Mail coach

Mail coach
Print showing a mail coach decorated in black and scarlet Royal Mail livery near Newmarket, Suffolk in 1827. Guard can be seen standing at rear

In Great Britain, the mail coach or post coach was a horse-drawn carriage that carried mail deliveries, from 1784. In Ireland, the first mail coach began service from Dublin in 1789. The coach was drawn by four horses and had seating for four passengers inside. Further passengers were later allowed to sit outside with the driver. The mail was held in a box to the rear, where a Royal Mail post office guard stood.

The mail coach was faster than the stage coach as it only stopped for delivery of mail and generally not for the comfort of the passengers. They were slowly phased out during the 1840s and 1850s, their role being replaced by trains as the railway network expanded.


History in Britain

The postal delivery service in Britain had existed in the same form for about 150 years - from its introduction in 1635, mounted carriers had ridden between "posts" where the postmaster would remove the letters for the local area before handing the remaining letters and any additions to the next rider. The riders were frequent targets for robbers, and the system was inefficient.[1]

John Palmer, a theatre owner from Bath, believed that the coach service he had previously run for transporting actors and materials between theatres could be utilised for a countrywide mail delivery service, so in 1782, he suggested to the Post Office in London that they take up the idea. He met resistance from officials who believed that the existing system could not be improved, but eventually the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Pitt, allowed him to carry out an experimental run between Bristol and London. Under the old system the journey had taken up to 38 hours. The coach, funded by Palmer, left Bristol at 4pm on 2 August 1784 and arrived in London just 16 hours later.[1]

Impressed by the trial run, Pitt authorised the creation of new routes. By the end of 1785 there were services from London to Norwich, Liverpool, Leeds, Dover, Portsmouth, Poole, Exeter, Gloucester, Worcester, Holyhead and Carlisle. A service to Edinburgh was added the next year and Palmer was rewarded by being made Surveyor and Comptroller General of the Post Office.[1]

Initially the coach, horses and driver were all supplied by contractors. There was strong competition for the contracts as they provided a fixed regular income on top of which the companies could charge fares for the passengers. By the beginning of the 19th century the Post Office had their own fleet of coaches with black and scarlet livery.[2] The early coaches were poorly built, but in 1787 the Post Office adopted John Besant's improved and patented design, after which Besant, with his partner John Vidler, enjoyed a monopoly on the supply of coaches, and a virtual monopoly on their upkeep and servicing.[1]

The mail coaches continued unchallenged until the 1830s but the development of railways spelt the end for the service. The first rail delivery between Liverpool and Manchester took place on 11 November 1830. By the early 1840s other rail lines had been constructed and many London-based mail coaches were starting to be withdrawn from service; the final service from London (to Norwich) was shut down in 1846. Regional mail coaches continued into the 1850s, but these too were eventually replaced by rail services.[1]


The mail coaches were originally designed for a driver, seated outside, and up to four passengers inside. The guard (the only Post Office employee on the coach) travelled on the outside at the rear next to the mail box. Later a further passenger was allowed outside, sitting at the front next to the driver, and eventually a second row of seating was added behind him to allow two further passengers to sit outside. Travel could be uncomfortable as the coaches travelled on poor roads and passengers were obliged to dismount from the carriage when going up steep hills to spare the horses (as Charles Dickens describes at the beginning of A Tale of Two Cities). The coaches averaged 7 to 8 mph (11–13 km/h) in summer and about 5 mph (8 km/h) in winter but by the time of Queen Victoria the roads had improved enough to allow speeds of up to 10 mph (16 km/h). Fresh horses were supplied every 10 to 15 miles (16–24 km).[1] Stops to collect mail were short and sometime there would be no stops at all with the guard throwing the mail off the coach and snatching the new deliveries from the postmaster.

The cost of travelling by mail coach was about 1d. a mile more expensive than by private stage coach, but the coach was faster and, in general, less crowded and cleaner. Crowding was a common problem with private stage coaches, which led to them overturning; the limits on numbers of passengers and luggage prevented this occurring on the mail coaches. Travel on the mail coach was nearly always at night; as the roads were less busy the coach could make better speed.[2]

The guard was heavily armed with a blunderbuss and two pistols and dressed in the Post Office livery of scarlet and gold. The mail coaches were thus well defended against highwaymen, and accounts of robberies often confuse them with private stage coaches, though robberies did occur.[3] To prevent corruption and ensure good performance, the guards were paid handsomely and supplied with a generous pension. The mail was their sole charge, meaning that they had to deliver it on foot if a problem arose with the coach and, unlike the driver, they remained with the coach for the whole journey; occasionally guards froze to death from hypothermia in their exposed position outside the coach during the harsh winters (see River Thames frost fairs). The guard was supplied with a timepiece and a posthorn, the former to ensure the schedule was met, the latter to alert the post house to the imminent arrival of the coach and warn tollgate keepers to open the gate (a fine was payable if the coach was forced to stop). Since the coaches had right of way on the roads the horn was also used to advise other road users of their approach.[2]

History in Ireland

A twice-weekly stage coach service operated between Dublin and Drogheda to the north, Kilkenny to the south and Athlone to the west as early as 1737 and for a short period from 1740, a Dublin to Belfast stage coach existed. In Winter, this route took three days, with overnight stops at Drogheda and Newry. In Summer, travel time was reduced to two days.[4] In 1789 mail coaches began a scheduled service from Dublin to Belfast They met the mail boats coming from Portpatrick in Scotland at Donaghadee, in County Down.[5] By the mid-19th century, most of the mail coaches in Ireland were eventually out-competed by Charles Bianconi's country-wide network of open carriages, before this system in turn succumbed to the railways.[6]

Late 19th century US Mail wagon


  1. ^ a b c d e f "The Mail Coach Service". The Royal Mail: Postal Heritage Trust. 2005. Retrieved 31 October 2006. 
  2. ^ a b c Paul Ailey (2004). "Mail Coaches". Bishops Stortford Tourist Information. Retrieved 31 October 2006. 
  3. ^ "Broadside entitled "Robbery of the Mail Coach"". National Library of Scotland. 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2006. 
  4. ^ Connolly, Sean (2008). Divided Kingdom: Ireland 1630-1800. US: Oxford University Press. pp. 17. ISBN 9780199543472. 
  5. ^ McCutcheon,, William Alan; Dept. of the Environment (1984). The industrial archaeology of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. pp. 395. ISBN 9780838631256. 
  6. ^ Super, R.H. (1991). The Chronicler of Barsetshire: A Life of Anthony Trollope (reprint ed.). University of Michigan Press. pp. 61. ISBN 9780472081394. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • mail-coach — [ mɛlkotʃ ] n. m. • 1802; mot angl. « malle poste » ♦ Anciennt Berline à quatre chevaux, comportant plusieurs rangs de banquettes sur le toit. Des mail coachs ou des mail coaches. ⇒MAIL COACH, subst. masc. TRANSP. Berline attelée de quatre… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Mail Coach — des années 1820 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mail coach — des années 1820 Estampe montrant un mail coach aux couleurs noir et rouge de la Poste …   Wikipédia en Français

  • mail-coach — mailˈ cart, mailˈ coach, mailˈ car, mailˈ carriage, mailˈ drag or mailˈ gig noun 1. A cart, etc, formerly used to carry the public mail 2. A small hand cart, with long handles, for the conveyance of children • • • Main Entry: ↑mail …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mail-coach — (engl., spr. mehl kohtsch), s. Mail …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Mail-coach — (engl., spr. Mehl Kohtsch), Wagen[736] der englischen Schnellposten, welche zugleich Briefpostpackete mitnehmen …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Mail-coach — (spr. mēl kōtsch), »Postkutsche«, großer, geschlossener Luxuswagen für Viererzug mit Sitzen für 8–12 Personen, auch Damen, auf dem Verdeck. Die M. dient jetzt vielfach zur Personenbeförderung, auch zu Spazierfahrten in großen Städten.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • mail ou mail-coach, mail-coaches ou mail-coachs — ● mail ou mail coach, mail coaches ou mail coachs nom masculin (anglais mail coach, malle poste) Berline attelée de quatre chevaux, avec plusieurs rangs de banquettes sur le dessus de la voiture …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • mail coach — coach that carries the public mail …   English contemporary dictionary

  • mail coach — Synonyms and related words: autobus, bus, cab, carrier, carrier pigeon, chartered bus, diligence, double decker, hack, hired car, homer, homing pigeon, jitney, mail car, mail packet, mail train, mail truck, mailer, mailplane, motor coach,… …   Moby Thesaurus

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”