Nonactin

Nonactin
Nonactin
Identifiers
CAS number 6833-84-7 YesY
PubChem 72519
ChEMBL CHEMBL415914 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C40H64O12
Molar mass 736.92896 g/mol
Melting point

146 °C, 419 K, 295 °F

 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Nonactin is a member of a family of naturally occurring cyclic ionophores known as the macrotetrolide antibiotics. The other members of nactins homologous family are monactin, dinactin, trinactin and tetranactin which are all neutral ionophoric substances and higher homologs of nonactin. Collectively, this class is known as the nactins. Nonactin is soluble in methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and DMSO, but insoluble in water.

Contents

Sources

Nonactin is commercially available; as of 2006, there are three bacterial species that produce nonactin: Streptomyces tsukubaensis, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces chrysomallus and Streptomyces werraensis. Total syntheses have been reported.[1][2]

Structure and properties

Nonactin was isolated by Corbaz et al. in 1955 from bacterial strains.[3] It is composed of four tetrahydrofuran rings and four esters linked by saturated aliphatic chain sections. Nonactin has a 48-member ring, built from 40 carbon and 12 (8 on the ring, 4 as ketones) oxygen atoms. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) offers a modern approach to obtain more detailed process control data than the spectrophotometric and chromatographic measurements used in the past.[4]

Reactions

Nonactin is known for its ability to form complexes with alkali cations, most notably potassium and sodium. In general, nonactin (and other members of the nactin family) exhibits binding preferences for some ions over others. This ion selectivity is seen in other macrocyclic ligands such as the cyclic ionophore valinomycin, which is also an antibiotic, and crown ethers. Although nonactin (and in fact, all nactins) exhibits an especially high cation selectivity for potassium ions over sodium ions or rubidium ions, it exhibits the highest selectivity for ammonium ions and thallium ions.

Due to this property, Nonactin is also called "Ammonium ionophore"[5][6]

During complexation, the nonactin backbone convolutes into a pattern resembling the seam of a tennis ball. In the potassium-nonactin complex, the potassium ion is entirely surrounded by four carbonyl oxygen atoms and the four oxygen atoms of the tetrahydrofuran ring. These eight oxygen atoms surrounding the ion are nearly equidistant from it and adopt a nearly cubic coordination sphere around the ion. In this complex, all polar carbonyl groups point inwards and nonpolar moieties point outwards, thus building up a hydrophobic exterior for the complex and making it soluble in lipid membranes. This is how nonactin is able to transport potassium ions across lipid membranes.

Biological effects

Nonactin has been reported to specifically inhibit the processing of cytoplasmic precursor proteins destined for the mitochondria. It is able to uncouple the oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria of rat liver in a low concentration, and can also carry cations across biological and artificial membranes.[citation needed]

A nactins mixture, purposely enriched in tetranactin and poor in nonactin, known as Polynactin(c), was used as a pesticide, but since 2004 is not used any more, presumably because its residuals appeared in food.[7]

Applications

There is no known medical use of nactins. Ultrapure nonactin, practically free of other nactins, is used for ammonium specific electrodes.

References

  1. ^ Ian Fleming and Sunil K. Ghosh (1994). "A total synthesis of nonactin". Journal of the Chemical Society Chemical Communications (19): 2287. doi:10.1039/C39940002287. 
  2. ^ Ju Y.L.; Byeang H.K. (1996). "Total synthesis of nonactin". Tetrahedron 52 (2): 571. doi:10.1016/0040-4020(95)00913-2. 
  3. ^ R. Corbaz, L. Ettlinger, E. Gäumann, W. Keller-Schierlein, F. Kradolfer, L. Neipp, V. Prelog, H. Zähner (1955). "Stoffwechselprodukte von Actinomyceten. 3. Mitteilung. Nonactin". Helvetica Chimica Acta 38 (6): 1445–1448. doi:10.1002/hlca.19550380617. 
  4. ^ Jani P., Emmert J., Wohlgemuth R. (2008). "Process analysis of macrotetrolide biosynthesis during fermentation by means of direct infusion LC-MS". Biotechn. J. 3 (2): 202–208. doi:10.1002/biot.200700174. PMID 18064609. 
  5. ^ Nonactin product page from Fermentek
  6. ^ Nonactin Bulletin
  7. ^ Notification, the World Trade Organization's revocation of Polynactin agricultural usage, July 20, 2004.

Further reading


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • nonactin — noun A particular macrotetrolide antibiotic …   Wiktionary

  • Ionophor — Ein Ionophor ist ein Molekül, das Ionen durch eine Membran transportiert. Einige Bakterien bilden Ionophore, also Moleküle, die die Permeabilität von Membranen für Ionen erhöhen. Oft haben solche Moleküle eine antibiotische Wirkung, da sie das… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gramicidin — drugbox IUPAC name=Bacillus brevis gramicidin D CAS number=1405 97 6 ATC prefix=R02 ATC suffix=AB30 ATC supplemental= PubChem= DrugBank=BTD00036 C=99 | H=140 | N=20 | O=17 molecular weight=1882.3 g/mol bioavailability= protein bound= metabolism=… …   Wikipedia

  • Ionophore — An ionophore is a lipid soluble molecule usually synthesized by microorganisms to transport ions across the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. There are two broad classifications of ionophores. # Small molecules (mobile ion carriers) that bind… …   Wikipedia

  • Fermentek — Infobox Company company name = Fermentek Biotechnology Ltd. company type = Private company foundation = 1995 location = Israel key people = Yosef Behrend , CEO industry = Biotechnology products = Special bioactive compounds for research divisions …   Wikipedia

  • Cryptand — Kronenether sind cyclische Ether, deren schematischer Aufbau in der Abfolge von Ethylenoxyeinheiten (–CH2–CH2–O–) an eine Krone erinnert. Sie wurden von Charles Pedersen, einem Chemiker bei DuPont entdeckt (Pedersen 1967). Für diese Entdeckung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hart-weich-Prinzip — Die Komplexchemie (Koordinationschemie) ist der Bereich der Anorganischen Chemie, der sich mit chemischen Komplexverbindungen befasst. Grubbs Katalysatoren (Chemienobelpreis 2005) Ein Komplex (oder Koordinationsverbindung) ist eine Struktur, bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Komplex (Chemie) — Die Komplexchemie (Koordinationschemie) ist der Bereich der Anorganischen Chemie, der sich mit chemischen Komplexverbindungen befasst. Grubbs Katalysatoren (Chemienobelpreis 2005) Ein Komplex (oder Koordinationsverbindung) ist eine Struktur, bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Komplexbildner — Die Komplexchemie (Koordinationschemie) ist der Bereich der Anorganischen Chemie, der sich mit chemischen Komplexverbindungen befasst. Grubbs Katalysatoren (Chemienobelpreis 2005) Ein Komplex (oder Koordinationsverbindung) ist eine Struktur, bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Komplexbildungskonstante — Die Komplexchemie (Koordinationschemie) ist der Bereich der Anorganischen Chemie, der sich mit chemischen Komplexverbindungen befasst. Grubbs Katalysatoren (Chemienobelpreis 2005) Ein Komplex (oder Koordinationsverbindung) ist eine Struktur, bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”