Microstates and the European Union

Microstates and the European Union

There are a number of microstates in Europe; due to their size, they are often closely linked with another larger state. Currently, the European microstates have special relations with the European Union.

They remain outside the Union, some due to the cost of membership, the EU not being designed with microstates in mind. Two other smaller countries in Europe, Luxembourg and Malta, are full members of the Union. Iceland is considered a microstate by some due to its small population;[1] it is a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), and has applied for membership in the EU (See: Accession of Iceland to the European Union).

San Marino, Monaco, and the Vatican City use the euro and have been granted the right to mint a limited number of euro coins. They were allowed to do so, having used or been tied to the old eurozone currencies, and all have open borders. Andorra also uses the euro and is currently in negotiations with the EU to be granted the right to mint its own coins. Liechtenstein on the other hand uses the Swiss franc.

All but Andorra are part of the Schengen Agreement or have an open border with the Union. San Marino and Andorra are in a customs union with the bloc. Liechtenstein is a member of the EEA so is within the EU internal market and applies certain EU laws. All of the microstates are also part of other organisations such as the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (the Vatican is member only of the OSCE).

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the microstates. Some territories of EU member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European Free Trade Association members and their sovereign territories.

Microstates Application of EU law Enforceable in local courts Schengen Area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Eurozone
 Andorra (details) Minimal Unclear No No Partial[2] No Unilaterally adopted. Formal agreement set to be implemented later[3]
 Liechtenstein (details) Partial Unclear Set to implement later No No Yes[4] No, CHF
 Monaco (details) With exemptions Unclear Yes[5] Yes[5][6] Yes[5][7] Partial[citation needed] Yes[5]
 San Marino (details) Minimal Unclear Open border[8] Partial[9][10] Partial[2] No Yes[9]
 Vatican City (details) No No Open border[11] No No No Yes[9]

See also


  1. ^ http://www.cid.harvard.edu/archive/events/docs/zoega_herbertsson.pdf
  2. ^ a b Customs union with some goods excluded. [1], [2]
  3. ^ Unilaterally adopted the Euro in 2002. Signed monetary agreement] with the EU in 2011. First issue of Andorran euro coins is expected in 2013.
  4. ^ European Economic Area
  5. ^ a b c d Through agreement with France
  6. ^ Commission proposal for Council directive on the common system of value added tax
  7. ^ Article 3(1) of Council Regulation 2913/92/EEC of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code (as amended) (OJ L 302, 19.10.1992, p. 1-50) [3].
  8. ^ Although not formally part of the Schengen area, has an open border with Italy (although some random checks are made by Carabinieri, Polizia di San Marino and Guardia di Finanza).
  9. ^ a b c Through agreement with Italy
  10. ^ part of the excise territory only and not of the VAT territory
  11. ^ Has an open border with Italy and has shown an interest in joining the agreement formally for closer cooperation in information sharing and similar activities covered by the Schengen Information System.[4]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Special member state territories and the European Union — Map of European Union in the world (with overseas countries and territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR)) Several European Union member states have special territories which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special… …   Wikipedia

  • Special Member State territories and the European Union — Map of European Union in the worldlegend|#078002|Overseas countries and territoriesAs of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas and programs or have signed up to do so. However EU law does… …   Wikipedia

  • Foreign relations of the European Union — This article deals with relations between the European Union and third countries. For the workings of foreign policy, see Common Foreign and Security Policy. Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member… …   Wikipedia

  • Third-country economic relationships with the European Union — The European Union has a number of relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union. According to the European Union s official site, and a statement by Commissioner Günter Verheugen, the aim is to have a ring of countries,… …   Wikipedia

  • Monaco–European Union relations — Euro Monegasque relations European Union …   Wikipedia

  • European microstates — The European microstates or ministates are a handful of very small sovereign states on the European continent and the surrounding islands. Microstates are small independent states and they should not be confused with micronations , which are… …   Wikipedia

  • European integration — European Union This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the European Union …   Wikipedia

  • European Neighbourhood Policy — EU neighbouring countries:   European Union …   Wikipedia

  • The Third Wave (book) — infobox Book | name = The Third Wave title orig = translator = image caption = author = Alvin Toffler illustrator = cover artist = country = United States language = English series = genre = Social Science, History, Futurology publisher = Bantam… …   Wikipedia

  • Enlargement of the eurozone — is currently a policy of the European Central Bank, enforced by EU treaties. The first expansion was that of Greece, the currency of which was not irrevocably fixed against the euro until 2001, however, Greece exchanged its physical currency on 1 …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”