- Astronomical clock
An astronomical clock is a
clockwith special mechanisms and dials to display astronomicalinformation, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.
The term is loosely used to refer to any clock that shows, in addition to the time of day, astronomical information. This could include the location of the sun and moon in the sky, the age and phase of the moon, the position of the sun on the ecliptic and the current zodiac sign, the
sidereal time, and other astronomical data such as the moon's nodes (for indicating eclipses) or a rotating star map. The term should not be confused with "astronomical regulator", a high precision but otherwise ordinary pendulum clockused in observatories.
Astronomical clocks usually represent the solar system using the
geocentricmodel. The center of the dial is often marked with a disc or sphere representing the earth, located at the center of the solar system. The sun is often represented by a golden sphere, shown rotating around the earth once a day around a 24 hour analog dial. This view accords both with daily experience and with the philosophical world view of pre-Copernican Europe.
Although not a clock in the traditional sense, the 2nd century BC
Antikythera mechanismof ancient Greecewas used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon, and stars at any given point by use of complex mechanical gears. As Cicerolater wrote in the 1st century BC, Posidonius' orrery achieved virtually the same thing.. [Cicero, [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14988 "De Natura Deorum"] , ii, 34.]
11th century, the Song DynastyChinese horologist, mechanical engineer, and astronomer Su Songcreated a water-driven astronomical clock for his clock-tower of KaifengCity. Su Song is noted for having incorporated an escapementmechanism and earliest known endless power-transmitting chain drivefor his clock-tower and armillary sphereto function (for more info see water clock). Contemporary Muslim astronomers and engineers also constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories, [Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). "Miracle of Islamic Science", Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.] such as the timekeeping astrolabeby Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi(Azophi) in the 10th century,cite web|author=Dr. Emily Winterburn ( National Maritime Museum)|url=http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=529|title=Using an Astrolabe|publisher=Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation|year=2005|accessdate=2008-01-22] the castle clock (a water-powered astronomical clock) by Al-Jazariin 1206, [Harvard reference |last=Hill |first=Donald R. |authorlink=Donald Routledge Hill |title=Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East |journal=Scientific American |year=1991 |date=May 1991 |pages=64-69 ( cf.Citation |last=Hill |first=Donald R. |author-link=Donald Routledge Hill |url=http://home.swipnet.se/islam/articles/HistoryofSciences.htm |title=Mechanical Engineering |accessdate=2008-01-22)] and the astrolabic clock by Ibn al-Shatirin the early 14th century. [David A. King (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", "Isis" 74 (4), p. 531-555 [545-546] .]
The early development of mechanical clocks in Europe is not fully understood, but there is general agreement that by 1300 - 1330 there existed mechanical clocks (powered by weights rather than by water and using an
escapement) which were intended for two main purposes: for signalling and notification (e.g. the timing of services and public events), and for modelling the solar system. The latter is an inevitable development, because the astrolabewas used both by astronomers and astrologers, and it was natural to apply a clockwork drive to the rotating plate to produce a working model of the solar system. Medieval researcher Lynn White Jr. wrote: [cite book | last=White | first=Lynn Jr. | title=Medieval Technology and Social Change | date=1966 | publisher=Oxford Press, p.122-123] cquote|Most of the first clocks were not so much chronometers as exhibitions of the pattern of the cosmos . . . Clearly the origins of the mechanical clock lie in a complex realm of monumental planetaria, equatoria, and geared astrolabes.The astronomical clocks developed by Richard of Wallingfordin St Alban'sduring the 1330s, [cite web|last=Whyte|first=Nicholas|title=The Astronomical Clock of Richard of Wallingford|publisher=personal website|url=http://www.nicholaswhyte.info/row.htm|accessdate=2008-04-24] and by Giovanni de Dondiin Paduabetween 1348 and 1364cite web|last=Burnett-Stuart|first=George|title=De Dondi's Astrarium|work=Almagest|publisher=Computastat Group Ltd.|url=http://www.almagest.co.uk/middle/astrar.htm|accessdate=2008-04-21] are masterpieces of their type. They no longer exist, but detailed descriptions of their design and construction survive, and modern reproductions have been made. Wallingford's clock may have shown the sun, moon (age, phase, and node), stars and planets, and had, in addition, a wheel of fortune and an indicator of the state of the tide at LondonBridge. De Dondi's clock was a seven-faced construction with 107 moving parts, showing the positions of the sun, moon, and five planets, as well as religious feast days.
Both these clocks, and others like them, were probably less accurate than their designers would have wished. The gear ratios may have been exquisitely calculated, but their manufacture was somewhat beyond the mechanical abilities of the time, and they never worked reliably. Furthermore, in contrast to the intricate advanced wheelwork, the timekeeping mechanism in nearly all these clocks until the 16th century was the simple
verge and foliotescapement, which had errors of at least half an hour a day. The first astronomical clock to be powered by springs, allowing much greater accuracy, was invented by Taqi al-Dinin 1559.
Astronomical clocks were built as demonstration or exhibition pieces, to impress as much as to educate or inform. The challenge of building these masterpieces meant that clockmakers would continue to produce them, to demonstrate their technical skill and their patrons' wealth. The philosophical message of an ordered, heavenly-ordained universe, which accorded with the Gothic era view of the world, helps explain their popularity.
The growing interest in astronomy during the 18th century revived interest in astronomical clocks, less for the philosophical message, more for the accurate astronomical information that
pendulum-regulated clocks could display.
Here are some notable examples of astronomical clocks.
Su Sung's Cosmic Engine
Science Museum (London)has a scale model of the 'Cosmic Engine', which Su Sungconstructed in China in 1092. This great astronomical clock was about ten meters high (about 30 feet) and was indirectly powered by falling water and mercury. Also there is a full sized working replica of Su Sung's clock in Taiwan's National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung City. This exquisite replica is reported to be 12 meters (40 feet) in height and was painstakingly constructed from Su Sung's original descriptions and drawings.
Al-Jazari's Castle Clock
The most sophisticated water-powered astronomical clock was
Al-Jazari's castle clock, considered to be an early example of a programmable analog computer, in 1206.citation|title= Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots|publisher= History Channel|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8|accessdate=2008-09-06] It was a complex device that was about 11 feet high, and had multiple functions alongside timekeeping. It included a display of the zodiacand the solar and lunar orbits, and a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cartand causing automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour. [Howard R. Turner (1997), "Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction", p. 184. University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292781490.] Routledge Hill, Donald, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", "Scientific American", May 1991, pp. 64–69. ( cf. Donald Routledge Hill, [http://home.swipnet.se/islam/articles/HistoryofSciences.htm Mechanical Engineering] )]
It was possible to re-program the length of day and
nighteveryday in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year, and it also featured five robotic musicians who automatically play music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaftattached to a water wheel. Other components of the castle clock included a main reservoirwith a float, a float chamberand flow regulator, plate and valvetrough, two pulleys, crescent disc displaying the zodiac, and two falcon automata dropping balls into vases. [cite web|author= Salim Al-Hassani|title=How it Works: Mechanism of the Castle Clock|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=901|publisher=FSTC|date=13 March 2008|accessdate=2008-09-06]
Strasbourg Cathedralhas housed three different astronomical clocks since the 14th century.The first clock was built between 1352 and 1354 and stopped working sometime atthe beginning of the 16th century. A second clock was then built by Herlin, Conrad Dasypodius, the Habrecht brothers, and others, between 1547 and 1574. This clock stopped workingin 1788 or 1789 (as it apparently stopped working gradually, each component being disconnectedone after the other). After a lapse of 50 years, a new clock was builtby Jean-Baptiste Schwilgué(1776-1856) and about 30 workers. This clock is housedin the case of the 2nd clock. It shows many astronomical and calendrical functions(including what is thought to be the first complete mechanization ofthe part of the computusneeded to compute Easter) as well as several automata.
:"See that article for an annotated diagram of its functions."One of the most famous of this type of clock is the Old-Town Hall clock in
Prague, Czech Republic. It is also known as the Prague Orloj. The central portion was completed in 1410. The four figures are set in motion at the hour, with Death (represented by a skeleton) striking the time. On the hour there is a presentation of statues of the Apostles at the doorways above the clock, with all twelve presented at noon. In 1870 a calendar display was added below the clock.
World War IIthe clock was nearly destroyed by Nazi fire. The townspeople are credited with heroic efforts in saving most of the parts. It was gradually renovated till 1948. In 1979 the clock was once more cleaned and renovated. According to local legend the city will suffer if the clock is neglected and its good operation is placed in jeopardy.
Olomouc, the former capital of Moraviain the eastern part of the Czech Republic, also has an impressive exterior astronomical clock on the main town square.
Dating originally from 1420, the clock was remodelled approximately once every century. When the retreating Nazi German army passed through Olomouc in the final days of the war in May 1945 they opened fire on the old astronomical clock, leaving only a few pieces (that can now be seen in the local museum). As a result of the serious damage the clock was reconstructed in the style of socialist-realism in the first years of communist rule in Czechoslovakia (late 1940s-early 1950s). The religious and royal figures were replaced with athletes, workers, farmers, scientists and other members of the proletariat, while the
glockenspielwas altered to play three pieces of traditional local music.
The lower dial represents the earthly sphere and indicates minute, hour, day, month, year and phase of the moon. The upper dial represents the heavenly sphere and shows a star map, the sun, earth and planets against a background of the twelve houses of the zodiac. The third and highest level is where the saints and apostles once paraded during the daily musical display (at 12 noon). Their role is now performed by faded-looking volleyball players, auto mechanics and factory workers.
The intricate background mosaic covers the clock's entire height of 14 metres and has representations of the twelve seasons and two traditional festival; the ride of the kings and the procession of maidens.
The Olomouc astronomical clock was featured in the opening scenes of the film "The Joke" based on the book by Milan Kundera.
The most accurate astronomical clock up to the 16th centuryFact|date=September 2008 was the "observational clock" invented by
Taqi al-Dinin his Istanbul observatory of al-Dinand described in his "In the Nabik Tree of the Extremity of Thoughts" (1577-1580). He described it as "a mechanical clockwith three dials which show the hours, the minutes, and the seconds." This was the first clock to measure time in seconds, and he used it for astronomical purposes, specifically for measuring the right ascensionof the stars. This is considered one of the most important innovations in 16th century practical astronomy, as previous clocks were not accurate enough to be used for practical astronomical purposes.cite encyclopedia | first = Sevim | last = Tekeli | title = Taqi al-Din | year = 1997 | encyclopedia = Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures | publisher = Kluwer Academic Publishers| ISBN = 0792340663 | url = http://www.springer.com/philosophy/philosophy+of+sciences/book/978-1-4020-4425-0 ] This was also the first astronomical clock to be powered by springs.cite web|author= Salim Al-Hassani|title=The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction|publisher=FSTC|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947|date=19 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-02]
He further improved the observational clock, using only one dial to represent the hours, minutes and seconds, describing it as "a mechanical clock with a dial showing the hours, minutes and seconds and we divided every minute into five seconds."citation|first=Aydin|last=Sayili|authorlink=Aydin Sayili|title=The Observatory in Islam|year=1991|pages=289-305 (
cf.cite web|author=Dr. Salim Ayduz|title=Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=949|date=26 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]
The astronomical clock in
Lund Cathedralin Sweden, "Horologium mirabile Lundense" was made at the end of the 14th century. After it had been in storage since 1837, it was restored and put back in place in 1923. When it plays, one can hear " In dulci jubilo" from the smallest organ in the church, while six wooden figures, representing the three magiand their servants, pass by Mary and Jesus.
The city hall in
Copenhagenhas a complete astronomical clock, set in an interior glass cabinet. The clock was designed over a period of 50 years by amateur astronomer and professional clockmaker Jens Olsen. Some of the components (such as the computus) were inspired by the Strasbourg clock, which was studiedby Olsen. It was assembled from 1948 to 1955. Between 1995 and 1997 the clock underwent a complete restoration.
The Rasmus Sørnes Clock
Arguably the most complicated of its kind ever constructed, the last of a total of four astronomical clocks designed and made by Norwegian
Rasmus Sørnes(1893-1967), is characterized by its superior complexity compactly housed in a casing with the modest measurements of 0.70 x 0.60 x 2.10 m. Features include locations of the sun and moon in the zodiac, Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar, sidereal time, GMT, local time with day-light saving time and leap year, solar and lunar cycle corrections, eclipses, local sunset and sunrise, moonphase, tides, sunspotcycles and a planetariumincluding Pluto's 248 year orbit and the 25 800 year period of the polar ecliptics ( precessionof the earth's axis). All wheels are in brass and gold plated. Dials are silver plated.
Sørnes also made the necessary tools and based his work on his own observations of the firmament. This remarkable timepiece will probably be the last one ever to be designed and made by hand by one single person as true craftsmanship and a work of art. The result, outstanding for its performance and accuracy, remains a symbol of the transition from the mechanical age, Sørnes' electromechanical pendulum system pointing forward into the age of digital clocks. Having been exhibited at the Time Museum in Rockford, Illinois, and at The Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, the clock was sold in 2002 and its current location is not known. The Rasmus Sørnes Astronomical Clock no.3, the precursor to the Chicago Clock, his tools, patents, drawings, telescope and other items, are exhibited at the Borgarsyssel Museum in Sarpsborg,
There are many examples of astronomical table clocks, due to their popularity as showpieces. To become a master clockmaker in 17th century Augsburg candidates had to design and build a 'masterpiece' clock, an astronomical table top clock of formidable complexity. Examples can be found in museums, such as London's
Palace of Versaillesnear Parishas a sumptuous rococotable top astronomical clock which took 12 years for a clockmaker and an engineer to build. It was presented to Louis XV in 1754.
Currently Edmund Scientific among other retailers offer a mechanical Tellurium clock, perhaps the first mechanical astronomical clock to be mass marketed.
More recently, independent clockmaker Christiaan van der Klaauw created a wristwatch astrolabe, the "Astrolabium" in addition to the "Planetarium 2000", the "Eclipse 2001" and the "Real Moon."
Ulysse Nardinalso sells several astronomical wristwatches, the "Astrolabium," "Planetarium", and the "Tellurium J. Kepler."
Many European countries have examples of astronomical clocks. These include those in:-
Cremona. The Torrazzo, the bell tower of the Cremona Cathedral, contains the largest medieval clock in Europe.
Mantua. The "Palazzo della Ragione" with the "Tower of the Clock"
Venice. St Mark's Clock, in the clocktower on St Mark's Square, was built and installed by Gian Paulo and Gian Carlo Rainieri, father and son, between 1496and 1499.
Exeter. The clock in Exeter Cathedralis one of the group of famous 14th to 16th century astronomical clocks to be found in the West of England. The main, lower, dial is the oldest part of the clock, probably dating from the 1480s.
Wells. The Wells Cathedral clockis an astronomical clock in the north transeptof Wells Cathedral, England. It can be dated to between 1386and 1392.
Ottery St Mary
Hampton Court Palace. The interior facade of the Main Gatehouse contains a fine early example of a post-Copernican astronomical clock.
Rouen.The "Gros Horloge" is a famous astronomical clock with a movement dating back to the 14th century, though the facade is more recent. It is located in the Gros Horloge street.
Lyons. The cathedral also has an astronomical clock from the 14th century.
Münster.St. Paul's Cathedral, includes an astronomical clock of 1540, adorned with hand-painted zodiac symbols, which traces the movement of the planets, and plays a Glockenspieltune every noon.
Esslingen. At the headquarters of [http://www.festo.com Festo] , Professor Hans Scheurenbrand has constructed the "Harmonices Mundi" (named after Kepler's book of the same name), which consists of a technologically sophisticated astronomical clock, a world time clock, and a 74 bell glockenspiel.
Bern. The Zytgloggeis a famous astronomical clock from the 15th century situated in the landmark medieval tower of the same name.
Gdansk. In St. Mary's Church, Gdańskthere is an astronomical clock dating from 1464- 1470, and built by Hans Düringerof Toruń. it was reconstructed after 1945. and many others.
Although each astronomical clock is different, they share some common features. [cite web|last=Burnett-Stuart|first=George|title=Astronomical Clocks of the Middle Ages: A guided tour|date=|work=Almagest|publisher=Computastat Group, Ltd.|url=http://www.almagest.co.uk/middle/astclk.htm|accessdate=2008-04-24]
Time of day
Most astronomical clocks have a
24 hour analog dialaround the outside edge, numbered from I to XII then from I to XII again. The current time is indicated by a golden ball or a picture of the sun at the end of a pointer. Local noon is usually at the top of the dial, and midnight at the bottom. Minute hands are rarely used.
The sun indicator or hand gives an approximate indication of both the sun's
azimuthand altitude. For azimuth (bearing from North), the top of the dial indicates South, and the two VI points of the dial East and West. For altitude, the top is the zenith and the two VI and VI points define the horizon. (This is for the astronomical clocks designed for use in the northern hemisphere.) This interpretation is most accurate at the equinoxes, of course.
If XII is not at the top of the dial, or if the numbers are Arabic rather than Roman, then the time may be shown in Italian hours (also called Bohemian, or Old Czech, hours). In this system, 0 o'clock occurs at sunset, and counting continues through the night and into the next afternoon, reaching 24 an hour before sunset.
In the photograph of the Prague clock shown above, the time indicated by the sun hand is about noon (XII in Roman numerals), or about the 17th hour (Italian time in Arabic numerals).
Calendar and zodiac
The year is usually represented by the 12 signs of the
zodiac, arranged either as a concentric circle inside the 24 hour dial, or drawn onto a displaced smaller circle, which is a projection of the ecliptic, the path of the sun and planets through the sky, and the plane of the earth's orbit.
The ecliptic plane is projected onto the face of the clock, and, because of the earth's tilted angle of rotation relative to its orbital plane, it is displaced from the center and appears to be distorted. The projection point for the
stereographic projectionis the North pole; on astrolabesthe South pole is more common.
The ecliptic dial makes one complete revolution in 23 hours 56 minutes (a
siderealday), and will therefore gradually get out of phase with the hour hand, drifting slowly further apart during the year.
To find the date, find the place where the hour hand or sun disk intersects the ecliptic dial: this indicates the current star sign, the sun's current location on the ecliptic. The intersection point slowly moves round the ecliptic dial during the year, as the sun moves out of one
In the photograph of the Prague clock shown above, the sun's disk has recently moved into Aries (the stylized ram's horns), having left Pisces. The date is therefore late March or early April.
If the zodiac signs run around inside the hour hands, either this ring rotates to align itself with the hour hand, or there's another hand, revolving once per year, which points to the sun's current zodiac sign.
A dial or ring indicating the numbers 1 to 29 or 30 indicates the moon's age: a new moon is 0, waxes and become full around day 15, and then wanes up to 29 or 30. The phase is sometimes shown by a rotating globe or black hemisphere, or a window that reveals part of a wavy black shape beneath.
Unequal hourswere the result of dividing up the period of daylight into 12 equal hours, and night time into another 12. In Europe, there's more daylight in the summer, and less night, so each of the 12 daylight hours is longer than a night hour. Similarly in winter, daylight hours are shorter, and night hours are longer. These unequal hours are shown by the curved lines radiating from the center. The longer daylight hours in summer can usually be seen at the outer edge of the dial, and the time in unequal hours is read by noting the intersection of the sun hand with the appropriate curved line.
Astrologers placed importance on how the sun, moon, and planets were arranged and aligned in the sky. If certain planets appeared at the points of a triangle, hexagon, or square, or if they were opposite or next to each other, the appropriate aspect was used to determine the event's significance. On some clocks you can see the common aspects - triangle, square, and hexagon - drawn inside the central disk, with each line marked by the symbol for that aspect, and you may also see the signs for conjunction and opposition. On an astrolabe, the corners of the different aspects could be lined up on any of the planets. On a clock, though, the disk containing the aspect lines can't be rotated at will, so they usually show only the aspects of the sun or moon.
In the photograph of the Brescia clock above, the triangle, square, and star in the center of the dial show these aspects (the third, fourth, and sixth phases) of (presumably) the moon.
Dragon hand: eclipse prediction and lunar nodes
The moon's orbit isn't in the same plane as the earth's orbit around the sun, but crosses it in two places. The moon crosses the ecliptic plane twice a month, once when it goes up above the plane, and again 15 or so days later when it goes back down below the ecliptic. These two locations are the ascending and descending
lunar nodes. Solar and lunar eclipses will occur only when the moon is positioned near one of these nodes, because at other times the moon is either too high or too low for an eclipse to be noticed from earth. Some astronomical clocks keep track of the position of the lunar nodes with a long pointer that crosses the dial. This so-called dragon hand makes one complete rotation every 19 years. When the dragon hand and the new moon coincide, the moon is on the same plane as the earth and sun, and so there is every chance that an eclipse will be visible from somewhere on earth.
*Joseph, Needham (1986). "Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering". Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
* John North. "God's Clockmaker, Richard of Wallingford and the invention of time". Hambledon and London, 2005.
* Tor Sørnes. "The Clockmaker Rasmus Sørnes". Borgarsyssel Museum, Sarpsborg Norway, 2003 Norwegian edition, and 2006 English edition.
* King, Henry "Geared to the Stars: the evolution of planetariums, orreries, and astronomical clocks", University of Toronto Press, 1978
*cite web|last=Burnett-Stuart|first=George|title=Astronomical Clocks of the Middle Ages: A guided tour|date=|work=Almagest|publisher=Computastat Group, Ltd.|url=http://www.almagest.co.uk/middle/astclk.htm|accessdate=2008-04-24
* [http://www.annosphere.com The Annosphere, a contemporary astronomical clock]
* [http://www.ens-lyon.fr/RELIE/Cadrans/ Les Cadrans Solaires (Sundials)] , also showing European astronomical clocks fr icon
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