- History of the Hellenic Navy
The History of the Hellenic Navy ( _el. Πολεμικό Ναυτικό) begins with the birth of modern
Greece, and due to the maritime nature of the country, this force has been the premier service of the Greek Armed Forces.
The navy during the Revolution
At the beginning of the
Greek War of Independence, the naval forces of the Greeks consisted primarily of the merchant fleet of the Saronic islanders from Hydra, Spetsaiand Porosand also the islanders of Psara. The fleet was of crucial importance to the success of the revolt. If the Greeks failed to counter the Ottoman Navy, it would be able to resupply the isolated Ottoman garrisons and land reinforcements from the Ottoman Empire's Asian provinces at will, crushing the rebellion.Although Greek crews were experienced seamen, the light Greek ships, mostly armed merchantmen, were unable to stand up to the large Turkish ships of the line in direct combat. So the Greeks resorted to the use of fireships ( _el. "πυρπολικά" or "μπουρλότα"), with great success. It was in the use of such ships that courageous seamen like Constantine Kanariswon international renown. Under the leadership of capable admirals, most prominently Andreas Miaoulisof Hydra, or the notable woman captain, Laskarina Bouboulinaof Spetsai, the Greek fleet achieved early victories, guaranteeing the survival of the revolt in the mainland.Fact|date=November 2007
However, as Greece became embroiled in a civil war, the Sultan called upon his strongest subject,
Muhammad Ali of Egypt, for aid. Plagued by internal strife and financial difficulties in keeping the fleet in constant readiness, the Greeks failed to prevent the capture and destruction of Kasosand Psarain 1824, or the landing of the Egyptian army at Modon. Despite victories at Samos and Gerontas, the Revolution was threatened with collapse until the intervention of the Great Powers in the Battle of Navarinoin 1827. There the Ottoman fleet was decisively defeated by the combined fleets of the Britain, France and the Russian Empire, effectively securing the independence of Greece.Fact|date=November 2007
Ioannis Capodistriasbecame governor of newly-liberated Greece, the Greek fleet consisted of few remaining ships, which had participated in the war for independence. The first minister of "Naval affairs" was Constantine Kanaris, and the most powerful ship of the fleet at that time, the frigate "Hellas", had been constructed in the United Statesduring the last years of the American revolution. The Navy established its headquarters at the island of Porosand the building of a new series of ships began at the naval base while old ships were gradually being retired. Furthermore, continuous efforts towards the education of officers were initiated. Young people were initially trained at the military school of Scholi Evelpidonand afterwards they were transferred to the navy, as there was no such thing as a Naval Academy. [Official website of the Hellenic Navy, [http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/history_en.asp#a3] ]
When Capodistrias was assassinated in
1831, Greece descended into anarchywith numerous areas, including Maniand Hydra, in revolt. It was during this revolt that the "Hellas", docked at Poros, was set on fire by Admiral Andreas Miaoulis. [Politics and Statecraft in the Kingdom of Greece, John Anthony Petropulos, Princeton University Press, 1968.]
The Royal Hellenic Navy of King Otto
When the new King Otto arrived in the Greek capital,
Nafplion, in 1832 aboard the British warship HMS "Madagascar", the Greek fleet consisted of 1 corvette, 3 brigs, 6 gollettes, 2 gunboats, 2 steamboats and a few more small vessels. The first Naval School was founded in 1846 on the Corvette "Loudovikos" and Leonidas Palaskas was assigned as its director. However the inefficient training of the officers, coupled with conflict between those who pursued modernization and those who were stalwarts of the traditions of the veterans of the struggle for independence, resulted in a restricted and inefficient navy, which was limited to policing the sea and the pursuit of pirates.
During the 1850s, the more progressive elements of the navy won out and the fleet was augmented with more ships. In 1855, the first iron propeller-driven ships were ordered from England. These were the steamships "Panopi", "Pliksavra", "Afroessa", and "Sfendoni". [Official website of the Hellenic Navy, [http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/history_en.asp#a3] ]
Growth of the navy under King George
1866Cretan revolt, the ships of the Royal Hellenic Navy were in no condition to support it. Such failure led to the government awakening to the problem of naval insufficiency and the adoption of a policy stating that: "The navy, as it represents a necessary weapon for Greece, should only be created for war and aim to victory." Because of this, the fleet was supplied with new and bigger ships, reflecting a number of innovations including the use of iron in shipbuilding industry and the invention of the torpedo; with these advances, the effectiveness and the appearance of the Hellenic Navy changed. Fact|date=November 2007
1878, because of the Russo-Turkish War and the need to expand the Greek navy, a new and larger naval base was established in the area of Faneromeni of Salamis and a few years later it was transferred to the area of Arapis where it remains today. At the same time the Naval Academy was founded and Ilias Kanellopoulos was made Director. A committee from France headed by Admiral Lejeune introduced a new, advanced naval organization and the methodological training of enlisted personnel through the establishment of a training school in the old building of the naval base in Poros. in 1897, the Hellenic Navy established its dominance in the Aegean Sea, however, it was unable to change the outcome of the war on land, which was a national humiliation.
In 1907, the
Hellenic Navy General Staff("Γενικό Επιτελείο Ναυτικού") was founded, with then-Captain Pavlos Kountouriotisas its first head. After the war in 1897, the Ottoman Empire embarked on a program of naval expansion for its fleet and as a response to that, in 1909, the cruiser "Georgios Averof" was bought from Italy. In 1910, an English naval mission arrived, headed by Admiral Tuffnel, in order to recommend improvements in the organization and training of the navy. The mission led to the adoption of the English style of management, organization and training, especially in the area of strategy.
World War I and after:1914–1940
"For a list of ships in the fleet in this era, see
The Hellenic Navy in 1917"The Navy, shortly before the Balkan Wars, was composed of a destroyer and battleship fleet. Its mission was primarily offensive, aiming at capturing the Ottoman-held islands of the Eastern Aegean, and establish naval supremacy in the area. To that end, its commander-in-chief, Rear Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis, established a forward base at the Moudrosbay at Lemnos, directly opposite the Dardanellesstraits. After defeating the two Turkish sallies from the Straits at Elli (December 1912) and Lemnos (January 1913), the Aegean Sea was secured for Greece.
The Balkan Wars were followed by a rapid escalation between Greece and the Ottoman Empire over the as yet unclear status of the islands of the Eastern Aegean. Both governments embarked on a naval armaments race, with Greece purchasing the obsolete battleships "Limnos" and "Kilkis" and the light cruiser "Elli" as well as ordering two
dreadnoughts, the "Vasilefs Konstantinos" and the "Salamis" and a number of destroyers. However, with the outbreak of the First World War, construction of the dreadnoughts stopped.
Initially during the war, Greece followed a course of neutrality, with the Prime Minister
Eleftherios Venizelosfavoring the Entente and pro-German King Constantine I advocating neutrality. This dispute eventually led to a deep political conflict, known as the " National Schism". In November 1916, in order to apply pressure on the royal government in Athens, the French confiscated the Greek ships. They continued to operate with French crews, primarily in convoy escort and patrol duties in the Aegean, until Greece entered the war on the side of the Allies in July 1917, at which point they were returned to Greece. Subsequently, the Greek Navy took part in the Allied operations in the Aegean, in the Allied expedition in support of Denikin's White Armiesin the Ukraine, and in the operations of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919– 1922in Asia Minor.
After Greece's catastrophic defeat, the 1920s and early 1930s were a politically turbulent period, with the economy in a bad state, so the Navy received no new units, apart from the modernization of four destroyers and the acquisition of six French submarines in
1927and four Italian destroyers in 1929.
World War II
1938, Greece ordered four modern "Greyhound" class destroyers in English shipyards, making a serious step towards modernization. The outbreak of war in Europe, however, allowed only two to be delivered. Greece entered World War II with a weak navy consisting of 10 destroyers, two outdated battleships, two light cruisers and six submarines. On the eve of the Italian invasion in 1940, the RHN consisted of 34 ships and 6,500 men. [http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/history3_en.asp Contribution and Sacrifice of the Hellenic Navy and the Hellenic Merchant Marine in the Allied effort against the Axis during W.W. II, 1939-1945] , by Rear Adm Sotirios Georgiadis]
Greco-Italian War, the Navy took over convoy escort missions in the Aegean and the Ionian Seaand even embarked on three raids against the Italian supply convoys in the Strait of Otranto. The most important role was given to the submarines, which although obsolete, managed to sink several Italian cargo ships in the Adriatic. But when Nazi Germanyattacked Greece, the RHN was literally decimated by the Luftwaffe, suffering the loss of 25 ships within a few days in April 1941. It was then decided to shift the remaining fleet (one cruiser -the famous "Averof"-, six destroyers, five submarines, 3 torpedo boats and a number of auxiliary vessels) to Alexandriain Egypt. For the remainder of the war, the RHN fought alongside the Allies from bases in the Middle East. As the war progressed, the number of Hellenic Royal Navy vessels increased after the concession of several destroyers and submarines by the British Royal Navy, reaching a peak of 44 ships and 8,500 men in early 1944.
The most notable aspects of the Hellenic Royal Navy's participation in World War II include the operations of the destroyer "Vassilissa Olga" which, until sunk in Leros in
September 23 1943, was the most successful Allied destroyer in the Mediterranean Sea; the participation of two destroyers in Operation Overlord; and the story of the destroyer "Adrias", which while operating close to the coast of Kalymnosin October 1943 hit a mine, resulting in the loss of the vessel's prow, while blowing the two-gun forward turret over the bridge. After some minor repairs at Gümüşlük Bay in Turkey the "Adrias" managed to return to Alexandriain a 400-mile trip, even though all the forepart of the ship, up to the bridge, was missing.
Modern Era 1950–1990
World War II, the Royal Hellenic Navy was significantly strengthened by the concession of British and Italian ships. The organisation also changed in line with modern naval doctrines of that era, leaving aside the old battleships after the entrance into NATOin 1952. At the beginning of the 1950s, US military aid formed the core of the country's armed forces. The Royal Hellenic Navy received the first Bostwick-class destroyers which took on the name "Beasts" (Θηρία), while withdrawing the British ones.
The next significant change was during the early 1970s, when Greece was the first Mediterranean naval force to order missile-equipped fast attack craft (Combattante II) and the
Type 209 submarines, whereas US military aid continued in the form of FRAM II class destroyers. In 1979, Hellenic Navy placed an order in the Netherlandsfor two modern Standard class frigates (the Elli class). These were the first acquisitions of new main surface vessels, rather than the use of second-hand ships, in almost four decades.
Hellenic Navy was enhanced to his maximum point during the last decade. The arrivals of Hydra class (MEKO 200 HN) and more Standard class frigates along with the orders for more missile corvettes, Poseidon class
Type 209 submarinesubmarines and naval helicopters allowed the retirement of the obsolete vessels.At the same time, Greece was the first Mediterranean country to receive guided missile destroyers, after the transfer of four Charles F. Adams class destroyers from the US Navy in 1992. But all four have since been decommissioned, since their electronics and missiles were considered not able to stand in a modern battlefield.
The advance continued when Greece ordered
Type 214 submarines that feature an air-independent propulsionsystem, Sikorsky S-70B-6/10 Aegean Hawk helicopters and Project 1232.2 Zubr class hovercrafts from Russia.
Current plans include the modernization of Standard class frigates with new electronics and radar systems, the modernization of Glaukos and Poseidon class submarines with new sonars, electronics and air-independent propulsion engines (programs Neptune 1/2), while negotiations are being held with the US Navy for the concession of two
Arleigh Burke class destroyers.
List of naval ships of Greece
*The Royal Hellenic Navy in 1917
Greek cruiser Georgios Averof
Battle of Kos
Battle of Leros
* [http://www.bsaverof.com/uk/history.htm History of "G.Averof" battleship]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.