river_name = Zambezi
caption = The Zambezi and its river basin
origin = Near
Zambia, DR Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania
length = 2,574 km (1,599 mi)
elevation = 1,500 m (4,922 ft)
discharge = 3400 m³/s (126,000 ft³/s) [http://www.gorongosa.net/research/research_documents/Patterns_Hydrological_Change_Zambezi_Delta.pdf Richard Beilfuss & David dos Santos: Patterns of Hydrological Change in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique.] Working Paper No 2 Program for the Sustainable Management of Cahora Bassa Dam and The Lower Zambezi Valley (2001). Estimated mean flow rate 3424 m³/s] [http://www.riob.org/transfrontalier/Bilanglobal.PDF International Network of Basin Organisations/Office International de L'eau:] "Développer les Compétences pour mieux Gérer l'Eau: Fleuves Transfrontaliers Africains: Bilan Global." (2002). Estimated annual discharge 106 km³, equal to mean flow rate 3360 m³/s]
watershed = 1,390,000 km² (537,000 mi²))
The Zambezi (also spelled Zambesi) is the fourth-longest
riverin Africa, and the largest flowing into the Indian Oceanfrom Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 km² (537,000 miles²), slightly less than half that of the Nile. The 2,574 km- (1,600 mile-) long river has its source in Zambiaand flows through Angola, along the borders of Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, to Mozambique, where it empties into the Indian Ocean.
The Zambezi's most spectacular and awesome feature is the beautiful
Victoria Falls, the world's largest waterfall. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Fallsat the border between Zambia and Angola, and Ngonye Falls, near Siomain Western Zambia.
There are two main sources of
hydroelectricpower on the river. These are the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe and the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambiquewhich provides power to South Africa. There is also a smaller power station at Victoria Falls.
Course of the river
The river rises in a black marshy
damboin north-western Zambia, in undulating miombo woodland, quite dense in parts, about 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level. Eastward of the source, the watershed between the Congo and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, falling abruptly north and south, and running nearly east-west. This distinctly cuts off the basin of the Lualaba(the main branch of the upper Congo) from that of the Zambezi. In the neighbourhood of the source the watershed is not as clearly defined, but the two river systems do not connect.
The upper Zambezi
The river flows to the south-west and into
Angolafor about convert|240|km|mi, then is joined by sizeable tributaries such as the Luena and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west. It turns south and develops a floodplain and becomes very variable in width between the dry and rainy seasons. It enters a region with dense patches of evergreen Cryptosepalum dry forest, though on its western side, Western Zambezian grasslands also occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly convert|400|m|ft wide in the rainy season and flows quite quickly with rapidsending in the Chavuma Falls, where the river flows through a rocky fissure. The river drops about convert|400|m|ft in elevation from its source at convert|1500|m|ft to the Chavuma Falls at convert|1100|m|ft, in a distance of about convert|400|km|mi. From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is very uniform, dropping only by another convert|180|m|ft in a distance of around convert|800|km|mi.
The first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the
Kabompo Riverin the north-western province of Zambia. The savannathrough which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with Borassus fan palms. A little farther south is the confluence with the Lungwebungu River. This is the beginning of the Barotse Floodplain, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle
Thirty kilometres (20 mi) below the confluence of the
Lungwebunguthe country becomes very flat, and the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of convert|25|km|mi in the rainy season.KTA, For more than convert|200|km|mi downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life, society and culture.
Eighty kilometres (50 mi) further down, the
Luanginga, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the Luampa/Luena system.
A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is
Lealui, one of the capitals of the Lozi peoplewho populate the semi-autonomous Zambian region of Barotseland. The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui; the other is at Limulunga, which is on high ground and serves as the capital during the rainy season. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the Kuomboka.
After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240 km (150 mi). Before this, the
Ngonye Fallsand subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river briefly borders Namibia's Caprivi Strip. The strip projects from the main body of Namibia, and results from the colonial era: it was added to German South-West Africaexpressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi.
Below the junction of the
Cuando Riverand the Zambezi the river bends almost due east. Here, the river is very broad and shallow, and flows fairly slowly, but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Fallsplunge.
The middle Zambezi
Victoria Fallsare considered the boundary between the upper and middle Zambezi. Below them the river continues to flow due east for about convert|200|km|mi, cutting through perpendicular walls of basalt20 to 60 metres (66 to 200 ft) apart in hills 200 to 250 metres (660 to 820 ft) high. The river flows swiftly through the gorge, the current being continually interrupted by reefs. Beyond the gorge are a succession of rapidswhich end 240 km (150 mi) below Victoria Falls. Over this distance, the river drops convert|250|m|ft.
At this point, the river enters
Lake Kariba, created in 1959 following the completion of the Kariba Dam. The lake is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world, and the hydroelectricpower-generating facilities at the dam provide electricity to much of Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Luangwaand the Kafueare the two largest left-hand tributaries of the Zambezi. The Kafue joins the main river in a quiet deep stream about convert|180|m|ft wide. From this point the northward bend of the Zambezi is checked and the stream continues due east. At the confluence of the Luangwa (15°37′ S) it enters Mozambique.
The middle Zambezi ends where the river enters Lake
Cahora Bassa(also spelled Cabora Bassa). Formerly the site of dangerous rapids known as Kebrabassa, the lake was created in 1974 by the construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam.
The lower Zambezi
The lower Zambezi's 650 km (400 mi) from Cahora Bassa to the Indian Ocean is navigable, although the river is shallow in many places during the
dry season. This shallowness arises as the river enters a broad valley and spreads out over a large area. Only at one point, the Lupata Gorge, 320 km (200 mi) from its mouth, is the river confined between high hills. Here it is scarcely 200 m wide. Elsewhere it is from 5 to 8 km (3 to 5 mi) wide, flowing gently in many streams. The river bed is sandy, and the banks are low and reed-fringed. At places, however, and especially in the rainy season, the streams unite into one broad fast-flowing river.
About 160 km (100 mi) from the sea the Zambezi receives the drainage of
Lake Malawithrough the Shire River. On approaching the Indian Ocean, the river splits up into a number of branches and forms a wide delta. Each of the four principal mouths, Milambe, Kongone, Luabo and Timbwe, is obstructed by a sand bar. A more northerly branch, called the Chinde mouth, has a minimum depth at low water of 2 m at the entrance and 4 m further in, and is the branch used for navigation. 100 km (60 mi) further north is a river called the Quelimane, after the town at its mouth. This stream, which is silting up, receives the overflow of the Zambezi in the rainy season. The delta of the Zambezi is today about half as broad as it was before the construction of the Karibaand Cahora Bassadams controlled the seasonal variations in the flow rate of the river.
The region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 900–1200 m high, composed in the remote interior of metamorphic beds and fringed with the
igneousrocks of the Victoria Falls. At Shupanga, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow sandstones, with an occasional band of limestone, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, and these persist beyond Tete, where they are associated with extensive seams of coal. Coal is also found in the district just below the Victoria Falls. Gold-bearing rocks occur in several places.
The transfrontier Okavango-Zambezi Conservation Park will cover parts of Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Botswana, including the famous Okavango Delta in Botswana and Mosi-oa-Tunya (The Smoke That Thunders, or Victoria Falls). It is thought that the cross-border park will help with animal migration routes and assist in the preservation of wetlands which clean water, as sewage from communities is a problem.
The north of the
Zambezi basinhas mean annual rainfall of 1100 to 1400 mm which declines towards the south, reaching about half that figure in the south-west. The rain falls in a 4 to 6 month rainy seasonwhen the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zonemoves over the basin from the north. Evaporationrates are high (1600mm−2300 mm) and much water is lost this way in swamps and floodplains, especially in the south-west of the basin. [http://www.gorongosa.net/research/research_documents/Patterns_Hydrological_Change_Zambezi_Delta.pdf Richard Beilfuss & David dos Santos: Patterns of Hydrological Change in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique.] Working Paper No 2 Program for the Sustainable Management of Cahora Bassa Dam and The Lower Zambezi Valley (2001)]
Funding boost for cross-border conservation project along the Zambezi in 2008. The Okavango–Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation project — which follows the Zambezi River and stretches across Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe — has received a grant of €8 million from a German nongovernmental organisation. Part of the funds will be used for research in areas covered by the project. However, Angola has warned that landmines from their civil war may impede the project. [ [http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html Funding boost for cross-border conservation project] ]
Tributaries, their basin areas, discharge rates, and region drained
"Upper Zambezi: 507,200 km², discharges 1044 m³/s at Victoria Falls, comprising:":"Northern Highlands catchment, 222,570 km², 850 m³/s at
Lukulu:":* Chifumage River: Angolan central plateau:* Luena River: Angolan central plateau:* Kabompo River: 72,200 km², NW highlands of Zambia:* Lungwebungu River: 47,400 km², Angolan central plateau:"Central Plains catchment, 284,630 km², 196 m³/s (Victoria Falls – Lukulu):":* Luanguingu River: 34,600 km², Angolan central plateau:* Luampa River: 20,500 km², eastern side of Zambezi :* Cuando /Linyanti/Chobe River: 133,200 km², Angolan S plateau & Caprivi""'Middle Zambezi cumulatively 1,050,000 km², 2442 m³/s, measured at Cahora Bassa Gorge:(Middle section by itself: 542,800 km², discharges 1398 m³/s (C. Bassa – Victoria Falls):"Gwembe Catchment, 156,600 km², 232 m³/s (Kariba Gorge – Vic Falls):":* Gwayi River: 54,610 km², NW Zimbabwe:* Sengwa River: 25,000 km², North-central Zimbabwe:* Sanyati River: 43,500 km², North-central Zimbabwe:"Kariba Gorge to C. Bassa catchment, 386200 km², 1166 m³/s (C. Bassa – Kariba Gorge):":* Kafue River: 154,200 km², 285 m³/s, West-central Zambia & Copperbelt:* Luangwa River: 151,400 km², 547 m³/s, Luangwa Rift Valley & plateau NW of it:* Panhane River: 23,897 km², North-central Zimbabwe plateau""'Lower Zambezi cumulatively, 1,378,000 km², 3424 m³/s, measured at Marromeu:(Lower section by itself: 328,000 km², 982 m³/s (Marromeu – C. Bassa)):* Luia River: 28,000 km², Moravia-Angonia plateau, N of Zambezi:* Luenha River/ Mazoe River: 54,144 km², 152 m³/s, Manica plateau, NE Zimbabwe:* Shire River, 154,000 km², 539 m³/s, Lake Malawibasin:Zambezi Delta, 12,000 km²
TOTAL ZAMBEZI RIVER BASIN: 1,390,000 km², 3424 m³/s discharged into delta
Okavango Basinis not included in the figures because it only occasionally overflows to any extent into the Zambezi.
Due to the rainfall distribution, northern tributaries contribute much more water than southern ones, for example: the Northern Highlands catchment of the upper Zambezi contributes 25%, Kafue 8%, Luangwa and Shire Rivers 16% each, total 65% of Zambezi discharge. The large Cuando basin in the south-west on the other hand contributes only about 2 m³/s because most is lost through evaporation in its swamp systems.
Before the dams were built, the lower Zambezi experienced a small
floodsurge early in the dry season as rain in the Gwembe catchment and north-eastern Zimbabwe rushed through while rain in the Upper Zambezi, Kafue, and Lake Malawi basins, and Luangwa to a lesser extent, is held back by swamps and floodplains. The discharge of these systems contributed to a much larger flood in March or April, with a mean monthly maximum for April of convert|6700|m3|cuft per second at the delta. The record flood was more than three times as big, convert|22500|m3|cuft per second being recorded in 1958. By contrast the discharge at the end of the dry season averaged just convert|500|m3|cuft per second.
The dams at Kariba,
Cahora Bassaand Itezhi-Tezhi on the Kafue have changed that pattern completely. Downstream of the dams, the mean monthly minimum–maximum was convert|500|m3|cuft to convert|6000|m3|cuft per second; now it is convert|1000|m3|cuft to convert|3900|m3|cuft per second. Medium-level floods especially, of the kind to which the ecology of the lower Zambezi was adapted, happen less often and have a shorter duration. As with the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam's deleterious effects on the Kafue Flats, this has the following effects:
fish, birdand other wildlifefeeding and breeding patterns disrupted
grasslandafter flooding for grazingwildlife and cattle
* traditional farming and fishing patterns disrupted.The dams have not removed flooding in the lower Zambezi completely. They can't control extreme floods, they have just made medium-level floods less frequent. When heavy rain in the lower Zambezi combines with good runoff upstream, massive floods still happen,
Geological changes to the course of the Zambezi
More than two million years ago, the Upper Zambezi river used to flow south through what is now the
Makgadikgadi Panto the Limpopo River. The land around the pan experienced tectonic uplift(perhaps as part of the African superswell) and a large lake formed, and extended east.
Meanwhile, convert|1000|km|mi east, a western tributary of the
Shire Riverin the Great Rift Valley's southern extension through Malawieroded a deep valley on its western escarpment. At the rate of a few cm per year, this river, the Middle Zambezi, started cutting back the bed of its river towards the west, aided by grabens( rift valleys) forming along its course in an east-west axis. As it did so it captured a number of south-flowing rivers such as the Luangwa and Kafue.
Eventually the large lake trapped at Makgadikgadi (or a tributary of it) was captured by the Middle Zambezi cutting back towards it, and emptied eastwards. The Upper Zambezi was captured as well. The Middle Zambezi was about convert|300|m|ft lower than the Upper Zambezi, and a high waterfall formed at the edge of the basalt plateau across which the upper river flows. This was the first Victoria Falls, somewhere down the Batoka Gorge near where Lake Kariba is now. [ [http://www.zamsoc.org/documents/Summary%20of%20Technical%20Reviews%20Part%202.pdf AWF Four Corners Biodiversity Information Package No 2: Summary of Technical Reviews] Accessed 1 March 2007.] For details of how the falls cuts back its bed to form the gorge, see How the Victoria Falls formed.
Exploration of the river
The Zambezi region was known to
medievalgeographers as the Empire of Monomotapa, and the course of the river, as well as the position of Lakes Ngami and Nyasa, were given broadly accurately in early maps. These were probably constructed from Arabinformation.
The first European to visit the upper Zambezi was
David Livingstonein his exploration from Bechuanalandbetween 1851 and 1853. Two or three years later he descended the Zambezi to its mouth and in the course of this journey discovered the Victoria Falls. During 1858–60, accompanied by John Kirk, Livingstone ascended the river by the Kongone mouth as far as the Falls, and also traced the course of its tributary the Shire and reached Lake Malawi.
For the next 35 years very little exploration of the river took place, but in 1889 the Chinde channel north of the main mouths of the river was discovered. Two expeditions led by Major
A. St Hill Gibbonsin 1895 to 1896 and 1898 to 1900 continued the work of exploration begun by Livingstone in the upper basin and central course of the river. Portuguese explorer Serpa Pintoexamined some of the western tributaries of the river and made measurements of the Victoria Falls in 1878.
The river supports large populations of many animals.
Hippopotamuses are abundant along most of the calm stretches of the river, and many crocodiles are also present. Monitor lizards are found in many places. Birdlife is abundant, with species including heron, pelican, egretand African Fish Eaglepresent in large numbers. Riverinewoodland also supports many large animals, such as buffalo, zebras, giraffes and elephants. However, below Kariba and Cahora Bassa dams, the cessation of annual flooding has seen the area of this habitat greatly reduced and a corresponding reduction in the populations of the large mammals.
The Zambezi also supports several hundred species of
fish, some of which are endemic to the river. Important species include cichlids which are fished heavily for food, as well as catfish, tigerfish, yellowfish and other large species. The bull sharkis sometimes known as the Zambezi Shark after the river but is found around the world. It normally inhabits coastal waters but has been found far inland in many large rivers including the Zambezi. It is an aggressive shark which has been responsible for several attacks on humans.
The population of the Zambezi river valley is estimated to be about 32 million. About 80% of the population of the valley is dependent on
agriculture, and the upper river's flood plains provide good agricultural land.
Communities by the river fish extensively from it, and many people travel from far afield to fish. Some Zambian towns on roads leading to the river levy unofficial 'fish taxes' on people taking Zambezi fish to other parts of the country. As well as fishing for food,
game fishingis a significant activity on some parts of the river. Between Monguand Livingstone, several safarilodges cater for tourists who want to fish for exotic species, and many also catch fish to sell to aquaria.
The river valley is rich in
mineraldeposits and fossil fuels, and coalmining is important in places. The dams along its length also provide employment for many people near them, in maintaining the hydroelectricpower stations and the dams themselves. Several parts of the river are also very popular tourist destinations. Victoria Falls receives over 1.5 million visitors annually, while Mana Poolsand Lake Karibaalso draw substantial tourist numbers.
The river is frequently interrupted by
rapidsand so has never been an important long-distance transport route. David Livingstone's Zambezi Expedition attempted to open up the river to navigation by paddle steamer, but was defeated by the Cahora Bassa rapids. Along some stretches, it is often more convenient to travel by canoealong the river rather than on the unimproved roads which are often in very poor condition due to being regularly submerged in flood waters, and many small villages along the banks of the river are only accessible by boat. In the 1930s and 40s a paddle barge service operated on the stretch between the Katombora Rapids, about convert|50|km|mi upstream from Livingstone, and the rapids just upstream from Katima Mulilo. However, depending on the water level, boats could be paddled through — Lozipaddlers, a dozen or more in a boat, could deal with most of them — or they could be pulled along the shore or carried around the rapids, and teams of oxen pulled barges convert|5|km|mi over land around the Ngonye Falls. [ [http://www.nrzam.org.uk/NRJ/V1N2/V1N2.htm (On www.nrzam.org.uk website accessed 26 February)] E. C. Mills: "Overlanding Cattle from Barotse to Angola", "The Northern Rhodesia Journal", Vol 1 No 2, pp 53–63 (1950).]
Road, rail and other crossings of the river, once few and far between, are proliferating. They are, in order from the source:
Cazomboroad bridge, Angola, bombed in the civil war and not yet reconstructed [ [Visible on Google Earth at lat. -11.906 long. 22.831.]
*Chinyingi suspension footbridge near the town of Zambezi, a convert|300|m|ft|adj=on footbridge built as a community project
*Katima Mulilo road bridge, convert|900|m|ft, between
Namibiaand Seshekein Zambia, opened 2004, completing the TransCaprivi Highwayconnecting Lusakain Zambia with Walvis Bayon the Atlantic coast
*Kazungula Bridge — in August 2007 a deal was announced to replace the Kazungula Ferry, one of the largest river ferries in Southern Africa, with a road bridge where the river is convert|430|m|ft wide
Victoria Falls Bridge(road and rail), the first to be built, completed in April 1905 and initially intended as a link in Cecil Rhodes' scheme to build a railway from Cape Town to Cairo: convert|250|m|ft long
Kariba Damcarries the paved Kariba/ Siavongahighway across the river
*Otto Beit Bridge at Chirundu, road, convert|382|m|ft, 1939
*Second Chirundu Bridge, road, convert|400|m|ft, 2002
Cahora Bassa Damis in a remote area and does not carry a highway across the river
*Tete Suspension Bridge, convert|1|km|m|adj=on road bridge (1970s)
Dona Ana Bridge, railway, (1935), the longest at convert|3|km|mi
*Caia Bridge — construction started in 2007 of a convert|2.3|km|mi|adj=on road bridge to replace the Caia ferry, which, with Kazungula, is the largest ferry across the river There are a number of small pontoon ferries across the river in Angola, western Zambia, and Mozambique, notably between
Monguand Kalabo. Above Mongu in years following poor rainy seasons the river can be forded at one or two places.
effluentis a major cause of water pollutionaround urban areas, as inadequate water treatment facilities in all the major cities of the region force them to release untreated sewage into the river. This has resulted in eutrophicationof the river water and has facilitated the spread of diseases of poor hygienesuch as cholera, typhusand dysentery.
The construction of two major dams regulating the flow of the river has had a major effect on wildlife and human populations in the lower Zambezi region. When the Cahora Bassa Dam was constructed in 1973, its managers allowed it to fill in a single flood season, going against recommendations to fill over at least two years. The drastic reduction in the flow of the river led to a 40% reduction in the coverage of
mangroves, greatly increased erosionof the coastal region and a 60% reduction in the catch of prawns off the mouth due to the reduction in emplacement of siltand associate nutrients. Wetland ecosystems downstream of the dam shrank considerably.
On 14 September 2007,
epizootic ulcerativesyndrome (EUS) killed hundreds of sore-covered fish in River Zambezi. ZambiaAgriculture Minister Ben Kapita asked experts to investigate the outbreak to probe the cause to find out if the disease can be transmitted to humans. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070914/hl_afp/zambiahealthfisheriesdisease_070914142235 Yahoo.com, Zambia warns against fish killed by mysterious disease] ]
Along much of the river's length, the population is sparse, but important towns and cities along its course include the following:
Mongu, Lukulu, Livingstone, & Sesheke(Zambia)
* Victoria Falls &
2007 Mozambican flood
The legend of Nyaminyami
* Bento C.M., Beilfuss R. (2003), "Wattled Cranes, Waterbirds, and Wetland Conservation in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique", report for the Biodiversity Foundation for Africa for the IUCN - Regional Office for Southern Africa: Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Project.
* Bourgeois S., Kocher T., Schelander P. (2003), "Case study: Zambezi river basin", ETH Seminar: Science and Politics of International Freshwater Management 2003/04
* Davies B.R., Beilfuss R., Thoms M.C. (2000), "Cahora Bassa retrospective, 1974–1997: effects of flow regulation on the Lower Zambezi River," "Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnologie", 27, 1–9
* Dunham KM (1994), "The effect of drought on the large mammal populations of Zambezi riverine woodlands", Journal of Zoology, v. 234, p. 489–526
* Wynn S. (2002), "The Zambezi River - Wilderness and Tourism", "International Journal of Wilderness", 8, 34.
* H. C. N. Ridley: “Early History of Road Transport in Northern Rhodesia”, "The Northern Rhodesia Journal", Vol 2 No 5 (1954) — "Re Zambezi River Transport Service at Katombora".
* [http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html Funding boost for cross-border conservation project]
* [http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=310&theme=2 Information and a map of the Zambezi's watershed]
* [http://www.zambezi-expedition.org/index.html Zambezi Expedition - Fighting Malaria on the "River of Life"]
* [http://www.waterandnature.org/eatlas/html/af27.html Map of the Zambezi River basin at Water Resources eAtlas]
* [http://www.zaraho.org.zm/ Zambezi River Authority]
* [http://www.zamsoc.org/ The Zambezi Society]
* [http://www.nature.org/wherewework/greatrivers/africa/ The Nature Conservancy's Great Rivers Partnership works to conserve the Zambezi River]
* [http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/publications/register/images/africa.gifMap of Africa's river basins]
* [http://www.ppl.nl/bibliographies/all/?bibliography=water Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law] See Zambezi River. Peace Palace Library
* [http://www.visitzambia.co.zm/ Visit Zambia Campaign]
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