- USS Enterprise (CVN-65)
USS "Enterprise" (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is the world's first nuclear-powered
aircraft carrierand the eighth U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. Like her predecessor of World War IIfame, she is nicknamed the "Big E"." At 1,123 feet (342.3 m), she is the longest naval vesselin the world, [ List of world's longest ships] though her 93,500 tons displacement places her as the second heaviest supercarrier, surpassed only by the "Nimitz"-class.
"Enterprise" is currently homeported at
Norfolk, Virginia. As one of the oldest carriers in the fleet, she is scheduled for decommissioning some time in 2012-2014. [http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/navycvn21.htm Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress] Retrieved 8 December 2006] Her intended replacement is the USS "Gerald R. Ford" (CVN-78). Her current commanding officer is Captain Ronald Horton.
"Enterprise" was intended to be the first of a class of six, but construction costs ballooned and the remaining vessels were never laid down, resulting in her being the only ship of her class. Because of her expense, "Enterprise" was launched without her originally intended complement of two twin Terrier missile launchers; a later
retrofitadded three Phalanx mounts and two NATO Sea Sparrow missile launchers. In the 2000s her armament was refitted again, gaining two RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missilelaunchers while dispensing with the forward-most Phalanx mount.
"Enterprise" is also the only aircraft carrier to house more than two nuclear reactors. Her eight-reactor propulsion design was rather conservative, with each
A2W reactortaking the place of one of the conventional boilers in earlier designs. She is the only carrier to be fitted with four rudders compared to two for the other classes, and features a more cruiser-like hull. [cite web |url=http://www.nascar.com/2007/news/opinion/06/20/bweber.cedwards.uss.enterprise/index.html |title= The First and the Finest: Aboard the USS Enterprise |accessdate= 2007-07-14]
In addition to having the innovation of nuclear power, "Enterprise" also featured a phased array radar system designed to provide improved tracking of multiple airborne targets relative to conventional rotating antenna radars. Her early phased arrays are responsible for the distinctive square looking island up until their replacement circa 1980. [cite web |url=http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/fun/part07.htm |title= Shipboard Phased-Array Radars (p.6)|accessdate= 2007-07-14]
Commissioning and trials
In 1958 "Enterprise"’s keel was laid at Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. On September 24, 1960 the ship was launched for the first time, sponsored by Mrs. W. B. Franke, wife of the former Secretary of the Navy. On November 25, 1961 the Enterprise was commissioned, with Captain Vincent P. DePoix in command. On January 12, 1962 the ship then made its maiden voyage conducting a three-month shakedown cruise. After commissioning, "Enterprise" began a lengthy series of tests and training exercises designed to determine the full capabilities of the nuclear-powered
1960 to 1969
On February 20, 1962, USS "Enterprise" played a role as the tracking and measuring station for the flight of "Friendship 7", the
Project Mercuryspace capsule in which Lieutenant Colonel John H. Glenn, Jr. made the first American orbital spaceflight. In August of that year, the carrier joined the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean sea, returning to Norfolk, Virginiain October.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soon after, USS "Enterprise" was dispatched to her first international crisis. For some months, the United States had been flying U-2 reconnaissance planes over
Cuba, an island nation convert|90|mi|km off the coast of Florida. During one such flight over Cuba pictures obtained from the spy planes revealed what appeared to be Soviet missiles on the island of Cuba under construction. Fearing the worst, the United States began to prepare for military action against Cuba, moving several Army units to Florida and supporting these units with a strong naval force. President Kennedy ordered a naval and air quarantine on shipment of offensive military equipment to Cuba and demanded the Sovietsdismantle the missile sites there. A blockade of Cuba was imposed. The USS "Enterprise", supported by the carriers USS "Independence", USS "Essex", and USS "Randolph" and backed by shore based aircraft commenced with the blockade. On October 24, on the brink of war, the Second Fleet began a strict quarantine of all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba. By October 28 the Crisis was averted.
1962 to 1969
On December 19, 1962, a
E-2 Hawkeyepiloted by Lieutenant Commander Lee M. Ramseywas catapulted off "Enterprise" in the first shipboard test of nose-tow gear designed to replace the catapult bridle and reduce launching intervals, minutes later the second nose-tow launch was made by an A-6A. During 1963 and 1964, USS "Enterprise"' made her second and third deployment to the Mediterranean, respectively. Also during the third Mediterranean deployment, the carrier was part of the world's first nuclear-powered task force with the USS "Long Beach" and USS "Bainbridge". In October, "Enterprise" returned to Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company for her first refuelling and overhaul, after a trip around the world.
In November 1965, the "Big E" was transferred to the Pacific
Seventh Fleet.The following month, on December 2, she became the first nuclear-powered ship to engage in combat when she launched aircraft against the Viet Congnear Bien Hoa. USS "Enterprise" launched 125 sorties on the first day, unleashing 167 tons of bombs and rockets on the enemy's supply lines. On December 3, 1965, she set a record of 165 strike sorties in a single day.
In January 1968, the capture of USS "Pueblo" by a
North Korean patrol boat led to diplomatic crisis. The USS "Enterprise" was ordered to operate near South Korean waters for almost a month.
In the morning of January 14, 1969, a
MK-32 Zunirocket warhead attached to an F-4 Phantomwas overheated by exhaust from an aircraft starting unit and detonated, setting off fires and additional explosions across the carrier. The fire was brought under control promptly when compared with previous carrier flight deck fires, but 27 lives were lost, and an additional 314 personnel were injured. The fire had destroyed 15 aircraft, the resulting damage forced "Enterprise" to put in for repairs, primarily to repair the flight deck's armored plating. [This [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UKCT0vOnF-Q&mode=related&search= film extract] shows some of the events. The film can also be seen on [http://www.militaryvideo.com/store/store.cfm?titleID=EnterpriseF&do=detail this website] .] In early March 1969, repairs to the ship were completed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaiiand the ship proceeded on her deployment to Vietnam and Tonkin Gulf.
On April 14, 1969, tensions with North Korea flared up again as a
North Korean aircraft shot down an unarmed EC-121 Constellation which was on a routine reconnaissance patrol over the East Korea Sea from its base at Atsugi, Japan. The entire 31-man crew was killed. The United States responded by activating Task Force 71 to protect such flights over those international watersin the future. Initially, the Task Force consisted of the carriers USS "Enterprise", USS "Ticonderoga", USS "Ranger" and USS "Hornet" with a screen of cruisers and destroyers. The ships for Task Force 71 were drawn mostly from Southeast Asia duty. This deployment became one of the largest shows of force in the area since the Korean War.
In all, the USS "Enterprise" made six combat deployments to Southeast Asia from 1965 to 1972.
1970 to 1979
From 1969 to 1970, the USS "Enterprise" returned to Newport News Shipbuilding and went through an overhaul and her second refitting. In January 1971, she completed sea trials with her newly-designed nuclear reactor cores which contained enough energy to power her for the next 10 years. USS "Enterprise" then set sail for Vietnam, again to provide air support for American and South Vietnamese units.
Vietnam, the USS "Enterprise", "Oriskany" and "Midway" accumulated a strike sortie count of 2,001, this had been achieved by July 30, 1971. Strike operations during July were disrupted when the carriers on station evaded three typhoons — Harriet, Kim and Jean. A slight increase in South Vietnamstrike sorties occurred during the month. These were mainly visual strikes against enemy troop positions and in support of US helicopteroperations. From August to November 1971, USS "Enterprise" was in operations on Yankee Station.
In December 1971, the USS "Enterprise" was deployed to the Bay of Bengal to counter India in its war against Pakistan. INS "Vikrant" was used to counter the Enterprise task force;
Soviet Navysubmarines also trailed the US task force. A confrontation was averted when the Americans moved towards South East Asia, away from the Indian Ocean.
In October 1972, the United States ended all tactical air sorties into North Vietnam above the 20th parallel and brought Linebacker I operations to a close. This goodwill gesture of terminating the bombing in North Vietnam above the 20th parallel was designed to help promote the peace negotiations being held in
Paris. The USS "Enterprise" and the other carriers had flown a total of 23,652 tactical air attack sorties into North Vietnam from May to October and US tactical air sorties during Linebacker I operations helped to stem the flow of supplies into North Vietnam, thereby limiting the operating capabilities of the North Vietnamese Army.
From October to December, the USS "Enterprise" alternated with other carriers on
Yankee Stationduring the bombing halt and remained on station. As a result of the bombing halt above the 20th parallel in North Vietnam, no MiG kills or US losses were recorded during this time.
18 December 1972: The United States resumed bombing campaigns above the 20th parallel under the name Linebacker II. During Linebacker II operations, the USS "Enterprise" and other carriers on station reseeded the mine fields in
Haiphongharbor and conducted concentrated strikes against surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery sites, enemy army barracks, petroleum storage areas, Haiphong naval and shipyard areas, and railroad and truck stations. Navy tactical air attack sorties under Linebacker II were centered in the coastal areas around Hanoi and Haiphong. There were 705 Navy sorties in this area during Linebacker II. Between 18 December and 22 December the Navy conducted 119 Linebacker II strikes in North Vietnam, with the main limiting factor on airstrikes being bad weather.
In December 1972: The North Vietnamese returned to the peace table. Linebacker II ended. In January 1973, the
Vietnam cease firewas announced and came into effect, American carriers in theatre canceled all combat sorties into North and South Vietnam.From 28 January 1973, aircraft from the USS "Enterprise" and USS "Ranger" flew 81 combat sorties against lines-of-communication targets in Laos. The corridor for overflights was between Hueand Da Nangin South Vietnam. These combat support sorties were flown in support of the Laotian government which had requested this assistance. Laos had no relationship with the cease-fire in Vietnam.
After the cease-fire in Vietnam, the USS "Enterprise" proceeded to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard,
Bremerton, Washington, where the carrier was altered and refitted to support the Navy's newest fighter aircraft—the F-14 Tomcat. Two of four jet blast deflectors were enlarged to accommodate the Tomcat. The number four propulsion shaft was replaced due to being bent after its screw became fouled in a discarded arresting gear cable.
On 18 March 1974, the first operational
F-14aircraft made its maiden landings and take-offs from the carrier. In September 1974, the USS "Enterprise" became the first carrier to deploy with the new fighter plane when she made her seventh western Pacific (WESTPAC) deployment.
In February 1975, Typhoon Gervaise struck the island nation of
Mauritius. The USS "Enterprise" responded to calls for disaster relief from Mauritius, arriving at Port Louisthe carrier personnel spent more than 10,000 man-hours rendering such assistance as restoring water, power and telephone systems, clearing roads and debris, and providing helicopter, medical, food and drinkable water support to the stricken area.
Operation Frequent Wind
In April 1975, the USS "Enterprise", USS "Midway", USS "Coral Sea", USS "Hancock", and USS "Okinawa" were deployed to waters off Vietnam for possible evacuation contingencies as
North Vietnam, in violation of the Paris Peace Accords, launched a conventional invasion of South Vietnam. On April 29, Operation Frequent Windwas carried out by US Navy and Marine Corps helicopters from the Seventh Fleet. The Operation involved the evacuation of American citizens from the capital of South Vietnam under heavy attack from the invading forces of North Vietnam. The military situation around Saigonand its Tan Son Nhatairport made evacuation by helicopter the only way out. President Gerald Fordordered the evacuation when Viet Congshelling forced the suspension of normal transport aircraft use at Tan Son Nhutairport. With fighter cover provided by carrier aircraft, the helicopters landed on Saigon rooftops and at Tan Son Nhat to evacuate the Americans. The airport became the main helicopter landing zone: it was defended by Marines from the 9th Amphibious Brigadeflown in for that purpose. All but a handful of the 900 Americans in Saigon were evacuated. The last helicopter lifted off the roof of the United States Embassycarrying Marine security guards. During Operation Frequent Wind, USS "Enterprise" aircraft flew 95 sorties.
In July 1976: "Enterprise" began her eighth
WESTPACdeployment.In February 1977, Idi Amin, the President of Uganda, made derogatory remarks against the United States in public and Americans in Uganda were taken hostage. This was several months after the Israeli raid at Entebbe airport. The USS "Enterprise" and her escort ships, having just left Mombasaafter a port call, were directed to remain in the area and operated off the east African coast for approximately one week. At that point the ships were scheduled to be on their way home after a seven-month deployment. The ship's Marine detachment and air wing prepared for a possible mission to rescue and evacuate the Americans, but Amin eventually released all the hostages The ships then steamed across the Indian Ocean at high speed to make their previously-scheduled final port call at NAS Cubi Point in the Philippines, then after dodging a typhoon, transited the Pacific at high speed to return home approximately on time.
In 1978, the USS "Enterprise" underwent her ninth WESTPAC deployment, including port calls in Hong Kong, Mombasa, Kenya; Perth, Australia, and Singapore.
In January 1979, the carrier sailed into
Puget Sound Naval Shipyardfor a 30-month comprehensive overhaul. During this overhaul, the ship's superstructure was modified, removing the SCANFARradars and the unique inverted cone-shaped top section which was 3 stories high. During lengthy overhaul "Enterprise" was referred to as "Building 65" by Navy and Shipyard personnel.
1980 to 1989
In 1982, the carrier underwent her 10th WESTPAC deployment.In April of 1983, USS Enterprise ran aground on a sandbar in San Francisco Bay while returning from deployment and remained stuck there for several hours [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923599,00.html Enterprise runs aground] . Ironically, George Takei, who played Mr. Sulu, helmsman of the fictional starship USS "Enterprise" was aboard at the time.http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiie.htm] ] Takei was a special guest of Navy that day. He and several other VIPs were flown out to the ship via helicopter from Naval Air Station Alameda.Fact|date=July 2007 Even though groundings and collisions are usually career-enders for U.S. warship captains, the captain at the time,
Robert J. Kelly, who had already been selected for promotion to commodore, eventually became a four-star admiral and commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. [ [http://www.cpf.navy.mil/former_commander.htm] ]
In 1984, the carrier underwent her 11th WESTPAC deployment. On November 2, 1985: Struck Bishops Rock on the
Cortes Bankduring exercises damaging outer hull and propeller. She continued operations and later went to dry dock for repairs.
In 1986, the carrier underwent her 12th WESTPAC deployment. On April 28, 1986, the USS "Enterprise" became the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the
Suez Canal. She went from the Red Seato the Mediterraneanto relieve USS "Coral Sea", on station with USS "America" off the coast of Libya. It became the first time in over 22 years that "Enterprise" was in the Mediterranean Sea.
In April of 1988, the USS "Enterprise" underwent her 13th deployment and was assigned to
Operation Earnest Will, escorting reflagged Kuwaiti oil tankers in the Persian Gulf while stationed in the North Arabian Sea.In April of 1988, the USS "Samuel B. Roberts" struck an Iranian mine in international waters. In response, Operation Praying Mantiswas launched in retaliation, against Iranian targets involving both surface and air units. CVW-11 aircraft from the USS "Enterprise" were a major participant. The initial American strikes centered around a surface group action against two Iranian oil platforms that had been identified as support bases for Iranian attacks on merchant shipping. Aircraft from CVW-11 provided air support for the surface groups in the form of surface combat air patrols, flying A-6 Intruders and A-7 Corsair IIs, and combat air patrols with F-14 Tomcats.
In September 1989, the USS "Enterprise" began her 14th overseas deployment. In early December 1989: "Enterprise" and "Midway", participated in
Operation Classic Resolve, President George H.W. Bush's response to Philippine President Corazon Aquino's request for air support during the rebel coup attempt. The USS "Enterprise" remained on station conducting flight operations in the waters outside Manila Bay until the situation subsided, and then proceeded to her scheduled deployment to the Indian Ocean.
1990 to 1999
In March 1990, the USS "Enterprise" completed her highly successful around-the-world deployment by arriving in
Norfolk, Virginia. She had safely steamed more than convert|43000|mi|km from her long-time home port of Alameda, California. In October, the carrier moved to Newport News Shipbuilding for refuelling and the Navy's largest complex overhaul refit ever attempted. During this overhaul, the Navy extended the carrier's 's length from convert|1101|ft|m|0|abbr=on to convert|1123|ft|m|0|abbr=on as well as other refits to extend her service life.
On 27 September 1994: "Enterprise" returned to sea for sea trials, during which she performed an extended full power run as fast as when she was new.
On 28 June 1996, the USS "Enterprise" began her 15th overseas deployment. The carrier enforced no-fly zones in Bosnia as part of
Operation Joint Endeavorand over Iraq as part of Operation Southern Watch. The deployment also marked the end of an era when VA-75 retired the A-6 Intruderfrom the Navy. During the 6 month deployment the ship visited 8 ports. By December 1996 the ship completed her deployment.In February 1997, USS "Enterprise" entered Newport News Shipbuilding for an extended selective restrictive availability lasting four-and-a-half months.
In November 1998, following workups, the USS "Enterprise" departed on her 16th overseas deployment, this time with CVW-3.On the night of November 8, 1998, shortly after the start of the deployment, a
EA-6B Prowlercrashed into an S-3 Vikingon the carrier's flight deck. The mishap occurred when the EA-6B was returning to "Enterprise" following night qualifications and struck the S-3 which was on the flight deck. Both crews were reported to have ejected from their aircraft. A fire broke out involving both aircraft, but was quickly extinguished by the flight deck crew. Three of the four members of the Prowler crew were lost at sea. The remains of the fourth were recovered shortly after the crash. The two crew of the Viking were rushed to the Naval Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia. No other crew members were injured. A search for three EA-6B Prowler crew members was suspended after nearly 24 hours and after covering more than 100 square nautical miles (340 km²) on the water and 700 nautical miles (1300 km)Dubious|date=March 2008 in the air.
On November 23, 1998, USS Enterprise relieved USS "Dwight D. Eisenhower" in the
Persian Gulf. During a port call in Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates, the carrier hosted former President George H.W. Bush and a live concert by Grammy Awardwinning rock group Hootie and the Blowfish. In December 1998, the USS "Enterprise" battlegroup spearheaded Operation Desert Fox, destroying Iraqi military targets with more than 300 Tomahawk land attack missiles and 691,000 pounds (313 tonnes) of ordnance. The 70-hour assault was carried out by USS "Enterprise", USS "Gettysburg", USS "Stout", USS "Nicholson" and USS "Miami. On 23 December 1998, Secretary of Defense William Cohen, flew out to the carrier, bringing along his wife Janet, Senator Daniel Inouyefrom Hawaii, Representative John Murthafrom Pennsylvania, and singers Mary Chapin Carpenter, Carole Kingand David Ball. The Secretary enjoyed lunch with Sailors on the mess deck before he kicked off a concert on the flight deck.
Following operations off Sicily, the carrier was to conduct a port visit in
Cannes, France. However, the Yugoslavian peace talks in Rambouillet, Francedeteriorated and the carrier was ordered back to the Adriaticafter only 24 hours in Cannes.In Early March 1999, the USS "Enterprise" pulled into port at Trieste, Italyfor the last Mediterranean port visit before returning to the Persian Gulf. She relieved USS "Carl Vinson" on 14 March 1999 and took over the helm of Southern Watch; returning home in May of 1999.
During the 1998-1999 deployment, "Enterprise" steamed more than convert|50000|mi|km (80,000 km) and spent 151 days underway. The aircraft of Carrier Air Wing (CVW) were launched nearly 9,000 times, logging approximately 17,000 hours in the sky. The USS "Enterprise" Battle Group was the first to deploy fully IT- 21 capable, affording the team unprecedented internal and external communication channels.
2000 to present
On April 25, 2001, the USS "Enterprise" began her 17th overseas deployment with CVW-8.
From June 18 to June 28, 2001, the carrier and four escorts participated in an exercise with the British
Royal Navyin a joint and combined warfare training exercise in the North Sea, near the Hebrides Islandsand in Scotland.
USS "Enterprise" was beginning her voyage home from the
Persian Gulfwhen the attack of September 11, 2001 were carried out. The carrier, without orders, did a 180 degree turn, came to flank speed, and headed back to the waters off Southwest Asia near the Persian Gulfout running her escorts. In October 2001, the United States launched air attacks against Al Qaedatraining camps and Talibanmilitary installations in Afghanistan. The actions were designed to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a base for terrorist operations and to attack the military capability of the Taliban regime. Over three weeks, aircraft from USS "Enterprise" flew nearly 700 missions and dropped large amounts of ordnance over Afghanistan. In Late October, she returned home.
In November the carrier arrived at her home port of
Norfolk, Virginia, about two weeks later than originally planned. During her last day at sea, the ship hosted a live two-hour broadcast of ABC's's "Good Morning America."
In January 2002, the USS "Enterprise" entered the
Norfolk Naval Shipyardfor a scheduled one-year Extended Docking Selected Restricted Availability.
Iraq and present deployments
From 2003 to 2004, the carrier provided air support for
Operation Iraqi Freedom.In 2004, the ship participated in Summer Surge 2004and several multinational exercises.
From May 2006, the USS "Enterprise" departed for a six-month deployment, however the ship was out for a total of six and a half months. During this deployment the ship visited 8 ports, operated in 6th, 5th and 7th Fleet AORs, and supported both Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. She returned to Norfolk November 18, 2006.
USS "Enterprise" became the first US naval vessel to make port in Cannes, France since the events of September 11, 2001. [cite web|last=Cpl Mecure|first=James M.|title= Thunderbolts, Sidewinders return from 6-month deployment|work=|publisher=|date=December 21, 2007|url=http://www.marines.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/0/EEAC4B79DE130096852573B8004DAD22?opendocument|format=|doi=|accessdate=2007-12-21] In August 2007, the USS "Enterprise" joined the fleet near
Iran. [ [http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=44396 Enterprise Joins Fleet Near Iran] ] In December 2007 the carrier returned home after a 6 month deployment in the Persian Gulf. [ [http://www.charlottesvillenewsplex.tv/home/headlines/12631106.html USS Enterprise Returns Home ] ] April 12, 2008, USS "Enterprise" entered the Northrop Grumman Newport NewsShipyard for a scheduled 18 month Extended Docking Selected Restricted Availability.
Future of the "Enterprise"
USS "Enterprise" is scheduled to be decommissioned in 2012-2014, with the exact year dependent on the state of the nuclear fuel currently in the carrier’s reactors. The subsequent fate of "Enterprise" is, as of yet, unknown. One possibility is that the CVN-65 may end up as an aircraft-carrier
museum ship, because "Enterprise" is the world’s first nuclear powered aircraft carrier and the only remaining ship in the lineage of U.S. Navyships named "Enterprise".
Because of the huge cost of her construction, "Enterprise" was launched and commissioned without the planned Terrier missile launchers. These were never installed and the ship’s self-defense suite instead consisted of three shorter ranged
RIM-7 Sea Sparrow, Basic Point Defense Missile System (BPDMS) launchers. ["Jane's American fighting ships of the 20th century" New York, N.Y. : Mallard Press, 1991. p 89 ISBN 0792456262] Later upgraded to carry two NATO Sea Sparrow (NSSM) and three Mk. 71 Phalanx CIWSgun mounts. ["Encyclopedia Of World Sea Power" by Tony Cullen p.68 ISBN 0517653427] One CIWS mount was later removed and two 21 cell RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missilelaunchers were added. [ [http://www.dodmedia.osd.mil/JCCC/Still/2006/Navy/061031-N-0119G-115.JPEG 061031-N-0119G-115 Stbd side, RAM aft] , [http://www.dodmedia.osd.mil/Assets/Still/2007/Navy/DN-SD-07-21656.JPEG DN-SD-07-21656 Forward Port side, RAM launcher] ]
Notable popular culture
* Scenes for the 1968 movie "Yours, Mine and Ours" were filmed aboard "Enterprise."
* "Enterprise" was supposed to appear in the film "", but she was at sea at the time of filming. Instead, the carrier USS|Ranger|CV-61 played the part of the "Enterprise".
* Parts of the movie "Top Gun" were set aboard "Enterprise"; all of the carrier operation footage was filmed aboard her during carrier qualifications off the coast of
San Diegoprior to her 1986 deployment.
* "Enterprise" was used in the filming of the movie version of
Tom Clancy’s novel " The Hunt for Red October".
* Featured in the
cyberpunknovel " Snow Crash" as the core of a floating refugee city of boats and ships called "The Raft".
List of aircraft carriers
List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy
Carrier battle group
U.S. Carrier Group Tactics
* United States Naval Aviation, 1910-1995, published by the Naval Historical Center
* USS Enterprise (CVN 65) public affairs office
* [http://www.enterprise.navy.mil/ USS "Enterprise" official website]
* "Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships" history of USS "Enterprise" — Page [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiia.htm A,] [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiib.htm B,] [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiic.htm C,] [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiid.htm D,] [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiie.htm E,] and [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiif.htm F]
* [http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/CVN65.htm Naval Vessel Register - CVN-65]
* [http://www.cvan-cvn-65.org/ USS Enterprise Association (Veterans, Current Crew, and Friends of the "Enterprise" (CVN-65) Page]
* [http://www.navysite.de/cvn/cvn65.html "USS Enterprise" webpage]
* [http://www.mooj.com/nps-contacts.htm "The Big E" Reactor & Engineering Department Alumni]
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/aircraft_carriers/enterprise_cvn_65/uss_enterprise_cvn_65_page_1.htm Maritimequest USS Enterprise CVN-65 Photo Gallery]
* [http://www.uscarriers.net/cvn65history.htm USS Enterprise history at U.S. Carriers]
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