- Janis Joplin
Infobox musical artist
Name = Janis Joplin
Img_capt = Janis Joplin, San Jose, California, 1968
Img_size = 250
Landscape = Yes
Background = solo_singer
Birth_name = Janis Lyn Joplin
Born = birth date|1943|1|19
Died = death date and age|1970|10|4|1943|1|19
Instrument = Vocals,
Blues-rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, hard rock
Singer, songwriter, arranger
Years_active = 1963–1970
Label = Columbia
Associated_acts = Big Brother & the Holding Company
URL = http://www.officialjanis.com/
Janis Lyn Joplin (
January 19, 1943– October 4, 1970) was an American singer, songwriter, and music arranger, from Port Arthur, Texas. She rose to prominence in the late 1960s as the lead singer of Big Brother and the Holding Company, and later as a solo artist. In 2004, " Rolling Stone" magazine ranked Joplin #46 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. [cite web |title=The Immortals: The First Fifty |publisher= Rolling Stone|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939214/the_immortals_the_first_fifty|accessdate=2008-05-12] She died in Los Angeles, Californiaof a drug overdoseat the age of 27.
Janis Joplin was born to Seth (1910-1987) and Dorothy (1913-1998) (née East) Joplin;cite book|title=Scars of Sweet Paradise: The Life and Times of Janis Joplin|author=Echols, Alice|publisher=
Henry Holt and Company|date= 2000-02-15|isbn=0805053948] her father was an engineer at Texaco, her mother, registrar at a business college. She had two younger siblings, Michael and Laura. The Joplins felt that Janis always needed more attention than their other children, with her mother stating, "She was unhappy and unsatisfied without [receiving a lot of attention] . The normal rapport wasn't adequate."cite book|title=Hollywood Heartbreak: The Tragic and Mysterious Deaths of Hollywood's Most Remarkable Legends|author=Jacobson, Laurie|publisher= Simon & Schuster|month=October | year=1984|isbn=067149998X]
As a teenager, she befriended a group of outcasts, one of whom had albums by African-American
bluesartists Bessie Smithand Leadbelly, whom Joplin later credited with influencing her decision to become a singer.cite book|title=Pearl: The Obsessions and Passions of Janis Joplin : A Biography|author=Amburn, Ellis|publisher= Time Warner|month=October | year=1992|isbn=0446516406] She began singing in the local choirand expanded her listening to blues singers such as Odettaand Big Mama Thornton.
Primarily a painter while still in school, she first began singing
bluesand folk musicwith friends. While at Thomas Jefferson High School, she stated that she was mostly shunned. Joplin was quoted as saying, "I was a misfit. I read, I painted, I didn't hate niggers." As a teen, she became overweight and her skin broke out so badly she was left with deep scars which required dermabrasion. Other kids at high school would routinely taunt her and call her names like "pig," "freak" or "creep."
Joplin graduated from high school in 1960 and attended Lamar State College of Technology in
Beaumont, Texasduring the summer and later the University of Texas at Austin, though she did not complete her studies.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/features/joplin.htm|title=Janis Joplin: A Cry Cutting Through Time |publisher= The Washington Post|date=1998-05-05|author=Hendrickson, Paul] The campus newspaper ran a profile of her in 1962 headlined "She Dares To Be Different."
Cultivating a rebellious manner, Joplin styled herself in part after her female blues heroines and, in part, after the
Beat poets. Her very first song recorded on tape, at the home of a fellow student in December 1962, was "What Good Can Drinkin' Do".Citation | last = Paytress | first = Mark | title = Janis Joplin. Mark Paytress assesses Columbia's three-CD 'Janis' retrospective | journal = Record Collector| volume = 175 | pages = 140–141 | date = March 1994 ] She left Texas for San Franciscoin 1963, living in North Beach and later Haight-Ashbury. In 1964, Joplin and future Jefferson Airplaneguitarist Jorma Kaukonenrecorded a number of blues standards, further accompanied by Margareta Kaukonen on typewriter (as percussion instrument). This session included seven tracks: "Typewriter Talk," "Trouble In Mind," "Kansas City Blues," " Hesitation Blues," "Nobody Knows You When You're Down And Out," "Daddy, Daddy, Daddy" and "Long Black Train Blues," and was later released as the bootleg album " The Typewriter Tape."
Around this time her drug use increased, and she acquired a reputation as a "speed freak" and occasional
heroinuser.cite book|title=Going Down With Janis |author=Caserta, Peggy|publisher= Dell Publishing|month=October | year=1980|isbn=0440131944] She also used other intoxicants and was a heavy drinker throughout her career; her trademark beverage was Southern Comfort.
In the spring of 1965, Joplin's friends, noticing the physical effects of her
amphetaminehabit (she was described as "skeletal" and "emaciated"), persuaded her to return to Port Arthur, Texas. In May 1965, Joplin's friends threw her a bus-fare party so she could return home. Back in Port Arthur, she changed her lifestyle. She avoided drugs and alcohol, began wearing relatively modest dresses, adopted a beehive hairdo, and enrolled as a sociology major at Lamar Universityin nearby Beaumont, Texas. During her year at Lamar University, she commuted to Austin to perform solo, accompanying herself on guitar. One of her performances was reviewed in the Austin American-Statesman. Joplin became engaged to a man who visited her, wearing a blue serge suit, to ask her father for her hand in marriage, but the man terminated plans for the marriage soon after.
Big Brother and The Holding Company
In 1966, Joplin's bluesy vocal style attracted the attention of the
psychedelicband Big Brother and The Holding Company, a band that had gained some renown among the nascent hippiecommunity in Haight-Ashbury. She was recruited to join the group by Chet Helms, a promoter who had known her in Texas and who at the time was managing Big Brother. Joplin joined Big Brother on June 4, 1966.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://www.officialjanis.com/dates_1966.html|title=Janis Joplin Discography|publisher=Janis Joplin] Her first public performance with them was at the Avalon Ballroomin San Francisco. Due to persistent persuading by keyboardist and close friend Stephen Ryder, Joplin avoided drug use for several weeks, enjoining bandmate Dave Getz to promise that using needles would not be allowed in their rehearsal space or in the communal apartment where they lived. When a visitor to the apartment injected drugs in front of Joplin, she angrily reminded Getz that he had broken his promise. A San Francisco concert from that summer was recorded and released in the 1984 album "Cheaper Thrills".
August 23, 1966during a four week engagement in Chicago, the group signed a deal with independent label Mainstream Records. They recorded tracks in a Chicago recording studio, but the label owner Bob Shadrefused to pay their airfare back to San Francisco. Shortly after the five band members drove from Chicago to Northern California with very little money, they moved with the Grateful Deadto a house in Lagunitas, California. It was there that Joplin relapsed into hard drugs.
In early 1967, Joplin met
Country Joe McDonaldof the group, Country Joe and the Fish. The pair lived together as a couple for a few months. Joplin and Big Brother began playing clubs in San Francisco, at the Fillmore West, Winterlandand the Avalon Ballroom. They also played at the Hollywood Bowlin Los Angeles, as well as in Seattle, Washington, Vancouver, British Columbia, the Psychedelic Supermarket in Boston, Massachusettsand the Golden Bear Club in Huntington Beach, California.
The band's debut album was released by
Columbia Recordsin August 1967, shortly after the group's breakthrough appearance in June at the Monterey Pop Festival. Two songs from Big Brother's set at Monterey were filmed. "Combination of the Two" and a version of Big Mama Thornton's "Ball and Chain" appeared in D.A. Pennebaker's documentary " Monterey Pop". The film captured Cass Elliotin the crowd silently mouthing "Wow!" during Joplin's performance.
In November 1967, the group parted ways with Chet Helms and signed with top artist manager
Albert Grossman. Up to this point, Big Brother had performed mainly in California, but had gained national prominence with their Monterey performance. On February 16, 1968,cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://www.officialjanis.com/dates_1968.html|title=Janis Joplin Concert Dates - 1968|publisher=Janis Joplin] the group began its first East Coast tour in Philadelphia, and the following day gave their first performance in New York City at the Anderson Theater. On April 7, 1968, the last day of their East Coast tour, Joplin and Big Brother performed with Jimi Hendrix, Buddy Guy, Joni Mitchell, Richie Havens, Paul Butterfield, and Elvin Bishopat the "Wake for Martin Luther King, Jr." concert in New York.
During the spring of 1968, Joplin and Big Brother made their nationwide television debut on an ABC daytime variety show hosted by
Dick Cavett. Later, she made three appearances on the primetime Cavett program. During this time, the band was billed as "Janis Joplin and Big Brother and the Holding Company," although the media coverage given to Joplin incurred resentment among the other members of the band. The other members of Big Brother thought that Joplin was on a "star trip," while others were telling Joplin that Big Brother was a terrible band and that she ought to dump them.
"Time" magazine called Joplin "probably the most powerful singer to emerge from the white rock movement," and Richard Goldstein, in "Vogue" magazine, wrote that Joplin was "the most staggering leading woman in rock... she slinks like tar, scowls like war... clutching the knees of a final stanza, begging it not to leave... Janis Joplin can sing the chic off any listener."
Big Brother's second album, "
Cheap Thrills", featured a cover design by counterculture cartoonist Robert Crumb. Although " Cheap Thrills" sounded as if it was mostly "live," only one track ("Ball and Chain") was actually recorded live; the rest of the tracks were studio recordings. The album had a raw quality, including the sound of a cocktail glass breaking and the broken shards being swept away during the song "Turtle Blues." With the documentary film "Monterey Pop" released in late 1968, the album launched Joplin's successful, albeit short, musical career.cite book|title=The Billboard Book of Number One Albums: The Inside Story Behind Pop Music's Blockbuster Records|author=Rosen, Craig|publisher=Billboard|month=May | year=1996|isbn=0823075869]
Cheap Thrills" gave the band a breakthrough hit single, " Piece of My Heart," which reached the number one spot on the Billboard charts eight weeks after its release, remaining for eight (nonconsecutive) weeks. The album was certified gold at release and sold over a million copies in the first month of its release.cite book|title=Buried Alive: The Biography of Janis Joplin|author=Friedman, Myra|publisher= Crown Publishing Group|date= 1992-09-15|isbn=0517586509] " Live at Winterland '68", recorded at the Winterland Ballroomon April 12 and 13, 1968, featured Joplin and Big Brother and the Holding Company at the height of their mutual career working through a selection of tracks from their albums.
The band made another East Coast tour during July-August 1968, performing at the
Columbia Recordsconvention in Puerto Ricoand the Newport Folk Festival. After returning to San Francisco for two hometown shows at the Palace of Fine ArtsFestival on August 31 and September 1, Joplin announced that she would be leaving Big Brother. The group continued touring through the fall and Joplin gave her last official performance with Big Brother at a Family Dog benefit on December 1, 1968.
After splitting from Big Brother, Joplin formed a new backup group, the Kozmic Blues Band. The band was influenced by the Stax-Volt Rhythm and Blues bands of the 1960s, as exemplified by
Otis Reddingand the Bar-Kays, who were major musical influences on Joplin. The Stax-Volt R&B sound was typified by the use of horns and had a more bluesy, funky, soul, pop-oriented sound than most of the hard-rock psychedelic bands of the period.
By early 1969, Joplin was addicted to
heroin, allegedly shooting at least $200 worth of heroin per day, although efforts were made to keep her clean during the recording of " I Got Dem Ol' Kozmic Blues Again Mama!". Gabriel Mekler, who produced the "Kozmic Blues", told publicist-turned-biographer Myra Friedman after Joplin's death that the singer had lived in his house during the June 1969 recording sessions at his insistence so he could keep her away from drugs and her drug-using friends.
The Kozmic Blues album, released in September 1969, was certified gold later that year but did not match the success of "
Cheap Thrills". Reviews of the new group were mixed. Some music critics, including Ralph Gleasonof the San Francisco Chronicle, were negative. Gleason wrote that the new band was a "drag" and that Joplin should "scrap" her new band and "go right back to being a member of Big Brother...(if they'll have her)." Other reviewers, such as reporter Carl Bernsteinof the Washington Postgenerally ignored the flaws and devoted entire articles to celebrating the singer's magic.
Joplin and the Kozmic Blues Band toured North America and Europe throughout 1969, appearing at Woodstock in August. By most accounts, Woodstock was not a happy affair for Joplin. Faced with a ten hour wait after arriving at the festival, she shot heroin and was drinking alcohol, so by the time she hit the stage, she was "three sheets to the wind." Joplin also had problems at
Madison Square Gardenwhere, as she told rock journalist David Dalton, the audience watched and listened to "every note [she sang] with 'Is she gonna make it?' in their eyes." Joplin's performance was not included in the documentary film "Woodstock" although the 25th anniversary director's cut of "Woodstock" includes her performance of "Work Me, Lord".
At the end of the year, the group broke up. Their final gig with Joplin was at
Madison Square Gardenin New York City on the night of December 19–20, 1969.cite book|title=Piece Of My Heart|author=Dalton, David|publisher= Da Capo Press|date= 1991-08-21|isbn=0306804468]
Full Tilt Boogie Band
In February 1970, Joplin traveled to
Brazil, where she stopped her drug and alcohol use. She was accompanied on vacation there by her friend Linda Gravenites, who had designed the singer's stage costumes from 1966 to 1969. Joplin was romanced by an American schoolteacher named David (George) Niehaus, who was traveling around the world. They were photographed by the press at Carnival in Rio de Janeiro. Gravenites also took photographs of the two during their Brazilian vacation and they appeared to be a "carefree, happy, healthy young couple" having a great time.
Joplin began using heroin again when she returned to the United States. Her relationship with Niehaus soon ended because of the drugs, her relationship with Peggy Caserta and refusal to take some time off work and travel the world with him. Around this time she formed her new band, the
Full Tilt Boogie Band. The band was comprised of mostly young Canadian musicians and featured an organ, but no horn section. Joplin took a more active role in putting together the Full Tilt Boogie Band than she did with her prior group. She was quoted as saying, "It's "my" band. Finally it's "my" band!"
The Full Tilt Boogie Band began touring in May 1970. Joplin remained quite happy with her new group, which received mostly positive feedback from both her fans and the critics. Prior to beginning a summer tour with Full Tilt Boogie, she performed in a reunion with Big Brother at the
Fillmore Westin San Francisco on April 4, 1970.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://www.officialjanis.com/dates_1970.html|title=Janis Joplin Concert Dates - 1970|publisher=Janis Joplin] Recordings from this concert were included in an in-concert album released posthumously in 1972. She again appeared with Big Brother on April 12 at Winterlandwhere she and Big Brother were reported to be in excellent form. By the time she began touring with Full Tilt Boogie, Joplin told people she was drug-free, but her drinking increased.Fact|date=March 2008
From June 28 to July 4, 1970, Joplin and Full Tilt joined the all-star "
Festival Express" tour through Canada, performing alongside the Grateful Dead, Delaney and Bonnie, Rick Dankoand The Band, Eric Andersenand Ian and Sylvia. They played concerts in Toronto, Winnipegand Calgary. Footage of her performance of the song "Tell Mama" in Calgarybecame an MTVvideo in the 1980s and was included on the 1982 "Farewell Song" album. The audio of other Festival Express performances were included on that 1972 Joplin "In Concert" album. Video of the performances was included on the " Festival Express" DVD.
In the "Tell Mama" video shown on MTV in the 1980s, Joplin wore a psychedelically colored loose-fitting costume and feathers in her hair. This was her standard stage costume in the spring and summer of 1970. She chose the new costumes after her friend and designer, Linda Gravenites (whom Joplin had praised in the May 1968 issue of "Vogue"), cut ties with Joplin shortly after their return from Brazil, due largely to Joplin's continued use of heroin.
During the "
Festival Express" tour, Joplin was accompanied by "Rolling Stone" writer David Dalton, who would later write several articles and a book on Joplin. She told Dalton:
Among her last public appearances were two broadcasts of "
The Dick Cavett Show". In the June 25, 1970appearance, she announced that she would attend her ten-year high school class reunion. When asked if she were popular in school, she admitted that when in high school, her schoolmates "laughed me out of class, out of town and out of the state."cite episode|title=Dick Cavett TV. Interview (1970)|series= The Dick Cavett Show|airdate=1970-08-03] In the August 3, 1970Cavett broadcast, Joplin referred to her upcoming performance at the Festival for Peaceto be held at Shea Stadiumin Queens, New Yorkon August 6, 1970.
Joplin attended the reunion on August 14, accompanied by fellow musician and friend Bob Neuwirth and road manager John Cooke, but it reportedly proved to be a rather unhappy experience for her.cite web|accessdate=2008-08-23|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/danny-miller/happy-birthday-janis-jop_b_39055.html|title=Happy Birthday, Janis Joplin|publisher=
Huffington Post|date=2007-01-19|author=Miller, Danny] Joplin held a press conference in Port Arthur during her reunion visit. Interviewed by "Rolling Stone" journalist Chet Flippo, she was reported to wear enough jewelry for a "Babylonian whore." When asked by a reporter during the reunion if Joplin entertained at Thomas Jefferson High Schoolwhen she was a student there, Joplin replied, "Only when I walked down the aisles." Joplin denigrated Port Arthur and the people who'd humiliated her a decade earlier in high school.
Joplin's last public performance, with the Full Tilt Boogie Band, took place on
August 12, 1970at the Harvard Stadiumin Boston, Massachusetts. A positive review appeared on the front page of the Harvard Crimsonnewspaper despite the fact that Full Tilt Boogie performed with makeshift sound amplifiers after their regular equipment was stolen in Boston.
During September 1970, Joplin and her band began recording a new album in Los Angeles with producer
Paul A. Rothchild, who had produced recordings for The Doors. Although Joplin died before all the tracks were fully completed, there was still enough usable material to compile an LP. "Mercedes Benz" was included despite it being a first take, and the track "Buried Alive In The Blues", to which Joplin had been scheduled to add her vocals on the day she was found dead, was kept as an instrumental.
The result was the posthumously released "Pearl" (1971). It became the biggest selling album of her career and featured her biggest hit single, a cover of
Kris Kristofferson's " Me and Bobby McGee". Kristofferson had been Joplin's lover not long before her death. [Anthony DeCurtis, "Rolling Stone", 30 September 1999] Also included was the social commentary of the " a cappella" "Mercedes Benz", written by Joplin, close friend and song writer Bob Neuwirthand beat poet Michael McClure. In 2003, "Pearl" was ranked #122 on "Rolling Stone" magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.
During the recording sessions for "Pearl", Joplin began seeing
Seth Morgan, a 21 year-old Berkeley student, cocaine dealer and future novelist; and checked into the Landmark Motel in Los Angeles to begin recording the "Pearl" album. She and Morgan became engaged to be married in early September and Joplin threw herself into the recording of songs for her new album.
The last recordings Joplin completed were "Mercedes Benz" and a birthday greeting for
John Lennon("Happy Trails", composed by Dale Evans) on October 1, 1970. Lennon, whose birthday was October 9, later told Dick Cavettthat her taped greeting arrived at his home after her death.Fact|date=December 2007 On Saturday, October 3, Joplin visited the Sunset Sound Studios in Los Angeles to listen to the instrumental track for Nick Gravenites' song "Buried Alive In The Blues" prior to recording the vocal track, scheduled for the next day. When she failed to show up at the studio by Sunday afternoon, producer Paul Rothchild became concerned. Full Tilt Boogie's road manager, John Cooke, drove to the Landmark Motor Hotel (since renamed the Highland Gardens Hotel) where Joplin had been a guest since August 24. ["Los Angeles Herald Examiner" October 5, 1970, front page. ] He saw Joplin's psychedelically painted Porschestill in the parking lot. Upon entering her room, he found her dead on the floor. The official cause of death was an overdose of heroin, possibly combined with the effects of alcohol.
Joplin was cremated in the Pierce Brothers Westwood Village Mortuary in Los Angeles, and her ashes scattered from a plane into the
Pacific Oceanand along Stinson Beach. The only funeral service was held at Pierce Brothers and attended by Joplin's parents and maternal aunt. [cite book|title=Love, Janis |author=Joplin, Laura|publisher= HarperCollins|date= 2005-08-16|isbn=0060755229]
Joplin's body decoration, with a wristlet and a small heart on her left breast, by the San Francisco tattoo artist
Lyle Tuttle, is taken as a seminal moment in the tattoo revolution and was an early moment in the popular culture's acceptance of tattoos as art. [cite news|author=Acord, Deb|title=Who knew: Mommy has a tattoo|publisher= Portland Press Herald|date=2006-11-10] Another trademark was her flamboyant hair styles, often including colored streaks and accessories such as scarves, beads and feathers.
The 1979 film "The Rose" was loosely based on Joplin's life. [cite book|title=Leonard Maltin's 2003 Movie And Video Guide |author=Maltin, Leonard|publisher=Plume|date=
2002-09-24|isbn=0452283299] Bette Midlerearned an Academy Award nomination as Best Actress for her performance.
In the late 1990s, the musical play "Love, Janis" was created with input from Janis' younger sister Laura plus Big Brother guitarist
Sam Andrew, with an aim to take it to Off-Broadway. Opening in the summer of 2001 and scheduled for only a few weeks of performances, the show won acclaim and packed houses and was held over several times, the demanding role of the singing Janis attracting rock vocalists from relative unknowns to pop stars Laura Branigan(1957-2004) and Beth Hart.cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shire/9580/index.html|title=Love, Janis Loses Another Star: Branigan Out|publisher= GeoCities] A national tour followed."Gospel According to Janis", a biographical film starring Zooey Deschanelas Joplin, was originally scheduled to begin shooting in early 2007, now has a projected release date in 2010. [imdb title|id=0384141|title=Gospel According to Janis]
In 1988, the Janis Joplin Memorial, with an original bronze, multi-image sculpture of Joplin by Douglas Clark, was dedicated in Port Arthur, Texas.
Joplin was inducted into the
Rock and Roll Hall of Famein 1995, and was given a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Awardin 2005. Among the artifacts at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum Exhibition are Joplin's scarf and necklaces, her 1965 Cabriolet Porschewith psychedelically designed painting, and an acid sheet designed by Robert Crumb, designer of the "Cheap Thrills" cover. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://www.rockhall.com/exhibitfeatured/janis-joplin/|title=Janis Joplin|publisher= Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]
Joplin in film and song
The Mamas & the Papaswrote a song about Janis Joplin entitled "Pearl", and released it as part of their 1971 album, "People Like Us".
The Righteous Brothersincluded a tribute to Janis Joplin in their 1974 reunion Top-10 single "Rock and Roll Heaven". The lyrics of the first verse begin with the lines "Jimmy gave us rainbows, and Janis took a piece of our hearts..."
* Joplin's premature death is the subject of Dory Previn's song "A Stone for Bessie Smith", which appears on Previn's 1971 album "
Mythical Kings and Iguanas". The lyric sheet of this record refers to a televised conversation between Joplin and actress Gloria Swanson.
* In the 2007 movie "Across the Universe", a Joplin-like character is portrayed as Sadie, played by
* In the 2009 film "
Lives and Deaths of the Poets", Janis Joplin is portrayed by Terria Monay.
* "In the Quiet Morning" recorded by
Joan Baezand written by her sister, Mimi Farina, recounts the moment Farina heard the news about Joplin's death.
Leonard Cohen's song "Chelsea Hotel #2", with the line "You told me again you preferred handsome men but for me you would make an exception", was inspired by his brief affair with Joplin. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-12|url=http://pagesperso-orange.fr/pilgraeme/chelsea_hotel.htm|title=Chelsea Hotel # 2 (1972-1993)|publisher=Orange]
* The Grateful Dead wrote "Bird Song" inspired by Janis. The first two lines being "All I know is something like a bird within her sang. All I know she sang a little while and then flew on". The song's lyricist Robert Hunter included the dedication "...for Janis" with the lyric in his book "Box of Rain".
Don McLeanis widely believed to allude to Janis Joplin in his song " American Pie" with the lines "I met a girl who sang the blues / And I asked her for some happy news, / But she just smiled and turned away". [ [http://understandingamericanpie.com/vs6.htm "Verse 6".] Understanding American Pie.com. Accessed 3 August 2008.] [ [http://user.pa.net/~ejjeff/pie.html "Bob Dearborn's Original Analysis".] Jeff Roteman's American Pie Page. 1971. Accessed 3 August 2008.] [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio2/soldonsong/songlibrary/americanpie.shtml "American Pie".] BBC.co.uk. Accessed 3 August 2008.] [Knap, Joe. [http://www.rockhall.com/teacher/sti-lesson-20/ "STI Lesson 20 - Slices of American Pie: The 1960s Through Music".] Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum - www.rockhall.com. Accessed 3 August 2008.] McLean has neither denied nor confirmed the belief. [ [http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a3_398b.html "What is Don McLean's song "American Pie" all about?"] StraightDope.com. 15 May 1993.] [ [http://www.don-mclean.com/?p=68 "Don McLean’s American Pie".] DonMcLean.com. 9 January 2008.]
Big Brother and the Holding Company
;Big Brother & the Holding Company / Full Tilt Boogie
Music of Austin
List of number-one hits (United States)
List of artists who reached number one on the Hot 100 (U.S.)
* Amburn, Ellis. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0446516406 "Pearl: The Obsessions and Passions of Janis Joplin: A Biography"] . NY: Warner Books, 1992. ISBN 0-446-39506-4.
* Caserta, Peggy. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B000NSBNMI "Going Down with Janis: Janis Joplin's Intimate Story"] . Dell: 1974. ASIN: B000NSBNMI.
* Dalton, David. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0306804468 "Piece of my Heart: A Portrait of Janis Joplin"] . NY: Da Capo Press, 1991. ISBN 0-306-80446-8.
* Echols, Alice. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0805053948 "Scars of Sweet Paradise: The Life and Times of Janis Joplin"] . NY: Henry Holt, 1999. ISBN 0-8050-5394-8.
* Friedman, Myra. (1992). [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0517586509 "Buried Alive: The Biography of Janis Joplin"] . NY: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-58650-9.
* Joplin, Laura. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0060755229 "Love, Janis"] . NY: Villard Books, 1992. ISBN 1-888358-08-4.
* Stieven-Taylor, Alison. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1921295066 "Rock Chicks"] . Sydney: Rockpool Publishing, 2007. ISBN 9781921295065.
* [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:wifexqe5ldse Janis Joplin] at
*Find A Grave|id=555
* [http://www.fyne.co.uk/index.php?item=213 Janis Joplin biography] at "
* [http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/JJ/fjo69.html Biography at The Handbook of Texas Online]
* [http://www.johngilmore.com/Celebrities/janisjoplin.html JohnGilmore.com: Spotlight on Janis Joplin]
* [http://www.janisjoplin.net/ Janis Joplin's Kozmic Blues - janisjoplin.net]
* [http://www.autofacts.ca/classicrock/bio_fulltiltboogieband.html Canadian Classic Rock Page: The Full Tilt Boogie Band]
* [http://www.museumofthegulfcoast.org/Content/Personalities/Music_Legends/Janis_Joplin Janis Joplin – Museum of the Gulf Coast, Port Arthur, Texas]
NAME = Joplin, Janis
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Joplin, Janis Lyn
SHORT DESCRIPTION = American musician
DATE OF BIRTH =
January 19, 1943
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Port Arthur, Texas, United States
DATE OF DEATH =
October 4, 1970
PLACE OF DEATH =
Los Angeles, California, United States
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.