Chemical looping combustion

Chemical looping combustion

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) typically employs a dual fluidized bed system (circulating fluidized bed process) where a metal oxide is employed as a bed material providing the oxygen for combustion in the fuel reactor. The reduced metal is then transferred to the second bed (air reactor) and re-oxidized before being reintroduced back to the fuel reactor completing the loop.

Isolation of the fuel from air simplifies the number of chemical reactions in combustion. Employing oxygen without nitrogen and the trace gases found in air eliminates the primary source for the formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx), producing a flue gas composed primarily of carbon dioxide and water vapor; other trace pollutants depend on the fuel selected.



Chemical looping combustion (CLC) uses two or more reactions to perform the oxidation of hydrocarbon based fuels. In its simplest form, an oxygen carrying species (normally a metal) is first oxidised in air forming an oxide. This oxide is then reduced using a hydrocarbon as reducer in a second reaction. As an example, a nickel based system burning pure carbon would involve the two redox reactions:

2Ni(s) + O2(g) → 2NiO(s)… (1)
C(s) + 2NiO(s) → CO2(g) + 2Ni(s)… (2)

If (1) and (2) are added together, the reaction set reduces to straight carbon oxidation – the nickel acting as a catalyst only i.e.:

C(s) + O2(g)CO2(g)… (3)
Fig 1: Sankey diagram of energy fluxes in a reversible CLC system.

CLC dates from the early 1980s when it was proposed as a system for increasing power station efficiency [1]. The gain in efficiency is possible due to the enhanced reversibility of the two redox reactions; in traditional single stage combustion, the release of a fuel’s energy occurs in a highly irreversible manner - departing considerably from equilibrium. In CLC, if an appropriate oxygen carrier is chosen, both redox reactions can be made to occur almost reversibly and at relatively low temperatures. Theoretically, this allows a power station using CLC to approach the ideal work output for an internal combustion engine without exposing components to excessive working temperatures.

Fig 1 illustrates the energy exchanges in a CLC system graphically, and shows a Sankey diagram of the energy fluxes occurring in a reversible CLC based engine. Studying Fig 1, a heat engine is arranged to receive heat at high temperature from the exothermic oxidation reaction. After converting part of this energy to work, the heat engine rejects the remaining energy as heat. Almost all of this heat rejection can be absorbed by the endothermic reduction reaction occurring in the reducer. This arrangement requires the redox reactions to be exothermic and endothermic respectively, but this is normally the case for most metals [2]. Some additional heat exchange with the environment is required to satisfy the second law; theoretically, for a reversible process, the heat exchange is related to the standard state entropy change, ΔSo, of the primary hydrocarbon oxidation reaction as follows:

Qo = ToΔSo

However, for most hydrocarbons ΔSo, is a small value and, as a result, an engine of high overall efficiency is theoretically possible.[3].

Although proposed as a means of increasing efficiency, in recent years, interest has been shown in CLC as a carbon capture technique. Carbon capture is facilitated by CLC because the two redox reactions generate two intrinsically separated flue gas streams: a stream from the oxidiser, consisting of atmospheric N2 and residual O2, but sensibly free of CO2; and a stream from the reducer containing CO2 and H2O with very little diluent nitrogen. The oxidiser exit gas can be discharged to the atmosphere causing minimal CO2 pollution. The reducer exit gas contains almost all of the CO2 generated by the system and CLC therefore can be said to exhibit 'inherent carbon capture', as water vapour can easily be removed from the second flue gas via condensation, leading to a stream of almost pure CO2. This gives CLC clear benefits when compared with competing carbon capture technologies, as the latter generally involve a significant energy penalty associated with either post combustion scrubbing systems or the work input required for air separation plants. This has led to CLC being proposed as an energy efficient carbon capture technology [4][5].

In summary CLC can achieve both an increase in power station efficiency simultaneously with low energy penalty carbon capture. Challenges with CLC include operation of dual fluidized bed (maintaining carrier fluidization while avoiding crushing and attrition), and maintaining carrier stability over many cycles.

See also


  1. ^ Richter, H.J. and Knoche, K.F. (1983). Reversibility of combustion processes, in Efficiency and Costing – Second law analysis of processes.. ACS symposium series. pp. 71–85. 
  2. ^ Jerndal, E., Mattisson, T. and Lyngfelt, A. (2006). "Thermal analysis of chemical-looping combustion". Trans IChemE, Part a Chem. Eng. Res. And Des. 84: 795–806. doi:10.1205/cherd05020. 
  3. ^ McGlashan, N.R. (2008). "Chemical looping combustion – a thermodynamic study". Proc. IMechE, Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 222: 1005–1019. doi:10.1243/09544062JMES790. 
  4. ^ Ishida, M., and Jin, N. (1997). "CO2 Recovery in a power plant with chemical looping combustion". Energy Conv. Mgmt. 38: S187–S192. doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(96)00267-1. 
  5. ^ Brandvoll, Ø. and Bolland, O. (2004). "Inherent CO2 capture using chemical looping combustion in a natural gas fired cycle". Trans. ASME 126: 316–321. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Combustion — This article is about the process of burning. For combustion without external ignition, see spontaneous combustion. For the engine used in mobile propulsion, see internal combustion engine. For the visible part of a fire, see flame. Burning… …   Wikipedia

  • Combustion chimique — Article principal : Séquestration du dioxyde de carbone. La technique de combustion chimique, éventuellement prolongée en boucle chimique (ou CLC : Chemical Looping Combustion pour les anglophones) est une des méthodes envisagées pour… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chemical reactor — In chemical engineering, chemical reactors are vessels designed to contain chemical reactions. The design of a chemical reactor deals with multiple aspects of chemical engineering. Chemical engineers design reactors to maximize net present value… …   Wikipedia

  • Fluidized bed combustion — (FBC) is a combustion technology used in power plants. Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling… …   Wikipedia

  • Oxy-fuel combustion process — Oxyfuel CCS power plant operation Oxy fuel combustion is the process of burning a fuel using pure oxygen instead of air as the primary oxidant. Since the nitrogen component of air is not heated, fuel consumption is reduced, and higher flame… …   Wikipedia

  • Multiphase particle-in-cell method — The multiphase particle in cell method (MP PIC) is a numerical method for modeling particle fluid and particle particle interactions in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation. The MP PIC method achieves greater stability than its… …   Wikipedia

  • Fluidization — (or fluidisation) is a process similar to liquefaction whereby a granular material is converted from a static solid like state to a dynamic fluid like state. This process occurs when a fluid (liquid or gas) is passed up through the granular… …   Wikipedia

  • Fluidized bed — For other uses, see Fluidized bed (disambiguation). Oldest power station utilizing circular fluidized bed technology, in Lünen, Germany A fluidized bed is formed when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding… …   Wikipedia

  • Redox — Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (portmanteau for reduction oxidation) reactions describe all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed. This can be either a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon… …   Wikipedia

  • Fluidized bed reactor — A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) is a type of reactor device that can be used to carry out a variety of multiphase chemical reactions. In this type of reactor, a fluid (gas or liquid) is passed through a granular solid material (usually a catalyst… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”