- Lysophosphatidic acid
ImageFile = Lysophosphatidic_acid.svg
ImageSize = 250px
IUPACName = (2-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxypropyl) (Z)-octadec-9-enoate
OtherNames = LPA
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 22002-87-5
PubChem = 5497152
SMILES = CCCCCCCCC=C/CCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(COP(=O)(O)O)O
MeSHName = lysophosphatidic+acid
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = C21H41O7P
MolarMass = 436.52 g/mol
Section3 = Chembox Hazards
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a
phospholipidderivative that acts as a potent signaling molecule. There are a number of potential routes to its biosynthesis, but the most well-characterized is by the action of a lyso phospholipase Dcalled autotaxin, which removes the cholinegroup from lyso phosphatidylcholine. LPA acts as a potent mitogendue to its activation of three high-affinity G-protein-coupled receptorscalled LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 (also known as EDG2, EDG4, and EDG7). Additional, newly identified LPA receptors include LPA4 (p2y9/GPR23), LPA5 (GPR92) and LPA6 (GPR87).
Because of its ability to stimulate
cell proliferation, aberrant LPA-signaling has been linked to cancer in numerous ways. Dysregulation of autotaxinor the LPA receptors can lead to hyperproliferation, which may contribute to oncogenesis and metastasis.
Downstream of LPA receptor activation, the small GTPase
Rhocan be activated, subsequently activating Rho kinase. This can lead to the formation of stress fibers and cell migration through the inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase.
Lysophosphatidic acid is also an intermediate in the synthesis of
* Moolenar, W.H., "Lysophosphatidic Acid, a Multifunctional Phospholipid Messenger." J. Biol. Chem. 1995. (270)22:12949. [http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/270/22/12949 Article] .
* Mills, G.B., Moolenaar, W.H., "The Emerging role of lysophosphatidic acid in cancer." Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2003. (8):582. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12894246&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum Article]
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