Foreign relations of India

Foreign relations of India

The Republic of India is the world's most-populous democracy and has one of the fastest economic growth rates in the world (8.9 percent GDP increase in 2007, the second-fastest major economy in the world after China). [ [ Indian economic growth rate - BBC] ] With the world's fourth largest armed forces, [ [,_1998 World Almanac: Nation's with Largest Armed Forces] ] and fourth largest economy (in PPP terms), [ [ India 4th largest economy in PPP terms] ] it is considered to be a regional power [ [ Indian Navy tsunami aid highlights country's role as 'super regional power] ] [ [ India As a Regional Power] ] and a potential superpower. [ [ India: Asia's Other Superpower Breaks Out] ] [ [ The Coverage of Three International Newspapers on India's Super Power Capabilities in the Region: A Content Analysis of The Times of India, New York Times and London Times] ] [ [ India: A Superpower in the making] ] [ [ India set to become an economic superpower: Chidambaram] ] It is India's growing international influence that increasingly gives it a more prominent voice in global affairs. [ [ US Today on NIC report] ] [ [ The New Great Game: Why the Bush administration has embraced India] ] [ [ E.U. India relations] ] [ [ US-India relations] ]

India has a long history of collaboration with several countries and is considered as a leader of the developing world. [ [ G8 SUMMIT: Developing Countries Stand Firm by Kyoto Protocol ] ] [ [] ] India was one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Asian Development Bank and the G20 industrial nations. India has also played an important and influential role in other international organizations like East Asia Summit, [] World Trade Organization, [] IMF, [] G8+5 [,25197,23978188-2703,00.html] and IBSA Dialogue Forum. [] Regional organizations India is a part of include SAARC and BIMSTEC.

After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, it soon joined the Commonwealth of Nations and strongly supported independence movements in other colonies, like the Indonesian National Revolution. [] During the Cold War, India adopted a foreign policy of not aligning itself with any major power bloc. However, India developed close ties with the Soviet Union and received extensive military support from it. The end of the Cold War significantly affected Indian foreign policy, as it did for much of the world. The country now seeks to strengthen its diplomatic and economic ties with the United States, [ Fact Sheet: United States and India: Strategic Partnership ] ] the People's Republic of China, [ [ India and China ] ] the European Union, [ [ The EU's relations with India - Overview ] ] Japan, [ [ India and Japan ] ] Israel, [ [ India-Israel Partnership ] ] Mexico, [ [ Mexico » International Relations ] ] and Brazil. [ [ India, Brazil ink nine agreements] ] India has also forged close ties with the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, [ [ India & Asean] ] the African Union, [ World Report: "India 2nd largest importer of conventional weapons," Business Standard, February 14, 2008 ] ] and the Arab League. [ [ Indo-Arab relations; an account of India's relations with the Arab World from ancient up to modern times [ ] ] Though India continues to have a very strong military relationship with Russia, [ [ Prospects for India-Russia Security Relations - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace ] ] Israel has emerged as India's second largest military partner while India has built a strong strategic partnership with the United States reflecting India's policy of balanced and non-aligned relations.

India has taken part in several UN peacekeeping missions and in 2007, it was the second-largest troop contributor to the United Nations. [] India has also actively participated in UN reforms [] and is currently seeking a permanent seat in the UNSC, along with the G4 nations. []


India's foreign policy has always regarded the concept of neighborhood as one of widening concentric circles, around a central axis of historical and cultural commonalties. [ Introduction to India's Foreign Policy, Embassy of India - Washington, DC ] ]

The guiding principles of India’s Foreign Policy have been founded on Panchsheel, pragmatism and pursuit of national interest. In a period of rapid and continuing change, foreign policy must be capable of responding optimally to new challenges and opportunities. It has to be an integral part of the larger effort of building the nation’s capabilities through economic development, strengthening social fabric and well-being of the people and protecting India’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. India’s foreign policy is a forward-looking engagement with the rest of the world, based on a rigorous,realistic and contemporary assessment of the bilateral, regional and global geo-political and economic milieu.

As many as 20 million people of Indian origin live and work abroad and constitute an important link with the mother country. An important role of India's foreign policy has been to ensure their welfare and well being within the framework of the laws of the country where they live. [India and the world-]

Role of the Prime Minister

Nehru set the pattern for the formation of Indian foreign policy: a strong personal role for the prime minister but a weak institutional structure. Nehru served concurrently as prime minister and minister of external affairs; he made all major foreign policy decisions himself after consulting with his advisers and then entrusted the conduct of international affairs to senior members of the Indian Foreign Service. His successors continued to exercise considerable control over India's international dealings, although they generally appointed separate ministers of external affairs.

India's second prime minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964-66), expanded the Office of Prime Minister (sometimes called the Prime Minister's Secretariat) and enlarged its powers. By the 1970s, the Office of the Prime Minister had become the de facto coordinator and supraministry of the Indian government. The enhanced role of the office strengthened the prime minister's control over foreign policy making at the expense of the Ministry of External Affairs. Advisers in the office provided channels of information and policy recommendations in addition to those offered by the Ministry of External Affairs. A subordinate part of the office--the Research and Analysis Wing--functioned in ways that significantly expanded the information available to the prime minister and his advisers. The Research and Analysis Wing gathered intelligence, provided intelligence analysis to the Office of the Prime Minister, and conducted covert operations abroad.

The prime minister's control and reliance on personal advisers in the Office of the Prime Minister was particularly strong under the tenures of Indira Gandhi (1966-77 and 1980-84) and her son, Rajiv (1984-89), who succeeded her, and weaker during the periods of coalition governments. Observers find it difficult to determine whether the locus of decision-making authority on any particular issue lies with the Ministry of External Affairs, the Council of Ministers, the Office of the Prime Minister, or the prime minister himself.

Other Government Organizations

Besides the Office of the Prime Minister and the Ministry of External Affairs, there are other government agencies that have foreign policy-making roles. In theory, the ministers of defence, commerce, and finance provide input to foreign policy decisions discussed in cabinet meetings, but their influence in practical terms is overshadowed by the predominant position of the prime minister and his advisers. The armed forces are removed from policy making and have influence only through the minister of defence, to whom they are subordinate.

Only a limited role in foreign policy making is provided for India's bicameral Parliament. Negotiated treaties and international agreements become legally binding on the state but are not part of domestic law unless passed by an act of Parliament, which also has no say in the appointment of diplomats and other government representatives dealing with foreign affairs. For the most part, because of the widespread domestic support for India's foreign policy, Parliament has endorsed government actions or sought information. The most important official link between Parliament and the executive in the mid-1990s is the Committee on External Affairs of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), the lower chamber of Parliament. The committee meets regularly and draws its membership from many parties. Usually it has served either as a forum for government briefings or as a deliberative body.

Role of Political and Interest Groups

Institutional connections between public opinion and foreign policy making are tenuous as they have been since independence. Although international issues receive considerable attention in the media and in academic circles, the views expressed by journalists and scholars in these publications have little impact on foreign policy making. Interest groups concerned with foreign relations exist inside and outside Parliament but are less organized or articulate than in most other democracies. These organizations include such business groups as the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce International; religious groups, especially among Muslims; and various friendship or cultural societies promoting closer ties with specific countries. Among the latter are informal groups known as the "Russian" and "American" lobbies.


India's relations with the world have evolved since the British Raj (1757-1947), when the British Empire monopolized external and defense relations. When India gained independence in 1947, few Indians had experience in making or conducting foreign policy. However, the country's oldest political party, the Indian National Congress, had established a small foreign department in 1925 to make overseas contacts and to publicize its freedom struggle. From the late 1920s on, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had a long-standing interest in world affairs among independence leaders, formulated the Congress stance on international issues. As a member of the interim government in 1946, Nehru articulated India's approach to the world. [ [ India Foreign Relations ] ]

During Nehru's tenure as the first Prime Minister of India (1947-64), he achieved a domestic consensus on the definition of Indian national interests and foreign policy goals — building a unified and integrated nation-state based on secular, democratic principles; defending Indian territory and protecting its security interests; guaranteeing India's independence internationally through nonalignment; and promoting national economic development unencumbered by over-reliance on any country or group of countries. These objectives were closely related to the determinants of India's foreign relations: the historical legacy of South Asia; India's geopolitical position and security requirements; and India's economic needs as a large developing nation. From 1947 until the late 1980s, India's foreign policy goals enabled it to achieve some successes in carving out an independent international role. Regionally, India was the predominant power because of its size, its population (the world's second-largest after China), and its growing military strength. However, relations with its neighbors, Pakistan in particular, were often tense and fraught with conflict. In addition, globally India's nonaligned stance was not a viable substitute for the political and economic role it wished to play. [ [ India Foreign Relations - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System ] ]

India's international influence varied over the years after independence. Indian prestige and moral authority were high in the 1950s and facilitated the acquisition of developmental assistance from both East and West. Although the prestige stemmed from India's nonaligned stance, the nation was unable to prevent Cold War politics from becoming intertwined with interstate relations in South Asia. In the 1960s and 1970s, India's international position among developed and developing countries faded in the course of wars with China and Pakistan, disputes with other countries in South Asia, and India's attempt to balance Pakistan's support from the United States and China by signing the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in August 1971. Although India obtained substantial Soviet military and economic aid, which helped to strengthen the nation, India's influence was undercut regionally and internationally by the perception that its friendship with the Soviet Union prevented a more forthright condemnation of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. In the late 1980s, India improved relations with the United States, other developed countries, and China while continuing close ties with the Soviet Union. Relations with its South Asian neighbors, especially Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal, occupied much of the energies of the Ministry of External Affairs. [ [ India - Foreign Relations ] ]

In the 1990s, India's economic problems and the demise of the bipolar world political system forced India to reassess its foreign policy and adjust its foreign relations. Previous policies proved inadequate to cope with the serious domestic and international problems facing India. The end of the Cold War gutted the core meaning of nonalignment and left Indian foreign policy without significant direction. The hard, pragmatic considerations of the early 1990s were still viewed within the nonaligned framework of the past, but the disintegration of the Soviet Union removed much of India's international leverage, for which relations with Russia and the other post-Soviet states could not compensate. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, India improved its relations with the United States, Canada, France, Japan and Germany. In 1992, India established formal diplomatic relations with Israel.

In the mid-1990s, India attracted the world attention towards the alleged Pakistan-backed terrorism in Kashmir. The Kargil War resulted in a major diplomatic victory for India. The United States and European Union recognized the fact that Pakistani military had illegally infiltrated into Indian territory and pressurized Pakistan to withdraw from Kargil. Several anti-India militant groups based in Pakistan were labeled as terrorist groups by the United States and European Union.

In 1998, India tested nuclear weapons (see Pokhran-II) which resulted in several U.S., Japanese and European sanctions on India. India's then defense minister, George Fernandes, said that India's nuclear program was necessary as it provided a deterrence to potential Chinese nuclear threat. Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by 2001. [ [ Beyond Pokharan II ] ]

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Indian intelligence agencies provided the U.S. with significant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups' activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorism, coupled with a surge in its economy, has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries. Over the past three years, India has held numerous joint military exercises with U.S. and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened U.S.-India and E.U.-India bilateral relationship. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U.S. has more than doubled in the last five years. [ [ PPI: U.S. Exports to India Have Doubled Since 2003 ] ]

India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and WTO with mixed results. India's candidature for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is currently backed by several countries including the France, Russian Federation [ [ BBC News | South Asia | Putin backs India's UN seat bid ] ] , United Kingdom [ [ UNSC without India unrealistic: Brown- Politics/Nation-News-The Economic Times ] ] , Germany, Japan, Brazil [ [ The Hindu : International / India & World : “Working together for Security Council seat” ] ] , Australia [ [ UN seat 'central' to Australian foreign policy ] ] , African Union nations [] and recently China [ [ China offers tepid backing for India bid for UN council seat - International Herald Tribune ] ] . In 2004, the United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with India even though the latter is not a part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception, however this has not persuaded other Nuclear Suppliers Group members to sign similar deals with India.


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India's growing economy, strategic location, friendly foreign policy and large and vibrant diaspora has won it more allies than enemies. India has friendly relations with several countries in the developing world. Though India is not a part of any major military alliance, it has close strategic and military relationship with most of the major powers.

Countries considered India's closest allies include the Russian Federation, [ [ Indo- Russia Strategic cooperation ] ] Israel, [ India and Israel: Dawn of a New Era ] ] Iran, Nepal, [ [ 'Indian Maoists haven't evolved'-India-The Times of India ] ] Bhutan, [ [ Scoop: Bhutanese Refugees: Trapped, United States and Tantalized ] ] and Tajikistan. [ [ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news - India makes a soft landing in Tajikistan ] ] After the collapse of the Soviet Union and economic liberalization in 1991, India has fostered a close relationship with the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Japan. India's military and economic collaboration with the United States, [ [] ] Japan, [ [ MOFA: Japan-India Partnership in a New Asian Era: Strategic Orientation of Japan-India Global Partnership ] ] Italy, [] and Israel has grown significantly in the past few years, while it has built upon its traditional military relations with United Kingdom, Russia and France. India has also forged relationships with developing countries, especially South Africa, Brazil, [ [ Brazil finds a belated ally in India - International Herald Tribune ] ] Mexico, [ [ India looks for key to Nafta in Mexico ] ] and the People's Republic of China (PRC). India, along with Mexico, Brazil, and South Africa, often represents the interests of the developing countries through economic forums such as the G8+5, IBSA and WTO. India played the main role of the representing the G20 developing nations during the Doha Development Round. [ [ India nixes WTO deal to cut tariffs ] ] India's "Look East" Policy has helped it develop greater economic and strategic partnership with South East Asian countries, South Korea, the PRC, Japan, and Taiwan. India also enjoys friendly relations with the Persian Gulf countries and the African Union.

Bilateral and regional relations



Bilateral relations between India and Afghanistan have been traditionally strong and friendly. While India was the only South Asian country to recognize the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s, its relations were diminished during the Afghan civil wars and the rule of the Islamist Taliban in the 1990scite web |url= |title=India to Provide Aid to Government in Afghanistan |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= New York Times] . India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aidcite web |url= |title=Kabul's India ties worry Pakistan|accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty] cite web |url= |title=India's Northern Exposure|accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= Council on Foreign Relations] .

The new democratically-elected Afghan government strengthened its ties with India in wake of persisting tensions and problems with Pakistan, which was suspected of continuing to shelter and support the Taliban. India pursues a policy of close cooperation in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and contain its rival Pakistan, which it maintains is supporting Islamic militants in Kashmir and other parts of India. India the largest regional investor in Afghanistan, having committed more than US$2.2 billion for reconstruction purposes. []


Both states are part of the Indian subcontinent and have had a long common cultural, economic and political history. The people of the two countries are indistinguishable to most outsiders. The cultures of the two countries are similar; in particular India's West Bengal state and Bangladesh are both Bengali speaking. India gave large amounts of aid to Bangladesh. In recent years India provides co-operation and assistance during annual natural calamities. India is a supplier of staple foods such as rice and live animals which helps keep their prices affordable for the masses of Bangladesh. Most of differences are of sharing water resources between the two countries. Also Bangladesh has been accused of providing shelter to militants.


Historically, ties with India have been close. Both countries signed a Friendship treaty in 1949, where India would assist Bhutan in foreign relations. On February 8, 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was substantially revised under the Bhutanese King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. Whereas in the Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations."

In the revised treaty it now reads as, "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other." The revised treaty also includes in it the preamble "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity", an element that was absent in the earlier version. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 strengthens Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation.


India was one of the leading supporters of Burmese independence and established diplomatic relations after Burma's independence from Great Britain in 1948. For many years, Indo-Burmese relations were strong due to cultural links, flourishing commerce, common interests in regional affairs and the presence of a significant Indian community in Burma. [ Myanmar shows India the road to Southeast Asia] ] India provided considerable support when Burma struggled with regional insurgencies. However, the overthrow of the democratic government by the Military of Burma led to strains in ties. Along with much of the world, India condemned the suppression of democracy and Burma ordered the expulsion of the Burmese Indian community, increasing its own isolation from the world. [ Years of Isolation Produced Intensely Poor Nation] ] Only China maintained close links with Burma while India supported the pro-democracy movement. [ India-Burma ties] ] [ Realism in India-Myanmar relations] ]

Relations between Burma (officially the Union of Myanmar) and the Republic of India have improved considerably since 1993, overcoming strains over drug trafficking, the suppression of democracy and the rule of the military junta in Burma. Burma is situated to the south of the states of Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. and the proximity of the People's Republic of China give strategic importance to Indo-Burmese relations. The Indo-Burmese border stretches over 1,600 miles. The Indian Army, completed a major border road in 2001. India, has been working towards building major roads and highways, in Myanmar, as well as the development of major ports and pipelines. India, has been also working towards oil and natural gas exploration in Myanmar. Military Relations between these two neighbours, are strong, and India, is training Burmese military personnel. India's slow response, to the 2007 Burmese Anti Government Protests, warmed relations between the military junta, and India. India, was one of the few countries, from which the military junta, accepted aid, at first, after the disastrous Cyclone Nargis, of May 2008.


India enjoys a considerable influence over Maldives' foreign policy and provides extensive security co-operation especially after Operation Cactus in 1988 during which India repelled Tamil mercenaries who invaded the country.As founder member in 1985 of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, SAARC, which brings together Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, the country plays a very active role in SAARC. The Maldives has taken the lead in calling for a South Asian Free Trade Agreement, the formulation of a Social Charter, the initiation of informal political consultations in SAARC forums, the lobbying for greater action on environmental issues, the proposal of numerous human rights measures such as the regional convention on child rights and for setting up a SAARC Human Rights Resource Centre. The Maldives is also an advocate of greater international profile for SAARC such as through formulating common positions at the UN.


Relations between India and Nepal are close yet fraught with difficulties stemming from geography, economics, the problems inherent in big power-small power relations, and common ethnic and linguistic identities that overlap the two countries' borders. In 1950 New Delhi and Kathmandu initiated their intertwined relationship with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian soil. The 1950 treaty and letters stated that "neither government shall tolerate any threat to the security of the other by a foreign aggressor" and obligated both sides "to inform each other of any serious friction or misunderstanding with any neighboring state likely to cause any breach in the friendly relations subsisting between the two governments." These accords cemented a "special relationship" between India and Nepal that granted Nepal preferential economic treatment and provided Nepalese in India the same economic and educational opportunities as Indian citizens.


These two neighbours, have always had a relationship of mistrust and suspicion, since independence of both countries, in 1947. The principal source of contention between the Republic of India and its western neighbour has been Jammu and Kashmir, the Hindu Maharaja of which, Hari Singh of Dogra, and its Muslim Prime Minister, Sheikh Abdullah, chose in 1947 to join India conditionally and provisionally. A Standstill Agreement with Pakistan was in place, so the matter is still much disputed, since the decision was hastened by the loss of territory to invading irregulars from Pakistan, backed by the Pakistan Army. India maintains that this decision was the norm for every other princely state at Independence and that subsequent elections in Kashmir for over 40 years have made it an integral part of India. This dispute triggered wars between the two countries in 1947 and 1965 and a limited conflict in 1999. India, also helped East Pakistan, in its War for independence, in 1971, due to the large influx of refugees into India, when Pakistan committed genocide in East Pakistan. East Pakistan gained independence, and became Bangladesh. This froze relations, with Pakistan, for more than a decade. The state remains divided between the two countries by the Line of Control (LoC), which demarcates the ceasefire line agreed upon in the 1947 conflict. Pakistan refers to its part of the state as Azad Kashmir and refers Jammu and Kashmir as Indian occupied Kashmir. Relations briefly improved, in the 1990s. However Pakistan invaded Kashmir, in 1999. India however was able to win this war, the Kargil War. Pakistan's involvement, in the 1999 hijacking of the Indian Airlines IC814 plane, increased tensions. Relations worsened in the disastrous Agra Summit, in July 2001. Following the Attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001 there was a standoff between the two countries for nearly a year. However, a peace process, initiated in 2003, has led to improved relations in the last few years.

ri Lanka

Bilateral relations between Sri Lanka and India have been generally friendly, but were controversially affected by the on-going Sri Lankan civil war and by the failure of Indian intervention during the Sri Lankan civil war. India is the only neighbor of Sri Lanka, separated by the Palk Strait; both nations occupy a strategic position in South Asia and have sought to build a common security umbrella in the Indian Ocean. [ India's Sri Lankan scars] ]

India-Sri Lanka relations have undergone a qualitative and quantitative transformation in the recent past. Political relations are close, trade and investments have increased dramatically, infrastructural linkages are constantly being augmented, defence collaboration has increased and there is a general, broad-based improvement across all sectors of bilateral cooperation. India was the first country to respond to Sri Lanka’s request for assistance after the tsunami in Dec 2004. In July 2006, India evacuated 430 Sri Lankan nationals from Lebanon, first to Cyprus by Indian Navy ships and then to Delhi & Colombo by special Air India flights.

There exists a broad consensus within the Sri Lankan polity on the primacy of India in Sri Lanka’s external relations matrix. Both the major political parties in Sri Lanka, viz., the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the United Nationalist Party have contributed to the rapid development of bilateral relations in the last ten years. Sri Lanka has supported India’s candidature to the permanent membership of the UN Security Council. []


Relations between India and Iran date back to the common prehistoric Indo-Iranian heritage (which connects all of Greater Persia and Greater India) and the Indo-Parthian and Indo-Scythian kingdoms of antiquity to the strongly Persianized Mughal Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries.

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Iran withdrew from CENTO and dissociated itself from US-friendly countries, including Pakistan, which automatically entailed improved relationship with the Republic of India. Currently, the two countries have friendly relations in many areas. There are significant trade ties, particularly in crude oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran. Iran frequently objected to Pakistan's attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organizations such as the OIC. Presently, negotiations are on, on an Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. Its construction shall begin in 2009, and shall be completed by 2012. India welcomed Iran's inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC regional organization. Lucknow continues to be a major centre of Shiite culture and Persian study in the subcontinent.

There is a small Indian community in Iran. There are still small Hindu temples in Bandar Abbas and Zahidan. They were built in the 19th century by Indian soldiers in the British Army. There are also small communities in India who trace their ancestry to Iran like Parsis. A small number of Iranian students are enrolled at universities in India. The growing Iranian film industry looks to India's Bollywood for technical assistance and inspiration and Bollywood films are very poular in Iran. The clerical government in Teheran sees itself as a leader of Shiites worldwide including India. Indian Shiites enjoy state support such as a recognised national holiday for Muharram and are generally considered less targeted than in religiously polarized Pakistan.



The strongest ties between these two states is the commonwealth connection. Cricketing and Bollywood ties also help foster relations as in the frequent travel for games, and, more immportantly, the presence of Australian cricketers in India for commercial gain. This was further enhanced with the IPL, and, to a lesser degree, the ICL. Bollywood has also improved ties as with John Howard's visit to Mumbai to increase tourism to Australia, [ [ Bollywood makes minister Soni’s job easier ] ] Furthermore, there is a going strategic connection to forming an "Asian NATO" with India, Japan, the US and Australia. [ [ The Insider - US, Japan, India & Australia announce military alliance against China ] ] The bilateral agreements have worked out for all but the Indo-Australian angle, though this has been hurt by India's refusal to sign the NPT and Australia's consequent refusal to provide India with uranium until the latter do so. The Australian and Indian militaries have already worked well together. [ [ The Hindu : Front Page : Australia for practical military cooperation with India ] ] [ [ Indo-Australian Military Cooperation - Australia, India Go For Practical Military Cooperation ] ]


Despite lingering suspicions remaining from the 1962 Sino-Indian War and continuing boundary disputes over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, Sino-Indian relations have improved gradually since 1988. Both countries have sought to reduce tensions along the frontier, expand trade and cultural ties, and normalize relations.

A series of high-level visits between the two nations have helped improve relations. In December 1996, PRC President Jiang Zemin visited India during a tour of South Asia. While in New Delhi, he signed with the Indian Prime Minister a series of confidence-building measures for the disputed borders. Sino-Indian relations suffered a brief setback in May 1998 when the Indian Defence minister justified the country's nuclear tests by citing potential threats from the PRC. However, in June 1999, during the Kargil crisis, then-External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh visited Beijing and stated that India did not consider China a threat. By 2001, relations between India and the PRC were on the mend, and the two sides handled the move from Tibet to India of the 17th Karmapa in January 2000 with delicacy and tact. In 2003, India formally recognized Tibet as a part of China, and China recognized Sikkim as a formal part of India in 2004.

Since 2004, the economic rise of both China and India has also helped forge closer relations between the two. Sino-Indian trade reached US$36 billion in 2007, making China the single largest trading partner of India. [,prtpage-1.cms] The increasing economic reliance between India and China has also bought the two nations closer politically, with both India and China eager to resolve their boundary dispute. [] They have also collaborated on several issues ranging from WTO's Doha round in 2008 [] to regional free trade agreement. [,prtpage-1.cms] Similar to Indo-US nuclear deal, India and China have also agreed to cooperate in the field of civilian nuclear energy. [] However, China's economic interests have clashed with those of India. Both the countries are the largest Asian investors in Africa [] and have competed for control over its large natural resources. []


India-Japan relations have always been strong. India, has culturally influenced Japan, through Buddhism. During the Indian Independence Movement, the Japanese Imperial Army, helped Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's Indian National Army. Relations have remained warm, since India's independence. Japanese companies, like Sony, Toyota, and Honda, have factories in India, and with the growth of the Indian economy, India, is a big market for Japanese firms. The most prominent Japanese company to have a big investment in India, is automobiles giant, Suzuki. Suzuki, is in partnership with Indian automobiles company, Maruti. Maruti Suzuki, is among the biggest car companies in India. In December 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Japan culminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan-India Strategic and Global Partnership."According to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's arc of freedom, Japan courts India to counter China. Shinzo Abe, also visited India, in August 2007. To this end, Japan has funded many infrastructure projects in India, most notably in New Delhi's metro subway system. Indian applicants have been welcomed in 2006/7 to the JET Programme, starting with just one slot available in 2006 and 41 in 2007. Also, in the year, 2007, the Japanese Self Defence Forces, conducted military exercises in the Indian Ocean, with the militaries of India, Australia, Singapore and the United States.


India's Look East policy, saw India grow relations with ASEAN countries including Thailand, and Thailand's Look West policy, also saw it grow its relations with India. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC. Indian Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi, P.V. Narasimha Rao, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and Manmohan Singh, have visited Thailand as have, Chatichai Choonhavan, Thaksin Shinawatra, and Surayud Chulanont, visited India. In 2003, a Free trade agreement was signed between the two countries. India, is the 13th largest investor in Thailand. The spheres of trade are in chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, nylon, tyre cord, real estate, rayon fibres, paper grade pulps, steel wires, and rods. However, IT Services, and manufacturing, are the main spheres. Through Buddhism, India, has culturally influenced Thailand. The Indian epics, Mahabharata, and Ramayana, are popular in Thailand. Thailand, has become a big tourist destination, for India's growing middle class.


India and Singapore share long-standing cultural, commercial and strategic relations, with Singapore being a part of the "Greater India" cultural and commercial region. More than 300,000 people of Indian origin live in Singapore. Following its independence in 1965, Singapore was concerned with China-backed communist threats as well as domination from Malaysia and Indonesia and sought a close strategic relationship with India, which it saw as a counter-balance to Chinese influence and a partner in achieving regional security.cite web |title=IPCS Special Report - India-Singapore Relations |url= |format=PDF |publisher=Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies |accessdate=2008-06-18] Singapore had always been an important strategic trading post, giving India trade access to the Malay archipelago and the Far East. Although the rival positions of both nations over the Vietnam War and the Cold War caused consternation between India and Singapore, their relationship expanded significantly in the 1990s; Singapore was one of the first to respond to India's "Look East" Policy of expanding its economic, cultural and strategic ties in Southeast Asia to strengthen its standing as a regional power. Singapore, and especially, the Singaporean Foreign Minister, George Yeo, have taken an interest, in re-establishing the ancient Indian university, Nalanda University.

Singapore is the 8th largest source of investment in India and the largest amongst ASEAN member nations.cite web |title=India-Singapore Economic and Commercial Relations|url= |publisher=Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry |accessdate=2008-06-18] It is also India's 9th biggest trading partner as of 2005-06. Its cumulative investment in India totals USD 3 billion as of 2006 and is expected to rise to US 5 billion by 2010 and US 10 billion by 2015.cite web |title=India, Singapore ink pact |url= |publisher=Asia Times |date=2005-07-02 |accessdate=2008-06-18] cite web |title=India, Singapore trade to touch $50 bn by 2010 |url= |publisher=The Hindu Business Line |date=2005-06-30 |accessdate=2008-06-18] India's economic liberalisation and its "Look East" policy have led to a major expansion in bilateral trade, which grew from USD 2.2 billion in 2001 to US 9-10 billion in 2006 - a 400% growth in span of five years - and to USD 50 billion by 2010. Singapore accounts for 38% of India's trade with ASEAN member nations and 3.4% of its total foreign trade. India’s main exports toSingapore in 2005 included petroleum, gemstones, jewellery, machinery and its imports from Singapore included electronic goods, organic chemicals and metals. More than half of Singapore’s exports to India are basically "re-exports" - itemsthat had been imported from India.

outh Korea

The cordial relationship between the two countries extends back to 48AD, when Queen Suro, or Princess Heo, travelled from the kingdom of Ayodhya to Korea [ NDTV article] ] . According to the Samguk Yusa, the princess had a dream about a heavenly king who was awaiting heaven's anointed ride. After Princess Heo had the dream, she asked her parents, the king and queen, for permission to set out and seek the man, which the king and queen urged with the belief that god orchestrated the whole fate.Iryeon, pp. 161-164. (tr. by Ha Tae-Hung & Grafton K. Mintz) (1972). Samguk Yusa. Seoul: Yonsei University Press. ISBN 8971410175.] Upon approval, she set out on a boat, carrying gold, silver, a tea plant, and a stone which calmed the waters. Archeologists discovered a stone with two fish kissing each other, a symbol of the Gaya kingdom that is unique to the Mishra royal family in Ayodhya, India. This royal link provides further evidence that there was an active commercial engagements between India and Korea since the queen's arrival to Korea. Current descendents live in the city of Kimahe as well as abroad in America's state of New Jersey and Kentucky.

The relations between the countries have been relatively limited, although much progress arose during the three decades. Since the formal establishment of the diplomatic ties between two countries in 1973, several trade agreements have been reached. Trade between the two nations has increased exponentially, exemplified by the $530 million during the fiscal year of 1992-1993, and the $10 billion during 2006-2007. [ IDSA publication] ] During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, South Korean businesses sought to increase access to the global markets, and began trade investments with India. The last two presidential visits from South Korea to India were in 1996 and 2006, [ Blue House commentary] ] and the embassy works between the two countries are seen as needing improvements. [ Joong-ang Daily News article] ] . Recently, there have been acknowledgments in the Korean public and political spheres that expanding relations with India should be a major economical and political priority for South Korea. Much of the economic investments of South Korea have been drained into China; [ Chosun news article] ] however, South Korea is currently the fifth largest source of investment in India. [ FICCI info] ] To the Times of India, President Roh voiced his opinion that cooperation between India's software and Korea's IT industries would bring very efficient and successful outcomes. The two countries agreed to shift their focus to the revision of the visa policies between the two countries, expansion of trade, and establishment of free trade agreement to encourage further investment between the two countries. Korean companies such as LG and Samsung have established manufacturing and service facilities in India, and several Korean construction companies won grants for a portion of the many infrastructural building plans in India, such as the "National Highway Development Project". Tata Motor's purchase of Daewoo Commercial Vehicles at the cost of $102 million highlights the India's investments in Korea, which consist mostly of subcontracting.


In recent years, India has endeavoured to build relations, with this small Southeast Asian nation. They have strong military relations, and India shall be building an Airforce Academy, in Laos.


India supported Vietnam's independence from France, opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and supported unification of Vietnam. India established official diplomatic relations in 1972 and maintained friendly relations, especially in wake of Vietnam's hostile relations with the People's Republic of China, which had become India's strategic rival.cite web |title=India and Vietnam in changing East Asia |url= |publisher=Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies |accessdate=2008-06-16]

India granted the "Most Favoured Nation" status to Vietnam in 1975 and both nations signed a bilateral trade agreement in 1978 and the Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (BIPPA) on March 8, 1997.cite web |title=India - Vietnam Economic and Commercial Relations |url= |publisher=Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry |accessdate=2008-06-16] . In 2007, a fresh joint declaration was issued during the state visit of the Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung.cite web |title=Vietnam, India issue joint declaration on strategic partnership |url= |publisher=VietNamNet Bridge |accessdate=2008-06-16] Bilateral trade has increased rapidly since the liberalisation of the economies of both Vietnam and India. India is the 13th-largest exporter to Vietnam, with exports have grown steadily from USD 11.5 million in 1985-86 to USD 395.68 million by 2003. Vietnam's exports to India rose to USD 180 million, including agricultural products, handicrafts, textiles, electronics and other goods.cite web |title=India-Vietnam: Developing a Strategic Partnership |url= |format=PDF |publisher=Asian Affairs |accessdate=2008-06-16] Between 2001 and 2006, the volume of bilateral trade expanded at 20-30% per annum to reach USD 1 billion by 2006.cite web |title=Vietnam favours FTA with India |url= |publisher=The Hindu |date=2007-07-07 |accessdate=2008-06-16] cite web |title=Vietnam PM urges greater trade ties with India |url= |date=2007-07-07 |publisher=The Hindu Business Line |accessdate=2008-06-16] Continuing the rapid pace of growth, bilateral trade is expected to rise to USD 2 billion by 2008, 2 years ahead of the official target.cite web |title=Trade with India to reach US $2 billion in 2008 |url= |date=2008-05-03 |publisher=Vietnam Business Finance |accessdate=2008-06-16] India and Vietnam have also expanded cooperation in information technology, education and collaboration of the respective national space programmes. Direct air links and lax visa regulations have been established to bolster tourism.cite web |title=India, Vietnam to start direct flights |url= |publisher=The Hindu Business Line |date=2004-10-18 |accessdate=2008-06-16]

India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation, created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council and join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).cite web |title=Vietnam backs India for APEC membership |url= |publisher=The Hindu |date=2000-11-07 |accessdate=2008-06-16] In the 2003 joint declaration, India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia; to this end, Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo-ASEAN free trade agreement. India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships, including extensive cooperation on developing atomic energy, enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism, transnational crime and drug trafficking.cite web |title=India, Vietnam sign MoU for bilateral cooperation on security |url= |date=2008-03-24 |publisher=Times of India |accessdate=2008-06-16]


European Union

India was one of the first countries to develop relations with the Union, signing bilateral agreements in 1973, when the United Kingdom joined. The most recent cooperation agreement was signed in 1994 and an action plan was signed in 2005. As of April 2007 the Commission is pursuing a free trade agreement with India. [ [ EU sees talks with ASEAN, India, SKorea on free-trade pacts in months]]

The Union is India's largest trading partner, accounting for 20% of Indian trade. However India accounts for only 1.8% of the EU's trade and attracts only 0.3% of European Foreign Direct Investment, although still provides India's largest source. During 2005 EU-India trade grew by 20.3%. [ [ Bilateral trade relations with India]]

There was controversy in 2006 when the Indian Mittal Steel Company sought to take-over the Luxembourg based steel company, Arcelor. The approach met with opposition from France and Luxembourg but was passed by the Commission who stated that were judging it on competition grounds only. [ [ Mandelson and India warn the French over Mittal]] The European Union (EU) and India agreed on sep 29,2008 at the EU-India summit in Marseille, France's largest commercial port, to expand their cooperation in the fields of nuclear energy and environmental protection and deepen their strategic partnership.French President Nicolas Sarkozy, the EU's rotating president, said at a joint press conference at the summit that EU welcomes India, as a large country, to engage in developing nuclear energy, adding that this clean energy will be helpful for the world to deal with the global climate change.Sarkozy said the EU and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan pledged to accelerate talks on a free trade deal and expected to finish the deal by 2009.The Indian prime minister was also cautiously optimistic about cooperation on nuclear energy. "Tomorrow we have a bilateral summit with France. This matter will come up and I hope some good results will emerge out of that meeting," Singh said when asked about the issue.Singh said that he was "very satisfied" with the results of the summit. He added that EU and India have "common values" and the two economies are complementary to each other.European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso, also speaking at Monday's press conference, expounded the joint action plan on adjustments of EU's strategic partnership with India, saying the two sides will strengthen cooperation on world peace and safety, sustainable development, cooperation in science and technology and cultural exchanges.Reviewing the two sides' efforts in developing the bilateral strategic partnership, the joint action plan reckoned that in politics, dialogue and cooperation have enhanced through regular summits and exchanges of visits and that in economy, mutual investments have increased dramatically in recent years, dialogue in macro economic policies and financial services has established and cooperation in energy, science and technology and environment has been launched.Under the joint action plan, EU and Indian would enhance consultation and dialogue on human rights within the UN framework, strengthen cooperation in world peacekeeping mission, fight against terror and non-proliferation of arms, promote cooperation and exchange in developing civil nuclear energy and strike a free trade deal as soon as possible.France, which relies heavily on nuclear power and is a major exporter of nuclear technology, is expected to sign a deal that would allow it to provide nuclear fuel to India.Trade between India and the 27-nation EU has more than doubled from 25.6 billion euros ($36.7 billion) in 2000 to 55.6 billion euros last year, with further expansion to be seen."We have agreed to achieve an annual bilateral trade turnover of 100 billion euros within the next five years," Singh told reporters.A joint statement issued at the end of the summit said the EU and India would work to reach an agreement on climate change by the end of 2009. []

United Kingdom

Since 1947, India's relations with the United Kingdom have been through bilateral, as well as through the Commonwealth of Nations framework. Although the Sterling Area no longer exists and the Commonwealth is much more an informal forum, India and the UK still have many enduring links. This is in part due to the significant number of people of Indian origin living in the UK. The large South Asian population in the UK results in steady travel and communication between the two countries. The British Raj allowed for both cultures to imbibe tremendously from the other. The English language and cricket are perhaps the two most evident British exports, whilst in the UK Indian music and food are fixtures in daily life [ [] "" ] [ [] "BBC Asian Network" ] . It's also notable that there are many words of Indian origin now common to the language. Furthermore, it is often believed that the British favourite food is Indian Cuisine, although no official study reports this, this idea is common place in England.

Economically the relationship between Britain and India is also strong. India is the second largest investor in Britain after the US [ [] ,""] [ [] "BBC News" ] . Britain is also one of the largest investors in India [ [] ,"Ministry Of Commerce (Central, FDI 2005-2006 statistics)"] . Recently, many British jobs have been moving to the call centres in India.

In the late 1980s, Britain agreed on selling SEPECAT Jaguar to India further enhancing the military co-operation between the two. In the sphere of politics relations are mostly through multilateral channels, namely the Commonwealth, WTO and ADB. India has remained staunchly sovereign and has rejected any type of British intervention in regional affairs. Despite the occasional spats, such as the 1997 row when the Foreign Secretary Robin Cook offered to mediate a dispute over Kashmir, relations between London and New Delhi are warm. The Queen's visits to India have been enormously successful along with those by other members of the Royal Family. Britain has also supported India's rise to prominence on the international stage, including advocating a permanent seat on the Security Council [ [,0008.htm] ,""] . The UK recently gave India a £825 million aid package to help India develop its health and education systems. [ [] ]

See India-United Kingdom Relations


France and India established diplomatic relationships soon after India achieved independence in 1947. India's strong diplomatic ties with France resulted in the peaceful cession of Pondicherry to India in November 1 1954 without any military opposition from France.

France and Russia were the only countries that did not condemn India's decision to go nuclear in 1998 [ [ Reaction of France to India's nuclear test] ] . In 2003, France became the largest supplier of nuclear fuel and technology to India and remains a large military and economic trade partner. India's permanent member aspirations in the UN Security Council have found very strong support from former French President Chirac and more recently by the current French President Nicolas Sarkozy. The recent decision by the Indian government to purchase French Scorpène class submarines worth 3 billion USD and 43 Airbus aircraft for Air India worth 2.5 billion USD has further cemented the strategic, military and economic co-operation between India and France.

Nicolas Sarkozy visited India in January 2008 and was the Chief Guest of the Republic Day parade in New Delhi.


Despite racial and religious disconnections, India and Italy have enjoyed overall pleasurable and strong relations throughout history. Italy and India are close economic partners and Italy is home to a large population of Indian immigrants.


India was on the opposite side of the Cold War to West Germany, and on the side of East Germany. However since the Fall of the Berlin wall, and the reunification of Germany, relations have greatly improved. The German ambassador to India, Bernd Mutzelburg, once said that India and Germany, are not just 'natural partners', but important countries in a globalised world. Germany is India's largest trade partner in Europe. German Chancellor, Angela Merkel visited India recently, as did the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visit Germany. Both countries have been working towards gaining permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. As both countries are strong liberal democracies, they have similar objectives. UN reforms, fighting terrorism and climate change, and promotion of science, education, technology, and human rights, are some areas of shared interests, and collaboration between these two countries. Culturally too, Indian and German writers and philosophers, have influenced each other. Recently, Germany has invested in developing education and skills amongst rural Indians.


Due to controversial issues such as Turkey's close relationship with Pakistan and India's strong relations with Greece and Armenia, relations between the two countries have often been blistered at certain times, but better at others. India and Turkey's relationship alters from enmity to collaboration when the two nations work together to combat terrorism in Central and South Asia, and the Middle East. India and Turkey are also connected by history, seeing as they've known each other since the days of the Ottoman Empire, and seeing as Hindustan was one of the countries to send aid to this European nation following its war of independence. The Indian real estate firm GMR, has invested in and is working towards the modernization of Ankara airport.


The Government of India has strengthened relations with the Americas both at the mutual and bilateral stances and with the regional groups. Visits on the behalf of the Foreign Ministers of Mexico, Venezuela, Suriname and the visit of Shri Rao Inderjit Singh, Minister of State, to Panama, Colombia, Dominican Republic and El-Salvador has maintained high-level interaction with the countries of the region. India’s commonalities with Brazil have continued to grow as both works together on Security Council reform and the WTO. The process of finalizing Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) with MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay) is on the itinerary and negotiations are being held with Chile. Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was the guest of honour at the 2004 Republic Day celebrations.


Brazil and India are large continental sized countries with social diversity, democratic governments, a multiethnic society, and a large population base. Both possess advanced technologies. The two countries share similar perceptions on issues of interest to developing countries and have cooperated in the multilateral level on issues such as international trade and development, environment, reform of the UN and the UNSC expansion.

There is enormous interest in Brazil on India's culture, religion, performing arts and philosophy. Mohandas Gandhi is highly regarded in the country and the government has sought to teach his philosophy of non-violence to the police to improve its track record. A statue of Mahatma Gandhi is located in a prominent square in Rio de Janeiro. A group called the Filhos de Gandhi (Sons of Gandhi) participates regularly in the carnival in Salvador. Private Brazilian organizations occasionally invite Indian cultural troupes.

In recent years, relations between Brazil and India have grown considerably and co-operation between the two countries has been extended to such diverse areas as science and technology, pharmaceuticals and space. The two-way trade in 2007 nearly tripled to US$ 3.12 billion from US$ 1.2 billion in 2004. India attaches tremendous importance to its relationship with this Latin American giant and hopes to see the areas of co-operation expand in the coming years.

Both countries want the participation of developing countries in the UNSC permanent membership since the underlying philosophy for both of them are: UNSC should be more democratic, legitimate and representative - the G4 is a novel grouping for this realization.Brazil and India are deeply committed to IBSA (South-South cooperation) initiatives and attach utmost importance to this trilateral cooperation between the three large, multi-ethnic, multi-racial and multi-religious developing countries, which are bound by the common principle of pluralism and democracy=Canada=

Indo-Canadian relations, are the longstanding bilateral relations between India and Canada, which are built upon a "mutual commitment to democracy", "pluralism", and "people-to-people links," according to the government of Canada.In 2004, bilateral trade between India and Canada was at about C$2.45 billion. However, the botched handling of the Air India investigation and the case in general suffered a setback to Indo-Canadian relations. In addition, Air India still does not fly to Canada since the bombing. India's Smiling Buddha nuclear test led to connections between the two countries being frozen, with allegations that India broke the terms of the Colombo Plan. Although Jean Chrétien and Roméo LeBlanc both visited India in the late 1990s, relations were again halted after the Pokhran-II tests.

United States of America

Historically, relations between India and the United States were somewhat cold following Indian independence, as India took a leading position in the Non-Aligned Movement, and attempted to pursue even-handed economic and military relations with the Soviet Union. For most of the Cold War, the US tended to have warmer relations with Pakistan, primarily as a way to contain Soviet-friendly India and to use Pakistan to back the Afghan Mujahideen against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. An Indo-Soviet twenty year friendship treaty, signed in 1971, also positioned India against the US.

Cold War era

India played a key role in establishing the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Though India pursued close relations with both US and USSR, it decided not to join any major power bloc and refrained from joining military alliances. India, however began establishing close military relationship with the Soviet Union.

After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India made considerable changes to its foreign policy. It developed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and started receiving massive military equipment and financial assistance from the USSR. This had an adverse effect on the Indo-US relationship. The United States saw Pakistan as a counter-weight to pro-Soviet India and started giving the former military assistance. This created an atmosphere of suspicion between India and US. The US-India relationship suffered a considerable setback during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan when India openly supported the Soviet Union.

Relations between India and the United States came to an all-time low during the early 1970s. Despite reports of atrocities in East Pakistan, and being told, most notably in the "Blood telegram", of "genocidal" activities being perpetrated by Pakistani forces, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and U.S. President Richard Nixon did nothing to discourage then Pakistani President Yahya Khan and the Pakistan Army. Kissinger was particularly concerned about Soviet expansion into South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship that had recently been signed between India and the Soviet Union, and sought to demonstrate to the People's Republic of China the value of a tacit alliance with the United States.Gandhi, Sajit (ed.), [ The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971: National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 79] ] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Indian Armed Forces, along with the Mukti Bahini, succeeded in liberating East Pakistan which soon declared independence. Richard Nixon, then US President, feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tacit ally, China. In order to demonstrate to China the "bona fides" of the United States as an ally, and in direct violation of the US Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan, routing them through Jordan and Iran,Shalom, Stephen R., [ The Men Behind Yahya in the Indo-Pak War of 1971] ] while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan.

When Pakistan's defeat in the eastern sector seemed certain, Nixon sent the USS "Enterprise" to the Bay of Bengal, a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat. The "Enterprise" arrived on station on December 11, 1971. On 6 December and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 into the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7 January 1972. The Soviets also sent a nuclear submarine to ward off the threat posed by USS "Enterprise" in the Indian Ocean. [ [ Cold war games] ]

Though American efforts had no effect in turning the tide of the war, the incident involving USS "Enterprise" is viewed as the trigger for India's subsequent nuclear program. [ cite journal
first = Dhirendra
title = India's lopsided science
journal = Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist
volume = 47
issue = 4
pages = 32–36
year = 1991
month = May
url =
] American policy towards the end of the war was dictated primarily by a need to restrict the escalation of war on the western sector to prevent the 'dismemberment' of West Pakistan. U.S. State Department, [] ] Years after the war, many American writers criticized the White House policies during the war as being badly flawed and ill-serving the interests of the United States. [The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissenger and American Foreign Policy by Jussi M. Hanhimeaki Page 156, Published by Oxford University Press US] India carried out nuclear tests a few years later resulting in sanctions being imposed by United States, further drifting the two countries apart. In recent years, Kissinger came under fire for comments made during the Indo-Pakistan War in which he described Indians as "bastards." [Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, Volume E-7, Documents on South Asia, 1969-1972 [ 150. Conversation Among President Nixon, the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), and the President’s Chief of Staff (Haldeman), Washington] November 5, 1971, 8:15-9:00 a.m.] Kissinger has since expressed his regret over the comments.

However, since the end of the Cold War era, India-US relations have improved dramatically. This has largely been fostered by the fact that the US and India are both democracies and have a large and growing trade relationship. During the Gulf War, the economy of India went through an extremely difficult phase. The Government of India liberalized the Indian economy. After the break up of the Soviet Union, India started looking for new allies and tried improving diplomatic relations with the members of the NATO particularly the United States, Canada, France and Germany. In 1992, India established formal diplomatic relations with Israel.

In the mid-1990s, India tried to attract world attention towards the Pakistan backed terrorism in Kashmir. The Kargil War resulted in a major diplomatic victory for India. The United States and European Union recognized the fact that Pakistani military had illegally infiltrated into Indian territory and pressurized Pakistan to withdraw from Kargil. Several anti-India terrorist groups based in Pakistan were labelled as terrorist groups by the United States and European Union.

Pokhran tests

In 1998, India tested nuclear weapons which resulted in several U.S., Japanese and European sanctions on India. India's then defence minister, George Fernandes, said that India's nuclear program was necessary as it provided a deterrence to some potential nuclear threat. Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by 2001. India has categorically stated that it will never use weapons first but will defend if attacked. In fact Pakistan is the first country that India informs if any nuclear tests are on the agenda.

The economic sanctions imposed by the United States in response to India's nuclear tests in May 1998 appeared, at least initially, to seriously damage Indo-American relations. President Bill Clinton imposed wide-ranging sanctions pursuant to the 1994 Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act. U.S. sanctions on Indian entities involved in the nuclear industry and opposition to international financial institution loans for non-humanitarian assistance projects in India. The United States encouraged India to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) immediately and without condition. The U.S. also called for restraint in missile and nuclear testing and deployment by both India and Pakistan. The non-proliferation dialogue initiated after the 1998 nuclear tests has bridged many of the gaps in understanding between the countries.

Post-September 11 attacks

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Indian intelligence agencies provided the U.S. with significant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups' activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorism has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries. Over the past few years, India has held numerous joint military exercises with U.S and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened U.S.-India and E.U.-India bilateral relationship. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U.S. has more than doubled in the last five years.

However, India has yet to sign the CTBT, or the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, claiming the discriminatory nature of the treaty that allows the five declared nuclear countries of the world to keep their nuclear arsenal and develop it using computer simulation testing. Prior to its nuclear testing, India had pressed for a comprehensive destruction of nuclear weapons by all countries of the world in a time-bound frame. This was not acceptable to the US and other countries. Presently, India has declared its policy of "no-first use of nuclear weapons" and the maintenance of a "credible nuclear deterrence". The US, under President George W. Bush has also lifted most of its sanctions on India and has resumed military co-operation. Relations with US have considerably improved in the recent years, with the two countries taking part in joint naval exercises off the coast of India and joint air exercises both in India as well as in the United States. [ [ Indian Troops training with U.S. Army in Hawaii] ,""] [ [ Air Force personnel fly with Indian Air Force] , ""] [ [ Indian Soldiers with U.S. Marines, Sailors] , ""]

India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and WTO with mixed results. India's candidature for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is currently backed by several countries including United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Brazil, African Union nations and recently People's Republic of China. In 2005, the United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with India even though the latter is not a part of the NPT. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception and persuaded other NSG members to sign similar deals with India.

On March 2, 2006 India and the US signed the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Pact on co-operation in civilian nuclear field. This was signed during the four days state visit of US president George Bush in India. On its part, India would separate its civilian and military nuclear programs, and the civilian programs would be brought under the safeguards of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The United States would sell India the reactor technologies and the nuclear fuel for setting up and upgrading its civilian nuclear program. The U.S. Congress needs to ratify this pact since U.S. federal law prohibits the trading of nuclear technologies and materials outside the framework of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).

Middle East

Gulf Countries

The countries of the Gulf have a political and strategic importance for India. The region is a major market for Indian exports. Three million Indians are employed in these countries.India wants access to oil and gas supplies and looks to build alliances in order to pursue international objectives (vis-a-vis relations with Pakistan and its bid to gain a permanent seat on the UN Security Council). The strengthening of ties with this region, therefore, has been a priority of India's foreign policy.

Left wing political parties have been particularly keen for good relations with Arab states as part of their bid to win the support of India's huge Muslim electorate. K. Natwar Singh, the then Minister for External Affairs, led a multi-party delegation to Cairo to "pay homage to the memory of Yasser Arafat". In September, Minister of State for External Affairs, E. Ahamed, visited Ramallah with a goodwill message from Prime Minister Manmohan Singh reiterating the support to Palestine by the Indian Left, which was greatly appreciated by the late President Arafat.

India's decision to not to support the US-led invasion of Iraq nor to send troops to police the occupation, has served to strengthen ties with most Middle Eastern countries.


"See also: Bahrain-India Relations"

India is a close ally of Bahrain, the Kingdom along with its GCC partners are (according to Indian officials) among the most prominent backers of India’s bid for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council ['India against Security Council membership without veto', Web India, 29 December 2004] , and Bahraini officials have urged India to play a greater role in international affairs. For instance, over concerns about Iran’s nuclear programme Bahrain’s Crown Prince appealed to India to play an active role in resolving the crisis [ [] The Times] .

Ties between India and Bahrain go back generations, with many of Bahrain’s most prominent figures having close connections: poet and constitutionalist Ebrahim Al-Arrayedh grew up in Bombay, while 17th century Bahraini theologians Sheikh Salih Al-Karzakani and Sheikh Ja`far bin Kamal al-Din were influential figures in the Kingdom of Golkonda [Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p45] and the development of Shia thought in the sub-continent.

Bahraini politicians have sought to enhance these long standing ties, with Parliamentary Speaker Khalifa Al Dhahrani in 2007 leading a delegation of parliamentarians and business leaders to meet Indian President Pratibha Patil, opposition leader L K Advani, and take part in training and media interviews. [ [] Gulf Daily News] Politically, it is easier for Bahrain’s politicians to seek training and advice from India than it is from the United States or other western alternative.

In December 2007, the Bahrain India Society was launched in Manama to promote ties between the two countries. Headed by the former Minister of Labour Abdulnabi Al Shoala, the Society seeks to take advantage of the development in civil society to actively work to strengthen ties between the two countries, not only business links, but according to the body’s opening statement in politics, social affairs, science and culture. India’s Minister of State for Foreign Affairs E Ahmed and his Bahraini counterpart Dr Nazar Al Baharna attended the launch [ [] Gulf Daily News] .


Iraq was one of the few countries in the Middle East with which India established diplomatic relations at the embassy level immediately after its independence in 1947. [ US-Iraq War: India's Middle East policy] ] Both nations signed the "Treaty of Perpetual Peace and Friendship" in 1952 and an agreement of cooperation on cultural affairs in 1954. India was amongst the first to recognize the Baath Party-led government, and Iraq remained neutral during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. However, Iraq sided alongside other Gulf States in supporting Pakistan against India during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which saw the creation of Bangladesh. The eight-year long Iran–Iraq War caused a steep decline in trade and commerce between the two nations.

During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, India remained neutral but permitted refueling for U.S. airplanes. It opposed U.N. sanctions on Iraq, but the period of war and Iraq's isolation further diminished India's commercial and diplomatic ties. From 1999 onwards, Iraq and India began to work towards a stronger relationship. Iraq had supported India's right to conduct nuclear tests following its tests of five nuclear weapons on May 11 and May 13 1998. In 2000, the then-Vice President of Iraq Taha Yassin Ramadan visited India, and on August 6 2002 President Saddam Hussein conveyed Iraq's "unwavering support" to India over the Kashmir dispute with Pakistan. [ India, Iraq Agree on Cooperation] ] India and Iraq established joint ministerial committees and trade delegations to promote extensive bilateral cooperation. [ Iraq prizes ties with India: Saddam] ] [ Iraq Economic and Commercial Relations] ] Although initially disrupted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, diplomatic and commercial ties between India and the new democratic government of Iraq have since been normalized.

audi Arabia

Bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have strengthened considerably owing to cooperation in regional affairs and trade. Saudi Arabia is the one of largest suppliers of oil to India, who is one of the top 7 trading partners and the 5th biggest investor in Saudi Arabia.cite web |url=
|title=India, Saudi Arabia to better understanding|accessdate=2008-06-04 |publisher=Business Standard

India and Saudi Arabia are actively cooperating in the field of science and technology. CSIR and the Saudi Arabian Standards Organisation (SASO) have an ongoing programme of technical cooperation (POC) since June 1993. Under this programme, Indian experts in different scientific areas, particularly in the field of measurement and calibration, are deputed to Saudi Arabia on regular basis. Similarly, several Saudi experts and have undergone advanced training in India. National Physical Laboratory has provided expertise and technology for two important SASO projects related to calibration and teleclock system. CSIR and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a MoU for bilateral cooperation in 1997 and have an ongoing programme of cooperation, particularly in the field of space science, remote sensing and installation of Internet. Recently a three-member delegation from CSIR, NPL and CFTRI visited SASO during January 2004 and both sides agreed to renew the POC. []


India and Israel were on opposite sides during the Cold War, with Israel siding with the NATO countries and India leaning in the direction of the Soviet Union. The creation of Israel was tacitly supported by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and openly supported by Hindu revivalists such as Vinayak Damodar Savarkar [ [ Hindu Pro-Zionism] ,""] .

However, Israel and India shared a clandestine relationship that involved cooperation between their respective intelligence agencies [ RAW and MOSSAD, the Secret Link] ,""] and the purchase of military hardware by India from Israel. Israel shared India's concerns about the growing danger posed by Pakistan, a nation hostile to India and one that supplied weapons and training to the Arabs against Israel. After the end of the Cold War, formal relations with Israel started improving significantly [ [ U.S. and India Consider 'Asian NATO' ] ] .

Since the establishment of full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992, India has had a highly productive relation with the Jewish State. India is regarded as Israel's strongest ally in Asia, and Israel is India's second largest arms supplier. Both countries perceive a common problem with Islamic Terrorism and Islamic Fundamentalism, and have engaged in joint military ventures in an effort to combat this problem.

India has entertained Israeli Prime Minister in a visit in 2003 [ [ Ariel Sharon's India visit] ,""] , and Israel has entertained Indian dignitaries such as Finance Minister Jaswant Singh in diplomatic visits. India and Israel collaborate extensively in scientific and technological endeavours.Israel's Minister for Science and Technology has expressed interest in collaborating with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) towards utilizing satellites for better management of land and other resources. Israel has also expressed interest in participating in ISRO's Chandrayaan Mission involving an unmanned mission to the moon [ Israel plans thrust on science and technology collaboration] , "The Times of India"] .On January 21 2008 India successfully launched an Israeli spy satellite into orbit from Sriharikota space station in southern India. []

oviet bloc

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) had major repercussions for Indian foreign policy. Substantial trade with the former Soviet Union plummeted after the Soviet collapse and has yet to recover. Longstanding military supply relationships were similarly disrupted due to questions over financing, although Russia continues to be India's largest supplier of military systems and spare parts.

Russian Federation

India's ties with the Russian Federation are time-tested and based on continuity, trust and mutual understanding. There is national consensus in both the countries on the need to preserve and strengthen India-Russia relations and further consolidate the strategic partnership between the two countries. A Declaration on Strategic Partnership was signed between former Russian President and current Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in October 2000.

Russia and India have decided not to renew the 1971 Indo-Soviet Peace and Friendship Treaty and have sought to follow what both describe as a more pragmatic, less ideological relationship. Russian President Yeltsin's visit to India in January 1993 helped cement this new relationship. Ties have grown stronger with President Vladimir Putin's 2004 visit. The pace of high-level visits has since increased, as has discussion of major defence purchases. In 2007 President Vladimir Putin was guest of honour at Republic Day celebration on 26 January 2007. The year 2008, has been declared by both countries as the Russia-India Friendship Year. Bollywood films are quite popular in Russia.


Diplomatic relations were established India and Tajikistan following Tajikistan's independence from the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, which had been friendly with India. Tajikistan occupies a strategically important position in Central Asia, bordering Afghanistan, the People's Republic of China and separated by a small strip of Afghan territory from Pakistan. India's role in fighting the Taliban and Al-Qaeda and its strategic rivalry with both China and Pakistan have made its ties with Tajikistan important to its strategic and security policies. Despite their common efforts, bilateral trade has been comparatively low, valued at USD 12.09 million in 2005; India's exports to Tajikistan were valued at USD 6.2 million and its imports at USD 5.89 million. India's military presence and activities have been significant, beginning with India's extensive support to the anti-Taliban Afghan Northern Alliance (ANA). India began renovating the Farkhor Air Base and stationed aircraft of the Indian Air Force there. The Farkhor Air Base became fully operational in 2006, and 12 MiG-29 bombers and trainer aircraft are planned to be stationed there.India is only the fourth nation after the U.S., Russia and Germany to have a military base in Central Asia.

African Union

India has had good relationships with most sub-Saharan African nations for most of its history.In the Prime Minister’s visit to Mauritius in 1997, the two countries secured a deal to a new Credit Agreement of INR 10.50 crore (3 million USD) to finance import by Mauritius of capital goods, consultancy services and consumer durable from India.The government of India secured a rice and medicine agreement with the people of Seychelles. India continued to build upon its historically close relations with Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Visits from political ministers from Ethiopia provided opportunities for strengthening bilateral cooperation between the two countries in the fields of education and technical training, water resources management and development of small industries. This has allowed India to gain benefits from nations that are generally forgotten by other Western Nations. The South African President, Thabo Mbeki has called for a strategic relationship between India and South Africa to avoid impositon by Western Nations. India continued to build upon its close and friendly relations with Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Sudan, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The Minister of Foreign Affairs arranged for the sending of Special Envoys to each of these countries during 1996-97 as a reaffirmation of India's assurance to strengthening cooperation with these countries in a spirit of South-South partnership. These relations have created a position of strength with African nations that other nations may not possess. inote||Indian Embassy on Indian Influence in Africa

International Organizations

India participates in the following international organisations: [CIA World Fact Book]

ADB-Asian Development Bank, AfDB-African Development Bank (nonregional members), ASEAN Regional Forum, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC-Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation , BIS-Bank for International Settlements, Commonwealth, CERN-European Organization for Nuclear Research (observer), CP-Colombo Plan, EAS, FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA-International Atomic Energy Agency, IBRD-International Bank for Reconstruction and Development] (World Bank), ICAO-International Civil Aviation Organization, ICC-International Chamber of Commerce, ICRM-International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IDA-International Development Association, IFAD-International Fund for Agricultural Development, IFC-International Finance Corporation, IFRCS-International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, IHO-International Hydrographic Organization, ILO-International Labor Organization, IMF-International Monetary Fund, IMO-International Maritime Organization, IMSO-International Mobile Satellite Organization, Interpol-International Criminal Police Organization, IOC-International Olympic Committee, IOM-International Organization for Migration (observer), IPU-Inter-parliamentary Union, ISO-International Organization for Standardization, ITSO-International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, ITU-International Telecommunication Union, ITUC-International Trade Union Confederation (the successor to ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) and the WCL (World Confederation of Labor)), LAS-League of Arab States (observer), MIGA-Multilateral Investment Geographic Agency, MONUC-United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, NAM-Nonaligned Movement, OAS-Organization of American States (observer), OPCW-Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, PCA-Permanent Court of Arbitration, PIF-Pacific Islands Forum (partner), SAARC-South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, SACEP-South Asia Co-opeative Environment Programme, SCO-Shanghai Cooperation Organization (observer), UN-United Nations, UNCTAD-United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNDOF-United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, UNESCO-United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, UNHCR-United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNIDO-United Nations Industrial Development Organization, UNIFIL-United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, UNMEE-United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, UNMIS, UNOCI-United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire, UNWTO-World Tourism Organization, UPU-Universal Postal Union, WCL-World Confederation of Labor, WCO-World Customs Organization, WFTU-World Federation of Trade Unions, WHO-World Health Organization, WIPO-World Intellectual Property Organization, WMO-World Meteorological Organization, WTO-World Trade Organization

United Nations

As a founder member of the United Nations, India has been a firm supporter of the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations, and has made significant contributions to the furtherance and implementation of these noble aims, and to the evolution and functioning of its various specialized programmes. It stood at the forefront during the UN's tumultuous years of struggle against colonialism and apartheid, its struggle towards global disarmament and the ending of the arms race, and towards the creation of a more equitable international economic order. At the very first session of the UN, India had raised its voice against colonialism and apartheid, two issues which have been among the most significant of the UN's successes in the last half century. India exulted in the UN's triumph, and saw in the UN's victory, a vindication of the policy relentlessly pursued by it from its initial days at the world forum.India has been a participant in all its peace-keeping operations including those in Korea, Egypt and Congo in earlier years and in Somalia, Angola and Rwanda in recent years. India has also played an active role in the deliberations of the United Nations on the creation of a more equitable international economic order. It has been an active member of the Group of 77, and later the core group of the G-15 nations. Other issues, such as environmentally sustainable development and the promotion and protection of human rights, have also been an important focus of India's foreign policy in international forums.See more

World Trade Organization

Described by WTO chief Pascal Lamy as one of the organization's "big brothers", [] India was instrumental in bringing down the Doha round of talks in 2008. [] It has played an important role of representing as many as 100 developing nations during WTO summits. []


Certain aspects of India's relations within the subcontinent are conducted through the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Its members are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Established in 1985, SAARC encourages cooperation in agriculture, rural development, science and technology, culture, health, population control, narcotics control and anti-terrorism.

SAARC has intentionally stressed these "core issues" and avoided more divisive political issues, although political dialogue is often conducted on the margins of SAARC meetings. In 1993, India and its SAARC partners signed an agreement to gradually lower tariffs within the region. Forward movement in SAARC has come to a standstill because of the tension between India and Pakistan, and the SAARC Summit originally scheduled for, but not held in, November 1999 has not been rescheduled. The Fourteenth SAARC Summit was held during 3 - 4 April 2007 in New Delhi.

Non-Aligned Movement

Nonalignment had its origins in India's colonial experience and the nonviolent Indian independence struggle led by the Congress, which left India determined to be the master of its fate in an international system dominated politically by Cold War alliances and economically by Western capitalism. The principles of nonalignment, as articulated by Nehru and his successors, were preservation of India's freedom of action internationally through refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance, particularly those led by the United States or the Soviet Union; nonviolence and international cooperation as a means of settling international disputes.Nonalignment was a consistent feature of Indian foreign policy by the late 1940s and enjoyed strong, almost unquestioning support among the Indian elite.

The term "Non-Alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

International disputes

India's territorial disputes with neighboring Pakistan and People's Republic of China have played a crucial role in its foreign policy. India is also involved in minor territorial disputes with neighboring Bangladesh, Nepal and Maldives. India currently maintains two manned stations in Antarctica but has not made any official territorial claims.

India is involved in the following international disputes:


*6.5 km of the border between India and Bangladesh remains to be demarcated.
*Dispute with Bangladesh over South Talpatti Island / New Moore in the Bay of Bengal.
*Ongoing discussions with Bangladesh to exchange 162 minuscule enclaves between the two.


*Kalapani village of India is claimed by Nepal and Nawalparasi district of Nepal is claimed by India.

The dispute between India and Nepal involves about 75 km² of area in Kalapani, where China, India, and Nepal meet. Indian forces occupied the area in 1962 after China and India fought their border war.Three villages are located in the disputed zone: Kuti [Kuthi, 30°19'N, 80°46'E] , Gunji, and Knabe. India and Nepal disagree about how to interpret the 1816 Sugauli treaty between the British East India Company and Nepal, which delimited the boundary along the Maha Kali River (Sarda River in India). The dispute intensified in 1997 as the Nepali parliament considered a treaty on hydro-electric development of the river. India and Nepal differ as to which stream constitutes the source of the river. Nepal regards the Limpiyadhura as the source; India claims the Lipu Lekh. Nepal has reportedly tabled an 1856 map from the British India Office to support its position. The countries have held several meetings about the dispute and discussed jointly surveying to resolve the issue. [The Kathmandu Post, 16 July 1997, 2 July 1997, 31 May 1996; The Hindustan Times (Delhi), 9 June 1997, p. 13; Xinhua 11 April 1997] Although the Indo-Nepali dispute appears to be minor, it was aggravated in 1962 by tensions between China and India. Because the disputed area lies near the Sino-Indian frontier, it gains strategic value. [ [ International Boundary Consultants] ]


*Dispute over Minicoy Island with Maldives.


*The unresolved Kashmir dispute, involving Siachen Glacier.
*Issues of the Ferozpur and Pathankot districts.
*Dispute over Kori Creek and the maritime boundary between the two.

People's Republic of China

*India claims Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract.
*China claims Arunachal Pradesh, a state in north-east India.

Two regions are claimed by both India and China. Aksai Chin is in the disputed territory of Kashmir, at the junction of Pakistan, Tibet and India. India claims the 38,000-square-kilometre territory, currently administered by China. Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India in the country's northeast, bordering on Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China. Though it is under Indian administration, China calls the 90,000-square-kilometre area South Tibet. [ [ CBC News Indepth: China ] ]

ee also

*Indian diplomatic missions
*List of diplomatic missions in India
*Research and Analysis Wing
*Role of India in nonaligned movement


Other Sources

* [ Foreign Relations: Ministry of external affairs, Government of India]
* [ Harvard University homepage] India's Foreign Policy, Xenia Dormandy
* [ Russia-India relations]

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