Kite types

Kite types
A colorful triangular kite against a blue sky
Colorful delta-wing kite

Kites are tethered flying objects which fly by using aerodynamic lift, requiring wind, (or towing), for generation of airflow over the lifting surfaces.


Kite types

Various types of kite exist,[1] depending on features such as material, shape, use, or operating skills required. Kites may fly in air, water, or other fluids, gaining lift through deflection of the supporting medium. Variations in design of tethering systems and lifting surfaces are regularly introduced, with lifting surfaces varying in stiffness from limp sheet material to fully solid material.[2][3]


Kites may be built by the flier or by a dedicated kite manufacturer, which may be a member of the Kite Trade Association International (KTAI), which also includes kite retailers.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]


Kites have been made from the following materials:

for example, a Styrofoam-only kite.[12]
  • plant leaves
  • Animal skin
steel, aluminum, etc.
  • Composite materials
rip-stop nylon, nylon, Dacron, etc.
  • Ice
  • Glass

Wing character

  • monoplane
  • flexible sail
  • stiffened flexible sail
  • rigid wing
  • biplane
  • multiplane
  • Low-aspect-ratio[15] - wings that have a narrow chord, compared with their span.
  • High-aspect-ratio - wings that have a wide chord, compared with their span.
  • ram-air inflated
  • closed bladder gas inflated[16][17][18]
  • rotating wing, - also known as Rotor kite or gyroglider (eg Focke Achgelis Fa 330)[19]
Multiple unit kites
A multiple unit kite may be made of a single wing, several wings, or several sub-kite units[20] arranged as trains, chains, coterie, single-branching, multiple-branching, arch-kite, "ladder" mill dynamic kite-chain, or combinations of these patterns.[21] World records for the number of kites in a kite train are in the literature; teams of people are used to fly kites of high-count sub-kite units.[22][23][24][25][26] Parafoil stacks have been built with over 200 kite units.[27]
Multiple pilot
Large kite systems may require more than one pilot. In a team like the "Flying Squad" of nine kite pilots each person might fly his own sub-kite while, as a team, its kites form a unified display.[28] One pilot may simultaneously fly several kites; the pilot with several kites forms one kite system of two, three or more kites in the system.[29][30]


  • Recreation
  • Art
  • Meditation
  • Exercise
  • Industrial use
  • Military
  • Advertising
  • Transport
  • Education


Kites are normally heavier than their supporting medium, such as a kite flown in air. Some kites have their lift augmented by lighter than air gases,allowing the kite to remain airborne without wind or being towed.[31]

Hydro dynamic kites can have positive, neutral or negative bouyancy, relying on hydrodynamic lift to manoeuvre, rise, or dive.[32] [33][34][35][36][37][38]


Kites can be controlled by various methods which usually involve manipulation of the tether/control lines, lifting gas density control and in some cases by aero-dynamic control surfaces[39][40][41]


Kites can have positive, neutral or negative stability, in all axes of control, in the same fashion as aircraft. Kites with positive stability tend to return to a stable state automatically, whereas those with neutral or negative stability require control inputs to return the kite to the required position or attitude.[42][43][44][45][46]

Glossary of Kite types



Advertising kites
These kites hold advertisements, logos of organizations, slogans for causes. Orders of mass-produced kites imprinted with an advertisement form a significant part of kite commerce.[49][50][51]
Aerial photography platform kites
Airplane kites
[53][54][55][56][57] Large kite planes are finding an application in renewable energy generation.[citation needed]
Arc Kite
designed by Peter Lynn[58]
Arch kite/multiple-kite arch
in this design, one or more lines holds many kites in an arch: a rotary two-anchor rainbow arch and/or a static two-anchor rainbow arch. If the kites making up the arch kite rotate using the Magnus effect the term also applied is rainbow kite or just bow kite or kite bow or "sky bow" or SkyBow; one form of the rotaing arch or rainbow kite is the ribbon kite (in one or multiple segments). Swivels in the line are important. Distinguish between a long arching collection of kites in a bow, or a rainbow pattern from a power kite called a bow kite.[59][60][61]
These various-formed manned kites were kited behind tow boats over water.[62] Air Force Lt. Col. Bill Skliar in 1959 designed a biplane kite glider nicknamed Bayou Bird.[63][64] In 1961, Tom H. Purcell designed and flew an aluminum-framed Fleep-like Rogallo hang glider kite over land; in 1962, he kited the same wing (but pontooned) while over water. His effort was imaged and noted in Skysurfer Magazine in its May/June issue of 1973, published by EAA inductee Michael Markowski, author of Hang Glider's Bible. The 1962 Mike Burns SkiPlane and 1963 Dickenson wings closely matched the Purcell, Barry Hill Palmer, and the Charles Richard NASA Paresev 1B wing; minor control sticks derived from the triangle control frame were used in each of these kites (which sometimes glided). These kites, towed high, could stop their kiting and release into a glide. See section "B" for boats that have a major operating sector as a kite (for example, a 1930 Peel Glider Boat).
Archimedes Screw Kite
These kinetic rotary kites mimic the Archimedean screw.[65]
Arch kites
a single kite with an arch form,[66][67][68][69] multiple arches,[70] or an arch top[71]
Art kites
Video kites, kites on photographs, fine-art illustrations containing kite images, paintings, sculptures, flight-simulator images of kites, engineering drawings, sewing plans, drawings of kite plans, story illustrations in children's books, patent drawings.[72] A Genevieve Lytton graphic card illustrated a fancy-dress-ball costume involving a hexagon kite with tail and string reel.[73]
Asymmetrical kites
Good kite design and construction practice includes the aim of having the left and right sides of the kite's wing be mirror images of each other, for balance. A collection of builders are exploring asymmetrical designs, which involve special challenges.[74]
Autogyro kites
(gyro kite, heli-kite, helicopter kite) use unpowered autorotation


Drawing of kite balloon for patent dated April 15, 1944
April 15, 1944 kite balloon
Bag kites
Made from single or multiple bags.[75] Some use paper bags, others plastic. Bags simply as a source of material is a trivial use; other bag kites retain much of the form of the bag.[76][77]
Balloon kite (heavier-than-air)
Part or all of the kite wing is a balloon.
Balloon kite (lighter-than-air, with kitewing all balloon)
Balloon kite (lighter-than-air, with kitewing major element balloon but with large non-balloon wing parts)[78]
Balloon kite with "ballooning" spiderlings
Not a mechanical balloon, but a collection of spider-silk threads used for dispersal of spiders.[79][80][81] Richard Miller, in his 1967 book Without Visible Means of Support,[82] described the mechanics of the double-kite system where the upper kite lifts and drags, coupled with the lower kite that lifts downwards and drags; the common kiteline results in a kiting system in free flight. In the chapter, "Flying Kites", he writes that in the nineteenth century Hiram Stevens Maxim observed the kiting of spiders; biologists continue to use the misleading term, "ballooning". Bug-hunter Darrell Ubick correctly recognized that ballooning spiders actually are kiting, as noted by Pamela S. Turner in "Super-Powered Spiders".[83] In Tales with Tails: Storytelling the Wonders of the Natural World, Kevin Strauss demonstrates in three places (pages 184, and 185 and 187) his understanding of the "kiting" of the "ballooning" spider (since no true balloon is ever made).[84] Three staffers of the Straight Dope Science Advisory Board in Are Cobwebs Made By Spiders? recognized the kiting of ballooning spiders.[85] A pest-control company has studied spiders and asserts it is kiting that is done by instars (spiderlings), even though the historical term is ballooning.[86] The Rare Species Conservatory affirms that ballooning spiders actually do not balloon, but kite.[87]
Barrage kites
Sausage kite balloons[88][89][90][91]
Balloon kites
Applies to both lighter- and heavier-than-air kite types. The lighter-than-air balloon kite is the kytoon, which is aloft whether or not the wind blows. When the kytoon is not kiting, it floats aloft as a pure balloon; when it is kiting, it is a true kite. Kytoons are used to loft radio antennas, rescue signals, and kite-line laundry.
Barish sailwing
Beginner kites
Kites of this type are separated by sellers, makers, and leaders.[94][95][96]
Bell kites
Developed by Alexander Graham Bell[97][98]
Bermuda kite
Traditional Bermudian kites flown at Easter; world-record holders for altitude and flight duration
Biplane kites
Bird kites
Abstract or realistic-looking bird kites, dynamic bird kites, bird art on kite faces[99][dead link]
Boat kites
A 1930 Peel Glider Boat was kited on a 1000-foot line, and would get about three miles of air-gliding distance after releasing its kite line.[100] Many contemporary inflated boats being kited begin and end their kited session as towed boats.[101]
Bowed kite
This term has several meanings: a class of parafoil kite, an early British bowing-top-edge-sparred kite, and the rotating-ribbon rainbow-like two-anchor one-line arch kite. Distinguished from Sky Bow or rotating-ribbon kites and arch-bow stick kites
Box kite
Box Delta kites
Butterfly kites
This type occurs at several levels: art, applique, and realistic motion.[103][104]


Cambodian kites
The Kleng Ek kite,[105] a Cambodian musical kite, is often flown at night; there is also a Cambodian pocket kite. Bamboo is very common for Cambodian kites.[106] To recapture the early Cambodian kites, a book (Khmer Kites) has been published.[107]
Candle kites
Cantonese kites
Cayley kite
reproductions of Sir George Cayleys kites [108][109]
Cellular kites
A type of kite popular in the Philippines, usually constructed from old broomsticks and newspapers.
Kite flying in the Philippines, against a gray sky
Flying a chapi-chapi at Rizal Park
Cheap kites
[110] Available in several sectors: the home builder aiming to build kites from handy materials (even trash), and the commercial sector that aims to have some kites at low prices to attract customers[111][112]
Chemiluminescence kites
Chinese kites
From Beijing, Weifang, Tianjing, Nantong, Jiangnan and Taiwan.[114]
Circle kites
Circular kites, circle disk kites, disk kites, EPS-plate kites (see "Cup kites" below), paper-plate kites [115]
Cody kites
War kites designed by Samuel Franklin Cody (1867–1913)[116][117]
Conyne kites
Cube kites
(one or more)
Cup kites
Kites made mostly of cups, often paper or expanded polystyrene (EPS)
Cursor kites
Internet-age cursor images flown give a contemporary look to the sky.[119][120][121][122]


Delta or Delta-wing kites
Single-line, dual-line stunt kites;[123] deltas with a triangular box are a variant [124]
Diamond kites
(see "Eddy kites" below) [125] Diamond types appear from mini to very large, and from low-cost beginner utility to high-quality, state-of-the-art target-control diamonds.[126][127]
Display kites
A class of kites "for display" has come into being for festivals, shows, library exhibitions, museum exhibitions and other events.[128][129][130][131]
Disposable kites
In kite fishing, disposable kites are used.[132] In Philippine kite fighting, the object is to destroy the opponent's kite body directly.[133]
Duryea kite reproductions
(Charles Duryea) [108]
Double-kite systems
Two coupled kites, but confined; or two coupled kites in free flight in the same (air-only or water-only, for example) or different media (air and water, for example).[134] An example is kite-surfing with a board as a hybrid water kite, coupled with a power air kite. Without Visible Means of Support by Richard Miller (1967) details two coupled air kites, with the upper kite in the jet stream and the lower kite below the jet stream. Two (or more) kites, kite-lined to one anchor, one mooring or one kite operator, are included here. Two kites (or more) communicating with each other for a purpose are coupled.
Dragon kites
Two categories: those mimicking the figure of a dragon in a decoration or figure kite, and those of a series of kites in a train or stack.[135][136][137][138][139]


Eddy kite or diamond kites
Edo kites
Rectangular traditional Tokyo kite. Edo is old name for Tokyo. [144] [145]
Electricity-generating kites
There are hydro kites and air kites specifically designed to generate electricity as their dominant purpose. Also, there are kites that have electricity generation as a secondary arrangement.[35][146][147][148]
Exotic kites
do not fit other categories.


Fast kites
Two definitions: a) kites that move fast (high-speed kites), and b) kites that can be made from scratch in a fast or quick manner (see "Q" for Quick kites). Some fighter and sport kites are built so that they can move very fast under control. Speed records are reported. Kite surfers appreciate power kites with high speed. Kites in other media like water, soil, or plasma have speeds specific to their conditions. Speed is relative to the activity and purpose. Kite-fishing requires speed. [149]
Feather kites
[150] [151]][152]
Fighter kite
[153] [154]
Figure kites
(mimic shape and appearance of animals, insects, people, objects, products) [155][156]
First kites
The first of a type. Invention kite. [157]
Fishing kites
[158][159] Some believe that there is no better way to present bait to fish than with a fishing kite [160]
Flat kites
Flexible-wing kites
with variable amounts of stiffening by spars and rigid parts
and its reproductions [162]
(original and then company kites different from original).
or parafoil kite
Funny kites
These kites evoke laughter.[163]


Gallaudet kites
Gallaudet Hydrokites:<Yale professor was told not to experiment with aeronautics. However his biplane kite with tail involved wing warping prior to the Wright brothers use of such control means. [164] Edson Gallaudet formed the Gallaudet Engineering company with his brother and then Gallaudet Aircraft Company (GAC), earliest precursor to the company General Dynamics. The Gallaudet Hydrokite was the beginning of a seaplane interest of the GAC.
Geometric kite.[167][168]
Genki kite.[169][170][171]
Giant kites
< [172] [173] [174]
Gibson Girl was a type of cellular kite for radio antena raising from rescue raft.[175]
Glider kites
Manned and unmanned aircraft intended primarily for gliding are frequently tested and flown as kites under tow from ground or water vehicles or animals, machines, or other people. Some glider kites released to free-flight gliding may or may not be free-flight kites, depending on how payload may (or may not) be tugging the glider's wing through a tow line set. Primary manned gliders, kited, are glider kites when being kited; when released to glide, these are not kites. Conversely, the hang-lined hang glider pilot may be kited up in his or her aircraft but when released to free-flight, such aircraft remains a gliding kite or kite glider. The Martin Glider was kited by many different means.[176]
Gyrocopter or helicopter kites
(see autogyro)


Hang glider
Usually manned. Many hang gliders are true kites; hang gliders that are not true kites are not covered here. Ed Grauel includes hang gliders in his typing of kites.[177][178]
Hang glider kites that are unmanned
Unmanned kites as mimics of manned hang gliders (kites or not).
Hargrave kites
(Lawrence Hargrave)[179]
1894 kite demonstration at Stanwell Park, Australia
Lawrence Hargrave (seated) and Swain demonstrate the manlift kites (labelled A, B, D, & E), sling seat and spring balance in the parkland behind Stanwell Park beach, November 1894
A type of kytoon filled with helium. Heliktie is a true kite, yet lighter-than air for staying aloft when kiting is insufficient for keeping the helikite aloft. Helikites are used for bird control and antenna-lifting.[180]
Hexagonal kites
[11][181][182][183][184] US 51860 patent was for a hexagonal kite by T. Perrins, granted January 2, 1866. A Birt kite may have preempted, in fact, the same kite. Ed Grauel opines that the Birt kite at the Kew Observatory preempted the Perrins kite; he noted that the same kite later became known as the barndoor or house kite. .[185]
High aspect ratio kites
Tow-launched hobby unmanned sailplanes are true kites during high-start kited launches;[186] they may hold the record for single-line single-anchor high aspect ratio kites made by humans. However, the rotating ribbon single-line double-anchored Skybow kite (rotating ribbon arch kite of two anchors) that sits in the sky nearly as a rainbow is a kite with extreme aspect ratio.[187] A different non-rotating ribbon kite by Anders Ansar follows the Barish sailwing concept to the extreme; Ansar suggests more than two anchor points. He also explains how two sailors holding a ribbon kite, e g on ice wearing ice skates, can sail straight upwind or straight down wind, the latter faster than the wind.[188]
Historical kites
Historical kites are builds that aim to match some historically important kite, sometimes to represent the first occurrence of a particular kite design.[189] Patent kites are a subset of historical kites where the aim is to build a kite that materially illustrates a claim in a kite patent.[190]
Hydro kites
Water kites – kites that fly in water or on the surface of water.


India kites
Indoor kites
May be confused with zero-wind kites.[192][193]
Inflatable single-line kites
[194] [195][196] [197] Distinguish between closed-bladder inflated kites (sausage balloon kite, other-form balloon kites) from open-bladder ram-air inflation (Jalbert parafoil and its derivatives) and the single-surface flexible-sail dynamic inflation (Rogallo and Barish wings). A kite can have two or three types of inflation parts (Jalbert's 1944 patent claimed a kite that had the closed-cell inflation as well as a sailwing part).[198] Over-water flying applications have invited air kites having light-than-water flotation capability; power-kiting for kitesurfing with leading-edge-inflated (LEI) bladder held inside textile pocket is one such use. Another is in fishing kites [199][200]
Invisible kites
(radar-invisible, very-low-visibility translucents, out-of-sights, non-lighted night kites, imagined kites, kites flown by the blind as they feel the line tension change) [201][202]


Jalbert parafoil kites
after inventions of Domina Jalbert
Japanese kites
Java kites
(pre-Malay kite, pre-Eddy kite)[206]
Jesus kites
This type of kite is found in both art and flying kites.[207] Aquilone di Gesù kites use art on standard kite forms or specialized figure kites. In the Philippines, noted kitemaker Eulogio Catahan [208] is a leader in Jesus kites.


Kid kites
This type of kite is fit for young kids. Both hobby authors and commercial suppliers note this type of kite. [209] [210]
Killer kites
Three types of killer kites are recognized in kiting. One type of killer kite has the task of taking out of flight another kite; such is in sport and also in practical kite energy operations to take out a kite that is fugitive. Another killer kite regards the notorious kites that cause death and injury; some nations' kite festivals have been marred or cancelled because of killer kites; governments have gotten involved to halt or slow the effect of killer kites. The kite's glassed lines or the kite's metallic base material have resulted in far too many deaths and injuries. [211] Death by kites is part of the reason the world knows this kite type. Another type of "killer kite" are those that simply deeply astound viewers and users with some unique exciting quality.[212]
Kirby kites
(also known as a bird kite – a variant of the Malay kite) (not to be confused with the manned glider called the Kirby Kite, [213] which was a kite launched into a gliding or soaring session) (also not to be confused with the radio-controlled Airworld Kirby Kite scale glider, which has a kite life when being given a kited launch)[214]
KiteSail by Maurice Grenier [215]
KiteShip by Dave Culp. [216]
Korean kites
A shaped balloon that kites (two general types: 1) lighter-than-medium, in which it moves within a gravity field 2) heavier-than-air kytoon, or heavier than the medium in which it flies. Density is implied when saying "heavier"-than-the-ambient medium). For air, some kytoons are less dense than air (using hydrogen, helium, heated air); other kytoons filled with, for example, unheated air are not buoyant in still air but are still kited. [217] Includes barrage kites of the kytoon type that Domina Jalbert designed for defense purposes and peacetime antenna-lifting by ham-radio operators. Car dealers raise advertisements with kytoons (see Observation balloon. [218][219] The kytoon is a true kite in flight in an appropriate moving stream of material, fluid, gas, or air; it is also a true balloon[220][221][222][223][224][225][226][227][228][229][230]


  • LaddermillA complex of sub-kites in a loop line with various uses, one of which is the generation of electricity; invented by Dr. Ockels of Delft University.[231]
Landboarding kites
Kite landboarding uses traction and power kites.[232]
Lang kites
Langley kites
See Samuel Langley
Leaf kites
(traditional, decorative artistic mimic, fishing leaf or novel)[234][235][236]
LEI kites
Leading-edge-inflated kite
LEI power kite (video)
Lighter-than-air air kites
[237] [238]
Light-emitting kites
Chemiluminescence kites, electrically lighted kites (battery and also real-time in-kite generated electricity for the lights, light-reflection kites
Low aspect ratio kites
Close-up of a spider
Silk extruded is thin and long
Spider gossamer kites made of spider silk are low-aspect-ratio kites made by a spider. Man-made long sausage-balloon kites are low-aspect-ratio kites.


Machijirushi kites
fine paper and bamboo from Hamamatsu continue, after centuries of use in celebration and town kite-fighting.[240][241]
Magnus effect kites
rotate span-wise. [242] [243] [244][245]
Malay kites
(pre-Eddy kite)[246]
Man-lifting kites
Maori kites
Miniature kites
[247][248][249][250][251][252] [253][254] Over 800 miniature kites were on display in 1999 at the Muncie Convention Center in Muncie, Indiana, USA for the world's largest such event; it was called the AKA Miniature Kite Art Gallery.[255] Also known as tiny kites, small kites, or little kites.
Musical kites
[256][257] The Cambodian Ek (Khlèng-Phnorng or Khlèn-Èk) musical kite is an enduring part of the rural Cambodian culture.[258]


Night kites
Novelty kites
Novelty kites bring vitality to kite-building and flying. Festivals frequently have an award category for novelty kites.


Octagonal kites
Four-stick octagonal kites exist; collapsible eight-stick kites that pop up like an a common umbrella have been registered in patents. A fine-art example of an eight-sided regular octagonal kite is illustrated.[267] Stop-sign and octagonal box kites are other examples.[268][269]
Octopus kites
Figure mimic of octopus[270]


Parachute kites
(see paraglider below) Parachutes that have a directional venting small (parasail, directional parachutes) or massive (Jalbert parafoil, Rogallo parawing) are kites moored to free-falling body or payload. Symmetrical, non-directional zero-lift/drag ratio parachutes are streamers and not kites; no net deflection from the stream occurs in a true parachute.
Parafoil stunt kites
manned (these are kites both in free-fall, and kited either by the pilot or secondarily by a towing or moored device or powered harness system).
Multicolored parachute against blue sky
Note asymmetrical flutes of highly modified parachute so kiting occurs.
Parachutes modified to have a positive lift/drag ratio, so the wing can be kited to carry humans or other payload
Water kite
Pentagonal kites
also known as penta- or five-sided polygonal kite.[272][273] The five points give ample opportunity for a head, two hands and two legs. Distinguish pentagonal kites from five-point star kites that are ten-sided (unless art is simply showing the five-point star). Five recalls the shapes of humans and animals.
Picnic plate kites
See Plate kites, below.
Plasma kites
[274] Distinguish ambient flying media: blood plasma, space plasma or confined scientific-laboratory or industrial plasma streams. Plasma is the most common phase of matter in the universe.[275]
Plate kites
paper, plastic or EPS foam picnic-plate kites. This type of kite includes figure, artistic, dragon, and rotary kites. The most simple kite is the single plate, uncut and left as a circular kite; complexity is up to its maker.[276] [277]
Powered-harness hang glider kites
Powered paragliders
(Powered paragliding)


Quantum kites
Quick or Fast kites
Quick kites are kites that can be made quickly; simplicity may or may not be characteristic of a quick kite. Commonly available materials are used by quick-kite designers. Specially ordered materials are not used, and few (if any) tools are needed.[278][279]


Race kites
Kites specially designed for high-speed traction racing (on land, water, ice, snow).[280] [281]
Radio-controlled kite
unpowered Both for sport and commercial purposes, the complexity of more than one line emphasizes control of power, position and attack angle. One line simplifies reeling and line control. A project in the power-kite sport field is the Slarc.[282] Radio-control de-powering and release systems are being developed. Instead of the drag of two, three, four, or five lines, the single-line radio-controlled kite has the drag of just one line.[283][284]
Radio-controlled kite
powered scale and manned Distinguish a product that is not a kite (called RC Kite) from true kites that have radio controls on a kite-lined kite wing.
Ram-air kites
Sled kites with ram-air cavities and Jalbert parafoil power kites are ram-air kites. The wind rams into the cavities and inflates sections of a kite to give the kite shape and sturdiness.[285]
Recycled kites
Kites made from recycled goods[286]
Revolution kite or Rev kites
(four-line revolution stunt kites by Joe Hadzicki)[108][287][288][289][290]
Ribbon kites
<Several kinds: large non-rotating ribbon arch kite (windbow), rotating ribbon kite, and kite with main sails made up of grids and meshes of ribbons (latticework kites). German kite designer Willi Koch specialized in mesh or ribbon-set kites.[291]
Rigid kites
(no flexible sail part)
Rogallo Corner kites
[292] First intended use: radar reflector for rescue[293]
Rogallo Parawing kite
Roller kite.[294]
Rolloplan kites
[295](German origin)
Diagram of a rotating kite
Rotating kite
Diagram of a hexagonal kite
Rokkaku (bowed hexagonal) kite
Rotary kites
Vertical axis rotary, spanwise rotary,[296] mixed rotary, streamwise axially rotary.[297][298] EPS, Styrofoam, and balsa special Magnus-effect rotary kites can be made with several construction methods for two-line control kites for heavier breezes.[299][300] Many spanwise rotary kites are two-line control kites. However, UFO-SAM is a single-line rotary Magnus-effect kite; one of the leading makers of the kite has died, but a manufacturer has continued offering the kite.[301][302][303]A two-line rotary kite using a special control bar is instructed in the patent by J. R. Carnwath filed on Mar 29, 1948.[304][305][306][307] Kites that revolve but do not obtain lift from the revolving motion are distinct from Magnus-effect lifters or gyrocopting lifting rotating kites; Thomas Ansboro of Scotland, in 1891, instructed in a US patent 464412 about a revolving hexagonal kite where the bridling is critical.[308]

A ringed UFO rotary kite patent indicated a special bridling ring and a central rotating ring (US Patent 4779825).[309] The very high aspect ratio rotating spanwise ribbon kites (Skybows) are continuing to gain interest; these require at least two swivels. Also, a variety of rotary kites that are nearly streamers rotate almost windward; some are vaned and some are not.[310] [311] In 1995 Carl E. Knight and Jo Ann F. Knight instructed a rotary kite that rotates near windward for its axis (not like autogyro or spanwise magnus).[312]

Rokkaku orRokaku kites
Rotating Ribbon kites
One version is called Skybow. The long ribbon is at least a two-anchored system with at least two swivels, but may be segmented to allow segments of ribbon to rotate at different speeds. Autorotation, giving lift via the Magnus effect, allows a rainbow arch kite to fly. A human operator at one end, with a fixed ground anchor at the other, is one example; a separate human operator at each of two anchors is another. More than two tethers can be used.[317]


Sauls' Barrage kites
Sail kites
Sails that are fully tethered and give a net positive lift are sail kites. Sailing vessels on water and land use sail kites. The kiting tethers can be short or long.[320] Power kites are frequently sail kites as a power kite is used to sail a skier, landsailing buggy, wakeboarder, ground wheeled vehicle, boats and so on.[321][322][323][324][325]
Diagram of a sled kite
John W. Loy teaches sled-kite variation which may avoid collapse frequent with sled kites (swallowtail sled).
Self-erecting collapsible kites
Collapsible kites that self-erect upon a triggering event to full kite form have special niche uses and appeal. Positive-inflated kytoons would be typed here, if a triggering erected the kytoon. Already-erected kites like the parafoil are self-inflating, but not usually considered as needing erecting (since they are already softly finished in form, except for placing them in the wind).[326][327]
Show kites
See "Display kites". Show kites are one category of display kite.
Skating kites
See Kite skating[328]
Sled kites
include the Buda Jewish Kite of 1904,[329] the Scott and Allison Sleds and many variations.[330][331][332][333][334][335][336][337][338]
Signature kites
Kites made by a particular person become prized possessions for some people.[339]
Single-piece kites
Sode or Sode Dako kites
This type wins attention with its shape, especially in Japan.[341][342]
Soft kites
Parawing, parafoil, some un-sticked sleds, Barish sailwing, Playsail, KiteShip, foils
Solar kites
in plasma or photonic media;[343] Solar-kite engineers and scientists are expanding the definition of a kite.[344] The sail may be full of solar-energy electricity-generating material. Another example is the Solar Max Delta Kite.
Soil kites
Sound-making kites
Square kites
Stacked kites
Stacking sub-kite units
Stunt kites
New type of stunt kite[346]
Styrofoam kites
When Styrofoam dining plates are used in a dragon-kite segment, when a kite is made from styrene drinking cups, or when kites are made with the dominant material styrofoam or EPS foam, then the kite world refers to the kite type as a styrofoam kite. This allows use of recycled materials.[347][348][349]


Red and blue ribbon kite
Corner reflector, part of Rogallo's target kite
Target kites
As designed by Paul Garber, a key gunnery practice target in war.[350][351][352] Francis Melvin Rogallo, inventor of a fully flexible kite in 1948, also filed a patent on Jan. 23, 1963 for a target kite that used stiffenings,[353] which was also a corner reflector.
Tetrahedral kites
Inventor Alexander Graham Bell focused on these types of kites;[354] This kite type was a dominant interest of Mr. Bell's.[355]
Thai kites
Toy kites
Traction kites
for relaunching from water, differ from dedicated land traction kites[357]
Train or Kite train
Connect many kite-body units onto one line in various ways and have a kite that is a kite train, or train of kites. Dragon kites, centipede kites, and some arches are trains. A train of mini kites is a mini-kite train. [358][359]
Trainer kites
Kites of lower power that are used to practice maneuvers before higher-powered kites are used.[360][361][362]
Tukkal or Tukal kites
Special four-stick kite[363]


Underwater kite
[364]:Water kites have an analogous presence in other liquids as the flying media; kite expert David Culp published about non-water media for kiting within those fluids rather than air (see "Water kites" below). An early presentation of an underwater box kite was repeated in the Drachen Foundation Kite Journal from a 1909 Scientific American article.[365]


Ventilated kites
Flying kites in high or stormy winds is achieved in several ways; one way is to have high-porosity or ventilated kites Effective sail area is reduced, while shape and appearance can follow known kite shapes of non-ventilated kites. [366]
Victory kites
One series of noted kites: the Victory kites of Stormy Weathers (yes that is his name) include Star Victory, Swift Victory, and Winged Victory. Mr. Weathers was respected for building kites from common materials.[367]


Waffle kites
such as those made by Joseph LeCornu[368]
Water kites
[369][370] This mechanism handles a water kite or underwater inverted kite; also spelled paravane, paravanes. Underwater kiting of heavier-than-water (even ballasted) instruments serve industry and science.[371]Domina Jalbert told Tal Streeter that water kites are hardly different from air kites and could have many applications.[372][373]
Water relaunchable kites
Air kites that can be launched and relaunched once the kite's wing and lines are settled on or in the water.[374]
Woglum kites
(variant of the Malay kite). Gilbert T. Woglum in 1896 flew a train of kites over a parade and hung a golden flag from the main line.[375]
Work kites
or working kites:are kites designed to perform specialized tasks or produce work or energy.[376][377]


X-treme kites
Extreme sport kites.[378]
X flat two-stick kites
the frame is "X" format with two spars; rectangular or square or cut to form X. Flat kites made of two sticks. Artistic alphabet character "X" kite.


Yacht kites
Leslie Hunt's book, 25 Kites, includes a yacht-kite plan.[379]
Youth kites
Kites for the very young. Also beginner kites, kid kites, kiddie kites. Kites suitable for the very young are almost always small single-line kites using cotton kite line.[380] Festivals sometimes have a category called "youth kites".[381]


Zero-wind kites
Kite pilot stays within a tight ground circle, or pumps the kite line without moving, or walks or runs when there are zero-wind conditions (also known as nil-wind, null-wind, no-wind, indoor kites). The Ninja zero- and low-wind kite plan is open for all for non-commercial use.[382][383][384]

See also


  1. ^ The Flying Circus Kite-Plan Page!
  2. ^ Glossary of KITESA
  3. ^ Some Kiting Basics
  4. ^ Kite Trade Association International (KTAI). Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  5. ^ British Kite Surfing Association. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  6. ^ 2 Stick Frames
  7. ^ Kite-flying to fame. By Kamal Preet Kaur. Four-stick kite specialist. Punjab Jaswant Singh specializes in the tukal or tukkal kite.
  9. ^ R. L. Mayne's kite control mechanism. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  10. ^ Tet kite: 6 drinking straws
  11. ^ a b Hexagonal Kite. Patent application in process.
  12. ^ Styrofoam kites. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  13. ^ Interview with Anna Rubin. She made a kite wing of just grass.
  14. ^ Paper Kites.
  15. ^ Bug Plan. Low-aspect-ratio kite.
  16. ^ FLYING MACHINE ADAPTED TO LAND ON WATER Sayer - Patent number: 2131528 Filing date: Jul 28, 1937 Issue date: Sep 1938
  17. ^ Inflatable wing: Patent number: 4725021 - Filing date: Oct 17, 1986 Issue date: Feb 16, 1988
  18. ^ Inflatable wing Patent number: 3957232; Filing date: Feb 3, 1975; Issue date: May 18, 1976; Inventor: Wayne A. Sebrell.
  19. ^ Rotating Kites
  20. ^ Mini-Kite Train
  21. ^ Tapping High Altitude Wind ‘Ladder’ of Kites Viewed as Energy Source
  22. ^ 'No Secrets' Trains.
  23. ^ Team Spectrum Kite Display, 2007. Bird train, Mylar fighter-kite train, and more.
  24. ^ Kitesailing International, December, 1988. Retrieved 2011-3-11.
  25. ^ Dave Culp SpeedSailing. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  26. ^ Nathan's, Believe It Or Not, Kite Boat. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  27. ^ More lines, more fun.
  28. ^ The Flying Squad. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  29. ^ Team Spectrum Kites. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  30. ^ Sky Symphony kites at Barnoldswick , The Sky Symphony kite display team display at the Festival of Flight, Victory Park, Barnoldswick, Pendle, Lancashire, UK on Saturday 8th September 2007
  31. ^ Balloon kite.
  32. ^ Hooper et al. "Lidar Measurements of Wind in the Planetary Boundary Layer: The Method, Accuracy and Results from Joint Measurements with Radiosonde and Kytoon," J. of climate and Applied Meteorology, vol. 25, pp 990–1001 (Jul. 1986).
  33. ^ Apparatus and method for aerodynamic wing David A. Culp
  34. ^ Towable underwater kite Brian Frank Arthur
  35. ^ a b Underwater Electric Kite
  36. ^ Trawl-board and paravane innovator
  37. ^ U.S. Patent 7093803 by Dave Culp
  38. ^ NASA Q&A. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  39. ^ Guy H. Kennedy, Jr. patent for thermodynamic kite. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  40. ^ Flying Trick Kites How's That Different From Stunt Flying?
  41. ^ Getting Started with Stunt Kites Written by David Gomberg
  42. ^ Pitch & Lockout Limiter. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  43. ^ Hang Glider Tow Manual
  44. ^ NASA: Kite Balance and Stability. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  45. ^ Rotating kites. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  46. ^ Why a Kite Needs a Tail
  47. ^ Windbow
  48. ^ Windbow
  50. ^ Imagine Inflatables.
  51. ^ Hi Fly Kites
  52. ^ WindMueller Aerology Lab. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  53. ^ Kite patent. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  54. ^ Kite patent. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  55. ^ Kite patent. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  56. ^ Airplane kite. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  57. ^ Airplane kite photo. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  58. ^ PeterLynn ARC set-up FAQ Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  59. ^ WindMueller Aerology Lag. SkyBow ribbon arch or rainbow kite; photograph.
  60. ^ Rotating kites; skybow.
  61. ^ Skybow kite. Jim Mallous text.
  62. ^ Air Force Lt. Col. William L. Skliar’s Explorer PG-1 Aqua Glider
  63. ^ Sailplane Directory. Biplane manned kite towed over water in 1959. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  64. ^ SKLIAR AQUA GLIDER “Explorer” – N6498D
  65. ^ Archimedes Screw
  66. ^ Improvement in Folding Kites patent. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  67. ^ Improvement in Kites patent. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  68. ^ Concave parabolic arch kite Peter J. Pearce et al. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  69. ^ Monocoque arched kite Peter J. Pearce Retrieved 2100-03-12.
  70. ^ Louis Kite. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  71. ^ Pegtop kite. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  72. ^ Kites in Art Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  73. ^ Genevieve Lytton as "The Kite" Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  74. ^ Profound Issues Posed by Asymmetry
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^ Bag kites Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  78. ^ Kite Balloon by Domina C. Jalbert, filed 1944 Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  79. ^ Spiders By Ann R. Heinrichs. Google Books. She observes that the so called ballooning is like a kite or balloon; she is mechanically correct about the kite part, as no true balloon is ever formed by the spider as told in the other references.
  80. ^ Flying Spiders over Texas! Coast to Coast. Chad B., Texas State University Undergrad: He correctly describes the mechanical kiting of spider "ballooning".
  81. ^ Artificial and Natural Flight By Hiram Stevens Maxim. Chapter on "Flying Kites", the "Balloon Spider" is correctly seen as mechanical kiting.
  82. ^ Richard Miller. His book Without Visible Means of Support describes the mechanical foundation for the mechanics used for the spiders kiting when doing so-called ballooning: free-flight two kite system.
  83. ^ Super-powered spiders. Bug specialist describes the kiting of ballooning spiders, in interview by author Pamela S. Turner.
  84. ^ Tales with Tails: Storytelling the Wonders of the Natural World by Kevin Strauss
  85. ^ Are cobwebs made by spiders? wherein three staffers recognize that ballooning spiders actually are kiting.
  86. ^ Pest Control Solutions, the ultimate source for Pest Control Products. The company signed to their understanding that the ballooning spiders actually are kiting.
  87. ^ Rare Species Conservatory. Wildly Weird Facts. They carefully distinguish that the spiderlings actually kite even though the term "ballooning" is sometimes used.
  88. ^ Harry C, Sauls Barrage Kite
  89. ^ The MK VII Series I Kite Balloon - Its construction and make up.
  90. ^ Kite Balloons
  91. ^ German barrage balloon (kytoon type of kite)
  92. ^ "David Barish, the Forgotten Father of Paragliding" Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  93. ^ BARISH GLIDE WING David T. Barish, US Patent 3480238 Filing date: Feb 27, 1967. Issue date: Nov 1969. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  94. ^ G-kites Catalog
  95. ^ Beginner Kites
  96. ^ Beginner Stunt Kites
  97. ^ Wheel kite, 1908 Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  98. ^ Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. (Hargrave echo?) Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  99. ^ Bird Kites by George Webster. Kiteflier, Issue 92, p. 5-12.
  100. ^ Peel Glider Boat Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  101. ^ Sevylor Manta Ray Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  102. ^ Box-like kite Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  103. ^ Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly Kite 43x26
  104. ^ Butterly Kites
  105. ^ Drachen Foundation Kite Journal
  106. ^ Kono Design
  107. ^ Khmer kites: Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  108. ^ a b c Kites at the Smithsonian
  109. ^ Sir George Cayley
  110. ^ Cheap kites
  111. ^ Cheap kites.
  112. ^ Cheap kites.
  113. ^ Chemiluminescent kite John J. Kinn et al.
  114. ^ Genres of Chinese Kites
  115. ^ Flying Disc Kite by Angelo Spanvill Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  116. ^ S.F. Cody Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  117. ^ Dan Flintjer built over 900 Cody kites Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  118. ^ Conyne. Kite patent, 1911 Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  119. ^ Pointer kite Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  120. ^ Cursor kite Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  121. ^ Cursor kite Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  122. ^ Cursor kite Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  123. ^ Delta Sport Kite Design by Dave Salmon
  124. ^ Single Box Delta Plan Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  125. ^ Kite workshop page Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  126. ^ El'Cheapo Diamond Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  127. ^ MBK 2-Skewer Diamond Kite plan Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  128. ^ Kite Collective
  129. ^ Andrew and Kathleen - Display Kites
  130. ^ Peter Lynn, a pioneer in large display kites
  131. ^ Display kites.
  132. ^ Fishy Kites
  133. ^ A New Game In Town
  134. ^ Double-kite illustration Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  135. ^ Dragon kite. Patent by Don Tabor
  136. ^ Dragon Chinese (plan) by Dan Beard.
  137. ^ Sund Photograph. China. Dragon kite.(sometimes called centipede kite)
  138. ^ The Dragon Cave
  139. ^ Chinese Dragons
  140. ^ Eddy kite Retrieved 2100-03-14.
  141. ^ Eddy kite Retrieved 2011-03-14
  142. ^ Miniature diamond Eddy kite Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  143. ^ Eddy kite (replica) Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  144. ^ Japanese Kite History 2 Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  145. ^ Meet the Kite Maker Mikio Toki Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  146. ^ Makani Power, Inc.
  147. ^ KiteLab
  148. ^ Allister Furey
  149. ^ No Form of Tuna Fishing Provides More Visual Excitement Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  150. ^ A Feather-Light Bird Kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  151. ^ The Feather Kite: An Experiment in Progress Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  152. ^ Multiple feather kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  153. ^ NFKA Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  154. ^ Gerhards and Danielas little (sic) World of Fighter Kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  155. ^ Bat kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  156. ^ Cat kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  157. ^ First Kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  158. ^ Paul's Fishing Kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  159. ^ Sunset Kite Fishing
  160. ^ Dangling angling Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  161. ^ Flat Kites by George Webster The Kiteflier, Issue 96
  162. ^ Flexikite Francis Rogallo’s Breakthrough Idea The Toy Kite That Led to the Hang Glider
  163. ^ Funny Kites! Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  164. ^ Edson Fessenden Gallaudet (1871–1945) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  165. ^ Bag Kites
  166. ^ Giant Garbage Bag Kite
  167. ^ Geometric cubes Delta Kite
  168. ^ Different Types of Kites
  169. ^ My Kite Plans. Genki kite also.
  170. ^ Genki Kites
  171. ^ Dieppe Mermaids Genki Kite
  172. ^ Cody Specials Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  173. ^ Introducing the Giant Kites of Guatemala
  174. ^ Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival, Shiga, Japan Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  175. ^ Gibson Girl Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  176. ^ Martin Glider Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  177. ^ Essays on Kite Word Origin and Patents by Ed Grauel.
  178. ^ North Texas Hang/Para Gliding Association NTHPA Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  179. ^ Hargrave Replica at Royal Park Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  180. ^ Allsopp Vigilante Helikite
  182. ^ KITE CONTROL APPARATUS Fermin T. Sada
  184. ^ Hexagonal Kite (how to make one sort)
  185. ^ Essays on Kite Word Origin and Patents by Ed Grauel.
  186. ^ Hi-start Revisited
  187. ^ Rotating Kites
  188. ^ A concept for the world's biggest, longest, widest kite? Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  189. ^
  190. ^
  191. ^ Kites in India.
  192. ^ Synergistic Kites
  193. ^ Indoor Inspirations. (indoor kiting)
  194. ^ Inflatable delta wing kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  195. ^ Delta-wing inflatable kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  196. ^ Inflatable kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  197. ^ Figure Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  198. ^ Kite Balloon
  199. ^ Inflatable Fishing Kite Instructions Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  200. ^ "Unique Inflatable Kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  201. ^ Dryden Daily Kaz
  202. ^ The Pocket Kite.(invisible to radar).
  203. ^ Lesson plan-Japan. Japanese kites.
  204. ^ Japanese kites
  205. ^ Japanese Kite Collection.
  206. ^ kite :: Kite structure - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  207. ^ Jesus kites
  208. ^ What's Doing in the Philippines
  209. ^ Easy Kites for Kids Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  210. ^ Best Kite For Kids Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  211. ^ Pakistan tackles killer kites.
  212. ^ killer kites by daniel frost.
  213. ^ Kirby Kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  214. ^ Airworld Kirby Kite
  215. ^ [1]
  216. ^ KiteShip Retrieved 20111-03-15.
  217. ^ Helikite. Notice that these are not helicopter kites; the heli stands for helium. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  218. ^ Kite+Balloon=Kytoon
  219. ^ AV-1 Wright
  220. ^ KITE BALLOON BALPH H. UPSON. 1916.(A) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  221. ^ Kite Balloon. Upson. 1916.(B) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  222. ^ KITE BALLOON HERBERT GRAY GIBBS. 1924 Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  223. ^ Allsopp helikites limited - Manufacturer of aerostats Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  224. ^ Kite Balloon by H. Upson, 1916 patent Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  225. ^ KITE BALLOON Domina C. Jalbert (A) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  226. ^ KITE BALLOON Jalbert (B) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  227. ^ Kite Ballon. Domina C. Jalbert. (C) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  228. ^ Balloon kite Robert O. Talamo Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  229. ^ Aircraft. Aircraft uses kite balloon in concert with a kite train and a powered aircraft. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  230. ^ Thermodynamic kite Guy H. Kennedy, Jr. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  231. ^ [2]
  232. ^ Tapping High Altitude Wind ‘Ladder’ of Kites Viewed as Energy Source
  233. ^ Lang kite, filed 1946 Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  234. ^ Leaf Kites.
  235. ^ Raising Your Reading Test Scores, Book 2 By Stuart Margulies
  236. ^ [3] Kite Journal, Drachen Foundation, Issue: Spring 2002, page 9, Judith Johnson, Garden City, New York, describes leaf kites made from the chataigne.
  237. ^ Application for patent: Lighter than air kite William J. Beckingham et al. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  238. ^ Balloon kite Robert O. Talamo Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  239. ^ Low-aspect-ratio kite
  240. ^ Machijirushi kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  241. ^ Traditionnels Japonnais Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  242. ^ Rotary kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  243. ^ Rotary Kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  244. ^ Rotor Kites Move From Toy Novelty to High Tech Power Generation
  245. ^ Magenn Power's MARS is a Wind Power Anywhere
  246. ^ Malay kite.
  247. ^ Miniature kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  248. ^ Little kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  249. ^ Miniature kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  250. ^ Small kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  251. ^ Miniature kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  252. ^ Miniature kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  253. ^ Miniature Eddy kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  254. ^ The Fourth Great Miniature Kite Contest, 2001 Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  255. ^ [4] AKA Miniature Kite Art Gallery Tour. Many photographs.
  256. ^ Cambodian Musical Kite
  257. ^ Musical kite by Henry Rowl Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  258. ^ The Cambodian "Khlèn Phnorng" Musical Kite
  259. ^ Night kite Kenneth M. Linden, Jr. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  260. ^ Night Kites Arrive on Indian Kiting Scene Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  261. ^ Led Night Kite (Cometa Led) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  262. ^ Kite with durable light display feature Don Tabor et al. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  263. ^ Night Kite Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  264. ^ Electrical light illumination for kites flown at night Mark T. Flory Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  265. ^ Illuminated kite William Quinones et al. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  266. ^ Night flying by Team Spectrum.
  267. ^ Kite Flying at Vaucluse, St. Thomas Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  268. ^ What a Kite. (area of octagon kite) Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  269. ^ Octagon Box Kite
  270. ^ Life's Journey Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  271. ^ WindDance Kites
  272. ^ Penta Kites Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  273. ^ Japanese Kite collection Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  274. ^ Apparatus and method for aerodynamic wing David A. Culp
  275. ^ STATES OF MATTER. Plasma is the most common state of matter.
  276. ^ The Virtual Kite Zoo Kites in the Classroom. Picnic Plate Kites.
  277. ^ PAPER PLATE FLYER (page 4)
  278. ^ How to Make a Kite Out of a Plastic Bag Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  279. ^ How to Make a Fast Kite With One Sheet of Paper Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  280. ^ RaceKites
  281. ^ Course racing kites
  282. ^ Peter Lynn Newsletter August 2007 Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  283. ^ Peter Lynn Newsletter May 2007
  284. ^ US20080108273 RC kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  285. ^ Ram-air kites
  286. ^ Recycled kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  287. ^ How I Met Joe Hadzicki. Photograph of the Revolution kite that introduce a new realm of control kites.
  288. ^ Kite Personalities - Joe Hadzicki & Brothers
  289. ^ The shape that started a revolution...
  290. ^ Flight demonstration video of the Revolution kite
  291. ^ Kites made by Willi Koch, from Nettetal, Germany Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  292. ^ patented Rogallo target kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  293. ^ and
  294. ^ Roller kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  295. ^ Roloplan Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  296. ^ aerodynamic basis Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  297. ^ UFO and Rotor Kite Information Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  298. ^ Classic Rotor (Meat Tray) Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  299. ^ Interesting circular and rotary kite designs Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  300. ^ Modern UFO Rotor Kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  301. ^ UFO-SAM kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  302. ^ Kenneth Sams Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  303. ^ Kenneth Sams, RIP Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  306. ^ Types of Rotor Kites
  307. ^ Rolloplane Balsa Rotor Kite
  308. ^ Kite. Patent regards a revoling kite by Thomas Ansboro in 1891.
  309. ^ US Patent 5598988 Rotary Flyer Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  310. ^ Vaneless rotary kite Carl E. Knight et al. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  311. ^ US patent:3086738 "Rotating kite", Lubash, John J., 1963,April Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  312. ^ Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  313. ^ Rokkaku kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  314. ^ Rokaku kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  315. ^ Rokaku kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  316. ^ [5] Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  317. ^ Rotating Kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  318. ^ Sauls' Barrage Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  319. ^ U.S. Design Patent No. D136,018 COLLAPSIBLE KITE Hosea C. Sauls Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  320. ^ KiteShip
  321. ^ Kite Sails For America’s Cup
  322. ^ Kite for Sail
  323. ^ Kit-Cats. New option: kite sails for sailing.
  324. ^ Go Sail A Kite! By Tom Holtey
  325. ^ Kite Sailing Yacht
  326. ^ Self-erecting collapsible kite Todd Hostetter Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  327. ^ Inflatable kite arrangement and launcher Vernon G. Pascoe et al. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  328. ^ Kite skating Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  329. ^ Knotty Attribution Problem
  330. ^ FLEXIBLE KITE William M. Allison Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  331. ^ Flight.(straw and paper sled).
  332. ^ Sled Kites by George Webster; 10 pages with plans and variations.
  333. ^ Flexible Sled Kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  334. ^ Hooded Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  335. ^ Swallowtail kite by inventor John W. Loy Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  336. ^ [6] Kite. Plans for sled kite with maple leaf vent.
  337. ^ How to make a Sled Kite ...
  338. ^ Make A Sled Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  339. ^ Kiterus
  340. ^ SINGLE PIECE KITE Frank L. Roe Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  341. ^ Kites and Their Shapes
  342. ^ The Sode Kite, Some Background
  343. ^ Solar Kite Mission Feasibility Study
  344. ^ Solar kites: Small solar sails with no moving parts Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  345. ^ IMPROVEMENT IN PHOTOGRAPHIC SCREENS OR REFLECTORS Charles E. Myers. Four-corner kite archetypes for a reflector in photography.
  346. ^ WindFire Designs Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  347. ^ StyroFoam Kites
  348. ^ Sparless Styrofoam Kites
  349. ^ Cup kites --Styrofoam cup kites
  350. ^ U. S. Navy Target Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  351. ^ Paul E. Garber Target Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  352. ^ U.S. Navy Target Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  353. ^ Target Kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  354. ^ Variations of Tetrahedral Kites Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  355. ^ Meet the Kite Maker. Alexander Gramham Bell.
  356. ^ Thailand's Chula and Pakpao Kites male versus female Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  357. ^ .Air Apparent: The Windborne Legacy Continues As Kite "Engines" Power Exploration, New Sports by Eden Maxwell
  358. ^ Mini Kite Train Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  359. ^ FANO 1997, Kitetrains Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  360. ^ Trainer Kite
  361. ^ starting thairapy: the trainer kite myth
  363. ^ The Elusive Tukkal Fighter
  364. ^ Water kite
  365. ^ Kite Journal, Drachen Foundation. Page 17. An Unexpected Underwater Kite.
  366. ^ My Kite Bag. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  367. ^ DF Archive - Weathers Collection Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  368. ^ Joseph LeCornu
  369. ^ Water kite and method of using the same Kenneth D. Anderson
  370. ^ U.S. Patent number: 282620 Filing date: Feb 3, 1883. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  371. ^ Towed Underwater Apparatus. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  372. ^ Page 42 of Drachen Foundation Journal Fall 2002 The pioneer kite inventor Domina Jalbert spoke emphatically about the water kite.
  373. ^ Water kite and method of using the same Kenneth D. Anderson Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  374. ^ Kitesurfing Terminology
  375. ^ PICTURES FROM THE AIR. William Eddy and also Gilbert T. Woglum fly kites over parade in 1896. NYT article.
  376. ^ Kinds of Kites
  377. ^ Energy Kite Systems
  378. ^ Level One distributes X-treme kites for X-treme flyers.
  379. ^ yacht kite Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  380. ^ Young childrens single line kitesl.
  381. ^ Giant Kites of Guatemal
  382. ^ A Light Kite.
  383. ^ the urban ninja: a synergetic low wind kite project Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  384. ^ indoor kite flying in leipzig Retrieved 2011-03-16.

External links

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