "Silvia", BU 1950
*"Leitenant Dadymov", Auxiliary Cruiser (?; ex-Boundary Guard's vessel) - Mobilized to Siberian Flotilla 1914, laid up 1918, captured by White Army 1918, sank 1922
NOTE: There were some other Dobroflot liners used in the Navy during the Russo-Japanese War, but they were classified as transports.

Cruisers of the Soviet and modern Russian Navy

Light Cruisers (KRL [This is a Russian class abbreviation, that also is used as prefix, for example: KRL "Sverdlov" or TRKR "Piotr Velikii".] )

*"Svetlana" class (8 units, commissioned 3). Laid up as far back as in Imperial Russia, but were not completed due to the Revolution and Civil war. Three of them were completed in Soviet Union. Belonged to the Black Sea Fleet ("Profintern" – to the Baltic Fleet until 1930).
**"Profintern" (ex-"Svetlana", renamed 1925) (1915) - Transferred to the Black Sea Fleet 1929–1930, renamed "Krasnyi Krym" 1939, Training cruiser 1954, BU 1959
**"Chervona Ukraina" (ex-"Admiral Nakhimov") (1915) - sank 1941
**"Krasnyi Kavkaz" (ex-"Admiral Lazarev") (1916) - Training cruiser 1947, sunk as target 1952
**"Admiral Spiridov" (1916) - Completed as tanker "Grozneft‘" 1926, BU 1952
**"Admiral Greig" (1916) - Completed as tanker "Azneft‘" 1926, wrecked 1937
**"Admiral Butakov" (1916) - Non compleded, laid up 1917, sunk 1942, BU 1952
**"Admiral Kornilov" (1917) - Non completed, BU 1932
**"Admiral Istomin" - Non completed, BU on slip 1927

*Project 26 and 26-bis ('Kirov' class) (6 units). These cruisers were classified as light, but possessed 7-inch main calibre (middle between 6-inch calibre of light cruisers and 8-inch calibre of medium cruisers)
**Project 26 ('Kirov' subclass) (2 units)
***"Kirov" (1936 Baltic Fleet) - Damaged by air bombs in 1941 & 1942, repaired 1943, decommissioned 1974
***"Voroshilov" (1937 Black Sea Fleet) - Reconstructed as Project 33M experimental vessel 1963, BU 1970s
**Project 26bis ('Maksim Gorkiy' subclass) (4 units)
***"Maksim Gorkiy" (1938 Baltic Fleet) - Mined 1941, repaired 1941, BU 1958
***"Molotov" (1939 Black Sea Fleet) - Torpedoed 1942, repaired 1943, transformed to training cruiser and renamed "Slava" 1958, decommissioned 1972
***"Kalinin" (1942 Siberian Flotilla) - BU 1961
***"Kaganovich" (1944 Siberian Flotilla)

*Project 68 and 68K ('Chapaev' class) (7 units, commissioned 5)
**"Chapayev" (1941) - Completed according to Project 68K 1950, training cruiser 1958, hulked as floating barracks 1960, decommissioned 1963
**"Kuibyshev" (1941) - Commissioned 1950, training cruiser 1958, decommissioned 1965
**"Zhelezniakov" (1941) - Completed according to Project 68K 1950, training cruiser 1961, decommissioned 1975
**"Chkalov" (1947) - Completed according to Project 68K 1950, training cruiser "Komsomolets" 1958, decommissioned 1979
**"Frunze" (1940) - Completed according to Project 68K 1950, Training cruiser 1958, decommissioned 1960
**"Ordzhonikidze" - Blew up on slip 1941 to prevent capture, BU by Germans until 1943
**"Sverdlov" - Blew up on slip 1941 to prevent capture, BU by Germans until 1943

*"Murmansk" (1921; ex-American "Milwaukee") - Delivered from U.S.A. on account of reparations from Italy 1944, returned to U.S.A.1947 (instead of "Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta"), BU 1949
*"Admiral Makarov" (1934; ex-German "Nürnberg") - Accepted by USSR according to reparations from Germany 1946, training cruiser 1957, decommissioned 1959
*"Kerch‘" (1934; ex-Italian "Emanuele Filiberto Duca d‘Aosta" - Accepted by USSR according to reparations from Italy 1949, training cruiser 1956, decommissioned 1959

*Project 68bis ('Sverdlov' class) (21 units, commissioned 14)
**"Sverdlov" (1950) - Laid up 1966, recommissioned 1972, laid up 1978, decommissioned 1989 and sold for BU
**"Ordzhonikidze" (1950) - Sold to Indonesia 1962, renamed "Irian", BU 1972
**"Zhdanov" (1950) - Rebuilt to staff ship (project 68U-1) 1970, laid up 1988, decommissioned 1990 and sold for BU
**"Aleksandr Nevski" (1951) - Laid up 1964, recommissioned 1970, decommissioned 1989
**"Admiral Nakhimov" (1951) - Rebuilt (project 67EP) 1955, BU 1961-62
**"Admiral Ushakov" (1951) - Laid up 1964, recommissioned and modernized (project 68A) 1971, laid up 1983, decommissioned 1987 and sold for BU
**"Admiral Lazarev" (1952) - Laid up 1963, decommissioned 1986 and sold for BU
**"Dzerzhinsky" (1952) - Modernized AA Missile Cruiser (project 70E) 1958, training cruiser 1951, laid up 1980, decommissioned 1988 and sold for BU
**"Admiral Seniavin" (1952) - Rebuilt to staff ship (project 68U-2) 1972, decommissioned 1989 and sold for BU
**"Mikhail Kutuzov" (1952) - Modernized (project 68A) 1989, laid up 1990, museum ship in Sevastopol 2002
**"Aleksandr Suvorov" (1953) - Laid up 1986, decommissioned 1989 and sold for BU
**"Dmitrii Pozharskii" (1953) - Laid up 1979, decommissioned 1987 and sold for BU
**"Molotovsk" (1954) - Renamed "Oktyabrskaya Revolutsia" 1957, laid up 1960, recommissioned 1965, modernized (project 68A) 1969, decommissioned 1987 and sold for BU
**"Murmansk" (1955) - Laid up 1989, decommissioned 1992, grounded at Sørvær in Norway when towing for BU 1994. [cite web |last=Solholm |first=Rolleiv |title= Russian wreck to be raised |publisher=The Norway Post |url=http://www.norwaypost.no/cgi-bin/norwaypost/imaker?id=182738 |accessdate=2008-08-21]
**"Koz‘ma Minin" ("Arkhangel‘sk") (1953) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959
**"Dmitrii Donskoi" ("Vladivostok") (1953) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959
**"Kronstadt" (1954) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959
**"Scherbakov" (1954) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959
**"Admiral Kornilov" (1954) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959
**"Tallin" (1955) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959
**"Varyag" (1956) - Project 26bis-ZIF, non completed, BU 1959

Heavy cruisers (TKR)

Prior to and during the Second World War, the Soviet Navy attempted to procure heavier cruiser types, including two different battlecruiser designs. Despite these attempts, not one ship of these types was commissioned into Soviet Navy.

*"Petropavlovsk" (1939; ex-German "Lützow") - Purchased being non-completed 1940, participated in the Battle for Leningrad (1941–1944) as floating 8-inch battery, damaged by shells 1941, refloated and repaired 1942, reformed to training vessel 1953, BU 1960
*Project 69 ( "Kronshtadt" class) (2 units)
**"Kronshtadt" - Laid down 1939, BU on slip 1947
**"Sevastopol‘" - Laid down 1939, blown up on slip 1941 to prenevt capture, BU
*Project 82 ( "Stalingrad" class) (3 units)
**"Stalingrad" (1954) - Not completed, sunk as target 1950s
**"Moskva" - Laid down 1952, BU on slip 1950s
**"Arkhangel‘sk" - Laid down 1952, BU on slip 1950s

Guided Missile Cruisers (RKR)

*Project 58 ('Groznyi' class) (4 units). Classified as Destroyers until 1962, this reason «destroyers'» names were replaced by «cruisers'» (but "Groznyi")
**"Groznyi" (1961) - Decommissioned 1991, BU 1993
**"Vladivostok" (ex-"Stereguschii" - renamed during completion) (1961) - Renamed "Admiral Fokin" 1964, decommissioned 1993
**"Admiral Golovko" (ex-"Doblestnyi" - renamed on slip) (1962) - Decommissioned 1998-99
**"Varyag" (ex-"Soobrazitel‘nyi") (1963) - Decommissioned 1990, BU 1992

*Project 1134 ('Admiral Zozulya' class) (4 units). Classified as Large Antisubmarine Ships until 1977. Something medium between cruisers and frigates
**"Admiral Zozulya" (1965) - Decommissioned 1994 and BU
**"Vitse-admiral Drozd" (1966) - Decommissioned 1990, sank when townig for BU 1992
**"Vladivostok" (1966) - Decommissioned 1991 and sold for BU
**"Sevastopol" (1967) - Decommissioned 1989, BU 1991

NOTE: Large Antisubmarine Ships of Project 1134A (NATO codename Kresta II) and Project 1134B (Kara) never classified as Cruisers in the Soviet Navy, nor were cruisers in reality: it was a type of large Frigates (due to arming of antisubmatine torpedo-missiles).

*Project 1164 ('Slava' class) (4 units, commissioned 3)
**"Slava" (1979) - Renamed "Moskva" 1995,
**"Admiral flota Lobov" (1982) - Renamed "Marshal Ustinov" 1986
**"Chervona Ukraina" (1983) - Renamed "Varyag" 1995
**"Admiral flota Lobov" (ex-"Komsomolets" - renamed on slip) (1990) - Slowly being completed for the Ukrainian Navy, renamed "Galichina" 1993, renamed "Ukraina" 1998

Heavy Nuclear Guided Missile Cruisers (TARKR)

Were reclassified to Heavy Guided Missile Cruisers (TRKR) in 1997.
*Project 1142.2 ('Kirov' class) (4 units)
**"Kirov" (1977) (Project 1144) - Renamed "Admiral Ushakov" 1992, laid up 1990
**"Frunze" (1981) - Renamed "Admiral Lazarev" 1992, laid up 1991
**"Kalinin" (1986) - Renamed "Admiral Nakhimov" 1992
**"Yurii Andropov" (1989) - Renamed "Piotr Velikii" 1992

Antisubmarine Cruisers (PKR)

Helicopter-carrying cruisers. Ships were purposed to searching and destroying opponent's guided missile and multi-purpose submarines at the remote boundaries of antisubmarine defence, consisting of ships' squadrons and cooperating with other antisubmarine ships and aircraft.
*Project 1123 ('Moskva' class) (2 units)
**"Moskva" - Decommissioned 1995 and sold for BU
**"Leningrad" - Decommissioned 1991, sank when towing for BU 1994

Heavy Aircraft-carrying Cruisers (TAKR)

Ships were purposed to air-covering of patrol regions of Soviet ballistic missile submarines (to destroying opponent's antisubmarine helicopters and airplanes), as well as to searching and destroying opponent's guided missile & multi-purpose submarines and (3rd purpose) to striking the opponent's above-water ships by guided missiles, consisting of ships' squadrons and cooperating with other Fleet's forces. Despite of superficial resemblance, they were not aircraft carriers in that sense, in which this term is applicable to American and British carriers. They were not intended to be main shock force of the Navy, but only a part of own strategic submarines' defense system (first three units). Fourth ship really became a large training base for fifth, her aircraft (Yak-141) was not completed and she remained with helicopters only, i. e. as antisubmarine cruiser. Fifth unit (and uncompleted sixth) were designed as ships of transitional type, and only seventh, non-completed nuclear "Ulyanovsk", although classified officially to cruisers, could became a first Russian relatively full aircraft carrier. [Pavlov A. S. Dlinnaya ruka admirala Gorshkova. Yakutsk, 2000. (Admiral Gorshkov's long arm) (concerning the 1143.4).
Pavlov A. S. Rozhdeniye i gibel' sed'mogo avianostsa. - Yakutsk, 2000. (Generation and corruption of the seventh aircraft carrier).
]
*"'Project 1143 ("Kiev" class) (3 units). Classified originally to Antisubmarine Aircraft-Carrying Cruisers, since 1977 (most part of their career) – to Heavy Aircraft-carrying Cruisers, since 1991 (after decommissioning of their Yak-38 aircraft) — to Heavy Helicopter-carrying Cruisers.
**"Kiev" (1972) - Decommissioned 1993, sold for BU to China 2000, resold and became a part of military theme park in Tianjin (2003)
**"Minsk" (1975) - Decommissioned 1993, sold for BU to South Korea, resold and became a part of military theme park in Shenzhen (2003)
**"Novorossiysk" (1978) (Project 1143.3) - Laid up 1991, decommissioned 1993, sold for BU 1994 to South Korea
*"Baku" (1982) (Project 1143.4) - Renamed "Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Gorshkov" (non-officially "Admiral Gorshkov") 1991, burnt 1993 & 1994, laid up 1996, sold to India and renamed "Vikramaditya" 2004

*Project 1143.5 ('Admiral Kuznetsov' class) (2 units)
**"Tbilisi" (ex-"Leonid Brezhnev", ex-"Riga" - renamed on slip) (1985) - Renamed "Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov" (non-officially "Admiral Kuznetsov") 1990, operated at Mediterranean Sea 1995–1996
**"Riga" (1988) - Renamed "Varyag" 1990, laid up 1992, being incompleted sold by Ukraina to People's Liberation Army Navy, towed to China 2002

*"Ulyanovsk" (Project 1143.7) - Laid down 1988, non completed and BU 1992

Auxiliary Cruisers (VKR)

*"Venture" (1899, ex-steamer) - Mobilized by White Army at Caspian Sea 1918, voluntary joined Red Army and renamed "Avstraliya" (later "Bela Kun") 1920, decommissioned 1920
*"Aga Selim" (1897; ex-tanker) - Mobilized at Caspian Sea 1918, renamed "Rosa Luxemburg" 1919, decommissioned 1926
*"Bambak" (1894; ex-steamer) - Mobilized at Caspian Sea 1918, renamed "Ilyich" 1919, decommissioned 1920
*"Delo" (1908; ex-tanker) - Mobilized 1918, renamed "III Internatsional" 1919, decommissioned 1920
*"Dublin Castle" (1897; ex-tanker "Yupiter") - Mobilized by White Army at Caspian Sea 1918, captured 1920, renamed "Evropa", decommissioned 1920
*"Kolomna" (1888; ex-steamer) - Mobilized at Caspian Sea 1918, renamed "Krasnoye Znamia" 1919, decommissioned 1920
*"Makarov I" (1898; ex-towboat) - Mobilized at Caspian Sea 1918, renamed "Proletarii" 1919, decommissioned 1920
*"Slava" (1903; ex-steamer) - Mobilized at Caspian Sea 1918, renamed "Krasnoye Znamia" 1919, decommissioned 1920
*"Indigirka" (1918; ex-netlayer) - Mobilized at Volga River 1919, renamed "Leitenant Schmidt" 1920, decommissioned 1923
*"Kaspii" (1914; ex-ice-breaker) - Mobilized at Caspian Sea 1918, wrecked 1920, refloated 1935
*"Pushkin" (1893; ex-steamer) - Mobilized by White Army at Caspian Sea 1919, captured 1920, renamed "Sovetskii Azerbaydzhan", decommissioned 1921
*"Ivan Susanin" (1899; ex-Canadian ice-breaker "Minto", purchased by Imperial Russi) - Mobilized at White Sea 1920, decommissioned 1920, renaned "Leitenant Dreyer" 1920, wrecked 1922
*"Kanada" (1909; ex-Canadian ice-breaker "Earl Grey", purchased by Imperial Russia) - Mobilized at White Sea 1920, renamed "Tretii Internatsional", decommissioned 1921, renamed "Fyodor Litke", BU 1958
*"Kniaz‘ Pozarskii" (1916; ex-ice-breaker) - Mobilized at White Sea 1920, renamed "Leitenant Schmidt", decommissioned and renamed "Stepan Makarov" 1921, sank 1941
*"Indigirka" (1886; ex-Dobroflot steamer "Tsinanfu") - Mobilized at Far East 1923, decommissioned 1933
*"Oleg" (1896; ex-steamer "Pronto") - Mobilized at Far East 1922, decommissioned 1923, BU 1951
*"Stavropol‘" (1907; ex-Dobroflot steamer "Kotik") - Mobilized at Far East 1922, decommissioned 1923, renamed "Voroshilovsk" 1935, BU 1951
*"Mikoyan" (1935; ex-ice-breaker "O. Yu. Shmidt") - Mobilized in June 1941, decommissioned in November 1941 and returned to ice-breakers class, renamed "A. Mikoyan", transferred from Black Sea to Arkhangelsk 1941–1942

Footnotes

References

#cite book |last=Beeler|first=John Francis|title=British Naval Policy in the Gladstone-Disraeli Era|year=1997|location=San Francisco|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=0804729816

#Moiseev S. P. Spisok korabley russkogo parovogo i bronenosnogo flota (s 1861 po 1917 god). - Voyenizdat, Moskva, 1948. (List of Russian Ships of Steam and Armoured Navy (from 1861 to 1917))
#Boyevye korabli russkogo flota 8.1914-10.1918 gody: Spravochnik / Red. Yu. V. Apalkov. - INTEK, St. Peterburg, 1996. (Warships of the Russian Navy in August 1914 – October 1918).
#Korabli i vspomogatel'nye suda sovetskogo Voyenno-Morskogo Flota (1917–1927 gody). Spravochnik / Red. S. S. Berezhnoi i dr. - Voyenizdat, Moskva, 1981. (Ships and auxiliary vessels of the Soviet Navy in 1917–1927. Reference-book)
#Berezhnoi S. S. Korabli i suda VMF SSSR 1928–1945. Spravochnik. - Voyenizdat, Moskva, 1998. (Ships and vessels of the USSR Navy 1928–1945. Reference-book)
#Burov V. N. Otechestvennoye voyennoye korablestroyenoye v tretyem stoletii svoyei istorii. - Sudostroyeniye, St. Peterburg, 1995. (Native Naval Shipbuilding in 3rd century of its history [i. e. in XX c.] )
#Berezhnoi S. S. Trofei i reparatsii VMF SSSR. - Sakhapoligraphizdat, Yakutsk, 1994. (Trophies and Reparations of the USSR Navy)
#Kuzin V. P., Nikol'skii V. I. Voenno-Morskoi Flot SSSR 1945–1991. - Istoricheskoye Morskoye Obschestvo, St. Petersburg, 1996. (USSR Navy 1945–1991)
#Pavlov A. S. Voyennye korabli SSSR i Rossii 1945–1995. Spravochnik. - Yakutsk, 1994. (Warships of the USSR and Russia in 1945–1995. Reference-book)
#Pavlov A. S. Voyennye korabli Rossii 2001 god. - Yakutsk, 2001. (Warships of the Russia, 2001)


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