- M1 Garand rifle
name=Rifle, Caliber .30, M1
World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War(limited)
designer=John C. Garand
Springfield Armory, Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Harrington & Richardson Co., International Harvester, Beretta
number=Approx. 5.4 million [cite web
title=Who Made M1 Garands? How Many Were Made? When Were They Made?
publisher=Excerpted from The M1 Garand: Owner’s Guide copyright 1994 by Scott A. Duff
weight=lb to kg|9.5|sp=us|abbr=on|precision=2|wiki=yes to convert|13.2|lb|abbr=on
length=in to mm|43.6|abbr=on|precision=1|wiki=yes
.30-06 Springfield 7.62x51mm NATO(U.S. Navy and some commercial variants)
range=convert|500|yd|0|lk=on|sp=us|abbr=on [cite web
title=U.S. Department of the Army Technical Manual No. 9-1005-222-12
publisher=Re-published by www.biggerhammer.net
17 march 1969
feed=8-round "en bloc" clip internal magazine
sights=Aperture rear sight, barleycorn-type front sight
The M1 Garand (formally the United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1) was the first
semi-automatic rifleto be generally issued to the infantry in any nation. In 1936, it officially replaced the bolt-action Springfield M1903 rifle as the standard service rifleof the United States military (the M1903 retaining a valuable role as a sniper rifle), and was subsequently replaced by the select-fire M14 in 1957. However, the M1 continued to be used in large numbers until 1963, and to a lesser degree until 1966.
The M1 was used heavily in
World War II, the Korean War, and, to a limited extent, in the Vietnam War. Most M1 rifles were issued to American troops, though many were also lent to other nations. It is still used by various drill teams and is a popular civilian firearm. The name "Garand" is pronounced variously as [gəˈrænd] or [ˈgærənd] . According to experts and people who knew Garand, the latter version is preferred. [Hatcher, Julian. (1983). "Book of the Garand". Gun Room Pr. ISBN 0-88227-014-1. Retrieved March 28, 2006.] [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/spar/historyculture/john-garand.htm|title=John Cantius Garand and the M1 Rifle|publisher=Springfield Armory National Historic Site|accessdate=2008-10-03]
Though the U.S. Army became interested in
self-loadingrifles with the Bang and Murphy-Manning of 1911, and there were trials in 1916-8, [Walter, John. "Rifles of the World". (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2006), p.142, "Garand".] the M1's origin properly dates to 1919, when armies around the world were realizing standard rifle cartridges were more powerful than necessary for typical engagementranges, leading to heavier weapons than really required. The Army trials in the 1920s had a .256in minimum caliberrequirement, compared to the .30-06then standard. [Fitzsimons, Bernard, editor. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Weapons and Warfare". (London: Phoebus, 1978), Volume 10, p.1088, "Garand".]
Firearms designer John C. Garand, working at the Army's
Springfield Armory, began with a .30 caliber primer-operated breech. Twenty-four rifles, identified as "M1922", were built at Springfield in summer 1924, and at Fort Benningduring the summer of 1925 they were tested against the Thompson autoloading rifle, Berthier, Hatcher-Bang, and "highly promising delayed blowback Pedersen rifle".Walter, "loc. cit."] This led to a further trial of the improved "M1924" Garand against the Thompson, ultimately producing an inconclusive report."ibid."] Therefore, the Ordnance Boardordered a Garand variant .30-06, while in March 1927 the Cavalry Board reported trials between the Thompson, Garand, and '03 Springfield had not led to a clear winner, leading to a gas-operated .276 model. [Walter, "loc. cit." Garand would patent this 12 April 1930.]
During the spring of 1928, both
Infantryand CavalryBoards ran trials with the .276 Pedersen T1 rifle, giving it high praise (despite its use of waxed ammunition). [Fitzsimons, "op. cit.", Volume 19, p.2092, "Pedersen", describes the ammunition as "lubricated".] On 13 August 1928, a Semiautomatic Rifle Board carried out joint Army, Navy, and Marine Corps trials between the .30 Thompson, both cavalry and infantry versions of the T1 Pedersen, "M1924" Garand, and .256 Bang, and on 21 September, the Board reported no clear winner. The .30 Garand, however, was dropped in favor of the .276. [Walter, "op. cit.", p.143.]
Further tests by the SRB in July 1929, which included rifle deisgns by
Brauning, Colt-Browning, Garand, Holek, Pedersen, Rheinmetall, Thompson, and an incomplete one by White, [ Further tests in 1930 found Bostonian Joseph White's rifles insufficiently robust. Walter, "loc. cit."] led to a recommendation that work on the (dropped) .30 gas-operated Garand be resumed, and a T1E1 was ordered 14 November 1929.
Twenty gas-operated .276 T3E2s Garands were made and competed with T1 Pedersen rifles in Spring 1931. The .276 Garand was the clear winner of these trials. The .30 caliber Garand was tested at these trials in the form of a single T1E1 prototype but was withdrawn with a cracked bolt on
9 October 1931. A 4 January 1932meeting recommended adoption of the .276 caliber and production of approximately 125 T3E2s. Meanwhile, Garand redesigned his bolt and his improved T1E2 rifle was retested. The day after the successful conclusion of this test, Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur personally disapproved any caliber change, in part because there were extensive existing stocks of .30 M1 ball ammunition. [Fitzsimons, "Garand", "op. cit."] On 25 February 1932, Adjutant General John B. Shuman, speaking for the Secretary of War, ordered work on the weapons and ammunition in .276 caliber cease immediately and completely and all resources be directed toward identification and correction of deficiencies in the Garand .30 caliber. [Hatcher: pg 111]
3 August 1933, the T1E2 became the "Semi-Automatic Rifle, Caliber 30, M1". In May 1934, 75 M1s went to field trials; 50 were to infantry, 25 to cavalry units. [Hatcher, p.113] Numerous problems were reported, forcing the rifle to be modified, yet again, before it could be recommended for service and cleared for procurement on 7 November 1935, then standardized 9 January 1936. The first production model was successfully proof-fired, function-fired, and fired for accuracy on July 21 1937. [cite web|url=http://www.olive-drab.com/od_other_firearms_rifle_m1garand.php3|title=Military Firearms: M1 Garand Rifle|publisher=Olive-Drab.com (1998–2005)|accessdate=2008-10-03] In 1938, the U.S. Army adopted a new, lighter 150-grain bulleted cartridge for the M1 as well as its other rifle-caliber small arms and machineguns, designated 'Cartridge, Ball, caliber 30, M2', or M2 Ball. [Barnes, Frank C., "Cartridges of the World", 6th ed., DBI Books Inc. (1989), p. 59] .
Production difficulties delayed deliveries to the Army until September of 1937. By September 1939, Springfield Armory had reached an output of 100 per day. Despite going into production status, design issues were not at an end. The barrel and gas cylinder assembly were redesigned and entered production in early 1940. The problem proved so thorny, that even the
M1941 Johnson riflehad to be deferred so Springfield could concentrate on the problematic Garand. Production increased in 1940 however,cite book|last = Brown|first = Jerold Brown|title = Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army|publisher = Greenwood Press|date = 2000| pages =286| doi = 10.1336/0313293228|isbn = 0313293228] reaching 600 a day by 10 January 1941, and the Army was fully equipped by 1941. [Fitzsimons, "loc. cit."]
Following the outbreak of
World War IIin Europe, Winchester was awarded an "educational" production contract for 65,000 rifles, with deliveries beginning in 1943. The British Armytested the M1 Garand as a possible replacement for its bolt-actionLee-Enfield No.1 Mk III, but rejected it after trials to simulate combat conditions. [cite web|url=http://www.quarry.nildram.co.uk/White.htm|title=The White Rifles|author=Anthony G. Williams|publisher=Minutes 1244 of the Small Arms Committee, 26th October 1932|accessdat=2008-10-03] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,884292-3,00.html|title=Report on the Garand|publisher=Time Magazine|date=1941-03-24|accessdate=2008-10-03]
John Garandpresents his rifle to Army officials.]
The M1's semiautomatic operation gave United States forces a significant advantage in firepower and shot-to-shot response time over individual enemy infantrymen in battle (German and
Japanese soldiers were usually armed with bolt-action rifles). [cite book|last = Rottman|first = Gordon L.|title =US Marine Rifleman 1939-45: Pacific Theater|publisher = Osprey Publishing|date = 2006|pages = 27 - 28|isbn = 184176972X] General George S. Patton called it "the greatest implement of battle ever devised." [cite encyclopedia| last = Pendergast| first = Sara| coauthor = Pendergast, Tom| title = Firearms| encyclopedia = St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture | pages = 102| publisher = St. James Press| date = 2000| ISBN = 1558624058] The impact of faster-firing infantry small arms in general soon stimulated both Allied and Axis forces to greatly augment issue of semi- and fully-automatic weapons then in production, as well as to develop new types of infantry firearms. [Citation
last = Bishop
first = Chris
title = The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II
place = New York
publisher = Orbis Publiishing Ltd
year = 1998
isbn = 0-7607-1022-8.]
Much of the M1 inventory in the post-World War II period underwent arsenal repair or rebuilding. While U.S. forces were still engaged in the Korean War, the Department of Defense determined a need for additional production of the Garand, and two new contracts were awarded. During 1953-56, M1s were produced by
International Harvesterand Harrington & Richardson. [Citation| first = United States Congress|author-link = United States Congress| first2 = Department of the Army| author-link = Department of the Army|title = Department of the Army Appropriations for 1954: Hearings, 83rd Congress, 1st Session| year = 1953| pages = 1667| place = Washington, D.C.|publisher = United States Congress] A final, very small lot of M1s was produced by Springfield Armory in early 1957, using finished components already on hand. Berettaalso produced Garands using Winchester tooling. Most recently, the M1 was produced by Springfield Armory, Inc.of Geneseo, Illinois. This civilian variant is offered in either .30-06 Springfield or .308 Winchester chambering.Fact|date=July 2008
The M1 proved an excellent rifle throughout its service in
World War IIand the Korean War. The Japanese began development of a modified version of the Garand, the Type 5 Rifle, near the end of World War II, though it never reached production status.Fact|date=July 2008 Surplus M1 rifles also armed many nations allied to the USA postwar, including Germany, Italy and Japan. Some Garands were still being used in the Vietnam Warin 1963; despite the M14's official adoption in 1957, it was not until 1965 the changeover from the M1 Garand was completed in the active-duty component of the Army (with the exception of the sniper variants, which were introduced in WWII and saw action in Korea and Vietnam). In other components of the armed forces, such as the Army Reserve, Army National Guardand the Navy, Garands continued to serve into the 1970s or longer; photos of Ohio Army National Guardtroops at the Kent State shootingsin May 1970 clearly show them holding Garands. [cite web|url=http://speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/IsaacFour.htm|title=Blood of Isaac|last=Thomas|first=Charles A.|publisher=Kent State University|accessdate=2008-10-03]
Some military drill teams still use the M1, including the U.S. Marine Corps Silent Drill Team, the Norwegian Royal Guards Drill Team, almost all
Reserve Officer Training Corps(ROTC) and some Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps(JROTC) teams of all branches of the US military. Modern Drill Team M1s are permanently disabled by having a metal rod welded into the barrel.Fact|date=July 2008 Exhibition teams often use fiberglassstocks in place of wooden ones, the latter being heavier and more prone to breakage when dropped.Fact|date=July 2008
Design and mechanics
The M1 rifle is a
gas-operated, semi-automatic, clip-fed rifle.cite web|last=Popenker|first=Max|url=http://world.guns.ru/rifle/rfl05-e.htm|title=Modern Firearms: Rifle M1 Garand|publisher=www.worldguns.ru|accessdate=2008-10-03] By modern standards, the M1's feeding system is archaic, relying on clips to feed ammunition, and is the principal source of criticism of the Garand rifle.Fact|date=July 2008 Officials in Army Ordnance circles demanded a fixed, non-protruding magazine for the new service rifle. At the time, it was believed that a detachable magazine on a general-issue service rifle would be easily lost by US soldiers (a criticism made of British soldiers and the Lee-Enfield 50 years previously), would render the weapon too susceptible to clogging from dirt and debris (a belief that proved unfounded with the adoption of the M1 Carbine), and that a protruding magazine would complicate existing manual-of-arms drills.Fact|date=July 2008 As a result, inventor John Pedersendeveloped an "en bloc" clip system that allowed ammunition to be inserted from above, clip included, into the fixed magazine. While this design provided the requisite flush-mount magazine, the clip system increased the rifle's weight, and prevented it from being fired without a clip, such as while reloading.Fact|date=July 2008
Garand's rifle was originally chambered for the
.276 Pedersencartridge,Citation| last = Karwan| first = Charles| title = History in your hands: Springfield Armory's new M1 Garand: the most significant rifle of the 20th Century is once again available to the American shooter| journal = Guns magazine| issue = October| pages = 44| year = 2002] charged by means of 10-round clips. Later, it was chambered for the then-standard .30-06 Springfield. With this new cartridge, the Garand had a maximum effective range of 500 yards (457 m), with the capability of inflicting a casualty with armor-piercing ammunition well beyond 880 yards (approx. 800 m). Because of the larger diameter of the .30-06 cartridge, the modified magazine held only eight rounds.
thumb|left|175px|Two ofGarand's patents, showing the original gas trap design and revised gas port system.
Garand's original design for the M1 used a complicated gas system involving a special muzzle extension gas trap, later dropped in favor of a simpler drilled gas port. Because most of the older rifles were retrofitted, pre-1939 "gas-trap" M1 Garands are very rare today and are prized collector's items. In both systems, expanding gases from a fired cartridge are diverted into the gas cylinder. Here, the gases met a long-stroke piston attached to the operating rod. The operating rod was therefore pushed rearward by the force of this high-pressure gas. Then, the operating rod engaged a
rotating boltinside the receiver. The bolt was attached to the receiver via two locking lugs, which rotated, unlocked, and initiated the firing cycle when the rifle was discharged. The operating rod (and subsequently the bolt) then returned to its original position.
The weight of the M1 varies between lb to kg|9.5|sp=us|abbr=off|precision=2 and lb to kg|10.2|sp=us|abbr=off|precision=2 unloaded (depending on sling type and stock wood density), a considerable increase over the previous M1903 Springfield. The length was convert|43.6|in|mm|0|sp=us|abbr=off. The rifle is fed by an "en bloc" clip which holds eight rounds of
.30-06 Springfieldammunition. When the last cartridge is fired, the rifle ejects the clip and locks the bolt open. Clips can also be manually ejected at any time. The "en-bloc" clip is manually ejected by pulling the operating rod all the way to the rear, and then depressing the clip catch button. Much criticized in modern times, the en-bloc clip was innovative for its time.Fact|date=July 2008 The concept of a disposable box magazine had not been embraced and en-bloc clips were cheap and reliable. It was even harder and slower to reload the M1903 rifle. Modern arguments ignore that the only contemporary rifles with the ability to easily top-off a magazine were the Johnson M1941and the obsolete Krag-Jørgensen.George, John (Lt. Col.). (1948). "Shots Fired In Anger". The Samworth Press. ISBN 0-93599-842-X]
The rifle's ability to rapidly fire powerful .30-06 rifle ammunition also proved to be of considerable advantage in combat. In China, Japanese
banzai charges had previously met with frequent success against poorly-trained Chinese soldiers armed with bolt-action rifles. Armed with the Garand, US Infantrymen were able to sustain a much higher rate of fire than their Chinese counterparts. In the short-range jungle fighting, where opposing forces sometimes met each other in column formation on a narrow path, the penetration of the powerful .30-06 M2 cartridge enabled a single U.S. infantryman to kill up to three Japanese soldiers with a single round.
Ejection of an empty clip created a distinctive metallic "pinging" sound.cite book|last = Bishop|first = Chris|title = The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II|publisher =
Sterling Publishing|date = 2002|pages = 223|isbn = 1586637622] In World War II, reports arose in which German and Japanese infantry were making use of this noise in combat to alert them to an empty M1 rifle in order to 'get the drop' on their American enemies. The information was taken seriously enough that U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Groundbegan experiments with clips made of various plastics in order to soften the sound, though no improved clips were ever adopted.Dunlap, Roy F. (1948). "Ordnance Went Up Front". The Samworth Press. ISBN 1-88484-909-1] During the Korean War, American soldiers supposedly used the sound to their advantage, noting the enemy would reveal themselves when they heard the clip eject, and would carry and throw empty clips as a decoying tactic. However, these reports are largely unsubstantiated, and, in reality, clip ejection noise in the larger cacophony of infantry small arms combat likely had little effect in most engagements.Fact|date=July 2008
The Garand was one of the first self-loading rifles to use stainless steel for its gas cylinder, in an effort to prevent corrosion. As the stainless metal could not be parkerized, these gas cylinders were given a stove-blackening that frequently wore off in use. Unless the cylinder could be quickly repainted, the resultant gleaming muzzle could make the Garand and its user more visible to the enemy in combat. The M1 Garand was designed for simple assembly and disassembly to facilitate field maintenance. It can be field stripped (broken down) using only a rifle round. [cite web|url=http://www.civilianmarksmanship.com/fieldstrip.html|title=Field Stripping the M1 Garand|publisher=Civilian Marksmanship Program|accessdate=2008-10-03]
The Garand is loaded with a full clip of eight cartridges. Once all eight rounds are expended, the bolt will be automatically locked back and the clip ejected (with a distinct metallic ping), readying the rifle for the insertion of a fresh clip of ammunition. Compared to contemporary detachable box magazines, the M1's "en bloc" clip is light, simple, and only has to be oriented with the rounds pointing forward prior to charging the rifle (the clips have no top or bottom).
Once the clip is inserted, the bolt snaps forward on its own as soon as pressure is released from the clip, chambering a round and leaving it ready to fire. [cite web|publisher=Springfield Armory|date=2001|url=http://www.springfield-armory.com/Manuals/M1GarandManual.pdf|title=Springfield Armory M1 Garand Operating Manual|format=pdf|accessdate=2008-10-03] cite web|publisher=Department of the Army|date=1965|url=http://www.biggerhammer.net/manuals/garand/m1.htm|title=FM 23-5|accessdate=2008-10-03] It is advisable for the operator to ride the bolt forward with his hand (in order to prevent the bolt from closing on his thumb, resulting in the very common "Garand thumb" or "M1 thumb"), and to strike the operating rod handle with his palm to ensure the bolt is closed.cite web|last=Mangrum|first=Jamie|date=2004|url=http://www.surplusrifle.com/garand/operations.asp|title=Surplus Rifle.com: M1 Garand Operations Page|publisher=SurplusRifle.com|accessdate=2005-11-15]
The M1's safety is located at the front of the trigger guard. It is engaged when it is pressed rearward into the trigger guard, and disengaged when it is pushed forward and is protruding outside of the trigger guard. Contrary to widespread misconception, partially expended or full clips can be ejected from the rifle by means of the clip latch button. It is also possible to load single cartridges into a partially loaded clip while the clip is still in the magazine, but this requires both hands and a bit of practice. In reality, this procedure was rarely performed in combat, as the danger of loading dirt along with the cartridges increased the chances of malfunction, not to mention the added delay in returning fire. Later, special clips holding two or five rounds became available on the civilian market, as well as a single-loading device which stays in the rifle when the bolt locks back. It is also possible to modify the clip latch, disabling the clip ejection function, and thereby allowing the weapon to be charged like a traditional top-loading rifle.Fact|date=July 2008
In battle, the manual of arms called for the rifle to be fired until empty, and then recharged quickly. Due to the well-developed logistical system of the U.S. military at the time, this wastage of ammunition was generally not critical, though this could change in the case of units that came under intense fire or were flanked or surrounded by enemy forces. The Garand's en-bloc clip system proved particularly cumbersome when using the rifle to launch grenades, requiring removal of an often partially loaded clip of ball ammunition and replacement with a full clip of blank cartridges.Fact|date=July 2008
Both official and aftermarket accessories were plentiful for the Garand rifle. Several different styles of
bayonets fit the rifle: the M1905 and M1942, both with 16-inch (406 mm) blades; the Model 1905E1 with shortened 10-inch (254 mm) blade; the M1 with 10-inch (254 mm) blade; and the M5 bayonetwith 6.75-inch (152 mm) blade.Fact|date=July 2008
Also available was a
grenade launcherthat fit onto the barrel using the M7 spigot. [cite book|last = Bishop|first = Chris|title = The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II|publisher = Sterling Publishing|date = 2002|pages = 214|isbn = 1586637622] It was sighted using the M15 sight, which fit just forward of the trigger. A cleaning tool, oiler and greasepots could be stored in two cylindrical compartments in the buttstock for use in the field. Because of the limitations of the Garand's clip-loading magazine, the rifle proved less than ideal for use in launching grenades, and the M1903 Springfield was retained for use in that role long after grenade launchers for the Garand became available.Fact|date=July 2008
The M1907 two-piece leather rifle sling was used with the weapon through World War II. From about 1944 onward, a green cotton webbing sling was provided, eventually replacing the earlier model.Fact|date=July 2008 Another accessory was the "winter trigger", said to have been developed during the Korean War. It consisted in a small mechanism installed on the trigger guard, allowing the soldier to remotely pull the trigger by depressing a lever just behind the guard. This enabled the shooter to fire his weapon while using winter gloves, which could get "stuck" on the trigger guard or not allow for proper movement of the finger.
Most variants of the Garand, save the
snipervariants, never saw active duty. The sniper versions were modified to accept scope mounts, and two versions (the M1C, formerly M1E7, and the M1D, formerly M1E8) were produced, although not in significant quantities during World War II. [cite web|last=Ewing|first=Mel|url=http://www.snipercentral.com/m1cd.htm|title=Sniper Central: US Army M1C & M1D|publisher=SniperCentral.com|accessdate=2005-11-15] The only difference between the two versions is the mounting system for the telescopic sight. In June 1944, the M1C was adopted as a standard sniper rifleby the U.S. Army to supplement the venerable M1903A4.cite web|coauthors=Culver, Dick and Neudeck, Paul|url=http://www.jouster.com/articles30m1/Variations.html|title=The M1C, MC-1, and M1D Variations of the Garand Rifle|publisher=Jouster.com|accessdate=2006-04-03]
The procedure required to install the M1C-type mounts through drilling/tapping the hardened receiver was inefficient in terms of tooling and time. This resulted in the development of the M1D, which utilized a simpler, single-ring Springfield Armory mount. The M1C and M1D first began to be widely used during the
Korean War. The U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M1C as their official sniper rifle in 1951. The U.S. Navy has also used the Garand, rechambered for the 7.62x51mm NATOround.
Two interesting variants that never saw service were the M1E5 and T26 (popularly known as the "Tanker Garand"). The M1E5 is equipped with a folding buttstock, while the T26 uses the standard solid stock, and has a shorter, 18-inch barrel. The "tanker" name was also used after the war as a marketing gimmick for commercially-modified Garands. Another variant that never saw duty was the T20E2. This variant is a Garand modified to accept Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) magazines, and has
selective firecapability, with semi- and fully-automatic modes. Several Ordnance commands at various organizational levels in the Pacific also modified Garand rifles late in the war to produce both Garand 'Tanker'-type carbines and BAR-magazine-equipped Garands similar to the T20E2, though it is unknown if any of these weapons ever saw actual service.Fact|date=July 2008
During the 1950s,
Berettaproduced Garands in Italy at the behest of NATO, by having the tooling used by Winchester during World War II shipped to them by the US government. These rifles were designated "Model 1952" in Italy, and eventually led to variants of their own, the best known of these being the BM-59 series. Beretta Garands chambered in 7.62x51mm NATO served in the Danish armed forces as the "Gv M/50", before being replaced with the Heckler & Koch G3.Fact|date=July 2008
Quick reference of variants
The M1 Garand was the direct predecessor of the
M14 rifle, which replaced it. During the 1950s, Berettadeveloped the BM-59 series of rifles, which would also be produced under license in Indonesiaas the "SP" series. Ruger produced the Mini-14rifle, which utilizes a reduced-size operating system and a different gas system.Fact|date=July 2008 The AK-47was developed from an earlier Kalashnikov carbine which heavily drew from the Garand design; particularly, the locking system with its rotating bolt is based on Garand's design. The AK-47 also uses a highly simplified form of the Garand trigger group.Fact|date=July 2008
Despite similarities in naming, there is no relationship between the M1 Garand and the M1 Carbine, other than a similar rotating bolt design. Additional confusion can arise from the development of several other "M1" weapons ("M" being an abbreviation for "Model"), such as the M1 Thompson
submachine gunand M1 Abrams tank.Fact|date=July 2008
U.S. Coast Guardmember competes in a marksmanship championship with the M1 Garand.]
United States citizens meeting certain qualifications may purchase US military surplus M1 Garand rifles through the
Civilian Marksmanship Program(CMP). The CMP is run by the Corporation for the Promotion of Rifle Practice and Firearms Safety (CPRPFS), a not-for-profit corporationchartered by the United States Congressin 1996 to instruct citizens in marksmanship and promote practice and safety in the use of firearms. [USStatute|104|106|36|5502|1996|02|10] The group holds a congressional charterunder Title 36 of the United States Code. From 1903to 1996, the CMP was sponsored by the Office of the Director of Civilian Marksmanship (DCM), a position first within the Department of Warand later in the Department of the Army. The DCM was normally an active-duty Army colonel. The CMP was initiated by President Theodore Rooseveltto promote civilian marksmanship after he witnessed the lack of skilled marksmen during the Spanish-American War.Fact|date=July 2008
Military surplus Garands and post-war copies made for the civilian market are popular among enthusiasts around the world. [cite paper|author = Stefan M. Brem|title = The Role of NGOs and Private Companies in Negotiating an International Action Framework|version = Dissertation|date = 2006|url = http://www.dissertationen.unizh.ch/2007/brem/diss.pdf|format = PDF|accessdate = 2007-07-25] The Philippine government still issues M1 Garand rifles, together with M1 Carbines, M14s and M16s to their civilian defense forces known as
Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit(CAFGU) and Civilian Volunteer Organization (CVO).
*AUS - Used in small numbers by specialist troops and Australian army units attached to US ground units in the Pacific Theater of
World War II.
*AUT - Used by newly created Austrian Army from 1956 until gradual replacement by StG58, beginning in 1959.
*DEN - Received large numbers of M1 rifles from the US government.
*FRG - Issued to border guards, police and army until the adoption of the G1 rifle.
*GRE - Standard issue for the army until the late 70s, when it was replaced by the G3. Still in use for ceremonial duties by the Presidential Guard.
*HAI - Used from the 1940s until 1994 when the Haitian military was disbanded. Still in use with the
Haitian National Police.
*ITA - Used by the army from 1945,
Berettaalso license-built it until the adoption of the BM59 in 1959. [ [http://www.gunsmagazine.com/bm59/GCA0283.pdf Beretta's BM 59] . Retrieved on October 5, 2008.]
*JPN - First issued weapon of the Japanese Self Defense Forces by
Howa[ [http://www.huntingriflesreviews.com/howa-rifles Howa Rifles.] Retrieved on September 19, 2008.] . Still used as a ceremonial arm.
*NED - Standard issue in royal Netherlands army 1953-1960
*NOR - In use as army service rifle from 1953 to 1968, replaced by the H&K G3. Today used solely by the Royal Guards Drill team.
*PHI - Still in use by the Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit (CAFGU) and the Civilian Volunteer Organization.
*KOR - Received large numbers of M1 rifles from the US government. Standard issue until the adoption of the M16.
*flag|South Vietnam - Received large numbers of M1 rifles from the US government. Standard issue until the adoption of the M16.
*TUR - Standard issue army rifle until the adoption of the G3 rifle.
*USA - Standard issue rifle of the US Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force from 1936 to 1963; still in use for ceremonial functions.
* [http://www.odcmp.com Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP)] — Major source of surplus M1 Garand rifles
* [http://www.snipercentral.com/m1cd.htm Sniper Central: The M1C and M1D] — Information on the sniper variants of the Garand rifles
* [http://world.guns.ru/rifle/rfl05-e.htm M1 Garand at Modern Firearms] — Comprehensive source of information on the Garand rifles
* [http://18.104.22.168/Data/tmp/objYAsFmXks3WgmXh9DXXTYBjpHeRrj0TZ9O51tgbdQWIYWe9jEUktbLYmPqKicvGPcCM8GPcyP6_nJP5x8RH1eUzu5nEgBIz7mAm6Gjr6rk%3D.pdf U.S. Army Field Manual 23–5] — Official United States Army Field Manual on the M1 Garand (October 1951)
* [http://www.fulton-armory.com/tea/index.htm M1 Garand Information Place] — Website containing various articles on advanced Garand maintenance and customization
title=Rifle Marksmanship with the M1 Rifle (1942)
publisher=http://www.archive.org Internet Archive
accessdate=2007-05-18 - Army training film.
* [http://www.90thidpg.us/Reference/Reference.html Reference manual page including 4 M1 garand manuals]
* [http://www.90thidpg.us/Equipment/Articles/index.html Articles page including information on blank adapting the M1 Garand]
* [http://www.gunweek.com/2006/feature0901.html M1 Garand Rifle Served During Turbulent Years - article at GunWeek.com]
* [http://www.memorableplaces.com/m1garand/ The M1 Garand Rifle An American Companion In Three Wars]
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