Locomotives of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway

Locomotives of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway

The London, Midland and Scottish Railway had the largest stock of steam locomotives of any of the 'Big Four' pre-Nationalisation railway companies. Despite early troubles arising from factions within the new company, the LMS went on to build some moderately successful designs; many lasted until the end of steam traction on British Railways in 1968. For an explanation of numbering and classification, see British Rail locomotive and multiple unit numbering and classification. Various locomotives were inherited from pre-grouping companies. Those from the smaller railways, and hence non-standard, were withdrawn quite early, while ex-Midland, LNWR and L&YR types persisted.

The Midland had long had a 'small engine policy', i.e. that it preferred small engines hauling frequent, fairly short trains, and employing a second locomotive (double-heading) where necessary. Unfortunately this practice, while emininently suitable for the route from Sheffield, Derby and Nottingham to London was not at all suited to the route from Euston to Glasgow via Crewe, Preston and Carlisle (the 'West Coast Main Line') and it took several years to convince the senior staff responsible for such matters that this was the case.

The first sign of the change was the Royal Scot class 4-6-0s of 1927, officially designed by Fowler, but actually designed by the North British Locomotive Company with approval from Fowler. Even so, the majority of designs continued to be very much Midland in character.

This changed when Stanier arrived. His large, streamlined 'Princess Coronation' class engines were iconic and flew the flag for the LMS against the competing Class A4 of the London and North Eastern Railway, even though they were slightly modernised copies of the GWR King Class of 1927.

Locomotives acquired from constituent companies

See LMS locomotive numbering and classification for an explanation of the numbers allocated to inherited locomotives and the power classification system used below.

Ex-Midland Railway

The Midland shaped the subsequent LMS locomotive policy until 1933. Its locomotives (which it always referred to as engines) followed its small engine policy, with numerous class 2F, 3F and 4F 0-6-0s for goods work, 2P and 4P 4-4-0s for passenger work, 0-4-4T and 0-6-0T tank engines. The only exception to this was its 0-10-0 banking engine for the Lickey Incline.

Ex-London and North Western Railway

Ex-Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway

*L&YR Class 5 (2P)
*L&YR Class 21 "Pug" (0F)
*L&YR Class 23 (2F)
*L&YR Class 25 (2F)
*L&YR Class 27 (3F)
*L&YR Class 28

Ex-North Staffordshire Railway

* NSR 0-6-0T No. 131
* NSR 0-6-2T No. 165
* NSR 0-6-4T No. 173

Ex-Caledonian Railway

The class number used for Caledonian Railway engines was the stock number of the first member of the class to reach traffic. Hence earlier numbered classes could well have appeared later in time.

*Caledonian Railway 19 Class (2P)
*Caledonian Railway 29 Class (3F)
*Caledonian Railway 60 Class (4P)
*Caledonian Railway 72 Class (3P)
*Caledonian Railway 92 Class (2P)
*Caledonian Railway 123 Class (1P)
*Caledonian Railway 294 Class (3F)
*Caledonian Railway 431 Class (2P)
*Caledonian Railway 439 Class (2P)
*Caledonian Railway 498 Class (2F)
*Caledonian Railway 652 Class (3F)
*Caledonian Railway 670 Class (3F)
*Caledonian Railway 713 Class (3P)
*Caledonian Railway 782 Class (3F)
*Caledonian Railway 812 Class (3F)
*Caledonian Railway 918 Class (3P)
*Caledonian Railway 939 Class
*Caledonian Railway 956 Class

Ex-Furness Railway

The Furness was a small company with a correspondingly small locomotive stock. It is known best for the Baltic tanks (which seemed to be a little more successful than the L & Y examples of the same arrangement).

The Baltics did not survive for long.

The only class that survived as far as nationalisation were some moderate sized 0-6-0 tender engines classified '3F' by the LMS. Six were still in traffic as of 31st August 1948.

Ex-Glasgow and South Western Railway

Ex-Highland Railway

During William Barclay's incumbency as locomotive superintendent (1855-65) 2-2-2 and 2-4-0 locomotives were built, along with a solitary 0-4-0T. Many of these would later be rebuilt by Stroudley or Jones - most of the 2-2-2s ended up as 2-4-0s and one became a 2-2-2T, a pair of 2-4-0s became 4-4-0s and the 0-4-0T became an 0-4-2T. Of 57 Barclay engines built, only 4 much rebuilt examples were still in stock at the time of the Grouping.

William Stroudley (locomotive superintendent 1865-69) produced only one new design, an 0-6-0ST of which 3 were built. These survived to pass into LMS ownership.

David Jones (locomotive superintendent 1870-96) designed several classes of 4-4-0, and was also notable for introducing the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement to the UK. He also produced small numbers of 0-4-4ST, 2-4-0, 2-4-0T and 4-4-0T locomotives. Of 88 engines built to Jones' design (including 3 built as late as 1917), 74 passed to the LMS in 1923.

Under Peter Drummond (locomotive superintendent 1896-1912), new 0-4-4T, 0-6-0T, 0-6-4T, 0-6-0, 4-4-0 and 4-6-0 designs emerged. All 72 locomotives passed to the LMS.

Frederick Smith's brief tenure (1912-15) was cut short by a dispute over his sole design, the 'River' Class 4-6-0. Six locomotives were built, but they were (wrongly) considered to be too heavy for the Highland Railway, and were sold to the Caledonian Railway without being used.

Between 1915 and 1922 Christopher Cumming designed one class of 4-4-0 and two types of 4-6-0, totalling 19 locomotives, which all passed to the LMS.

A few secondhand locomotives were also acquired. An 0-4-0ST was inherited from the Findhorn Railway in 1862, and in 1895 a small 2-4-0T was purchased from the Duke of Sutherland. A pair of new Dubs & Co. 4-4-0Ts were acquired in 1892, having been built for a cancelled export order. The latter 3 all survived into LMS ownership.

Despite their small numbers quite a few Highland Railway classes survived well into the LMS era, and even into the 1950s.

Jones Goods" class locomotive at Glasgow Museum of Transport.]

*HR Barclay and Stroudley locomotives
*HR Jones 0-4-4ST
*HR Jones 2-4-0
*HR Jones E Class 4-4-0
*HR Jones F Class 4-4-0
*HR Jones L Class 4-4-0 ('Skye Bogies')
*HR Jones O Class 2-4-0T
*HR Jones 'Jones Goods' Class 4-6-0
*HR Jones 'Loch' Class 4-4-0
*HR Jones 'Strath' Class 4-4-0
*HR Drummond 0-6-0 ('Barneys')
*HR Drummond 0-6-0T
*HR Drummond 0-6-4T
*HR Drummond W Class 0-4-4T
*HR Drummond 'Castle' Class 4-6-0
*HR Drummond 'Large Ben' Class 4-4-0
*HR Drummond 'Small Ben' Class 4-4-0
*HR Smith 'River' Class 4-6-0
*HR Cumming 4-4-0
*HR Cumming 'Clan' Class 4-6-0
*HR Cumming 'Clan Goods' Class 4-6-0
*HR (Dubs & Co./Jones) P Class 4-4-0T ('Yankees')
*HR (ex Duke of Sutherland) 2-4-0T
*HR (ex Findhorn Railway) 0-4-0ST

Hughes (1923–1925)

George Hughes, formerly of the L&YR became the first Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the LMS. However, he retired just two years later in 1925. His one new design was a class of mixed traffic moguls known as "crabs".

* Class 5MT "Crab" 2-6-0

He also built small numbers of slightly modified versions of pre-grouping designs including:

* Caledonian Railway 60 Class
* Caledonian Railway 439 Class

Fowler (1925–1931)

Sir Henry Fowler, deputy CME under Hughes, was formerly CME of the Midland Railway. He was largely responsible for the adoption of the Midland's small engines as LMS standards. This led to a crisis as these were underpowered. However, some moves towards larger engines were made, Royal Scots and Garratts. At the end of Fowler's reign, Ernest Lemon briefly took over as CME but was quickly promoted to make room for William Stanier.

* LMS Class 2P 4-4-0
* LMS Class 2F "Dock Tank" 0-6-0T
* LMS Class 3MT 2-6-2T
* LMS Class 3F "Jinty" 0-6-0T
* LMS Class 4P "Compound" 4-4-0
* LMS Class 4MT 2-6-4T
* LMS Class 4F "Derby Four" 0-6-0
* LMS Class 7F 0-8-0
* LMS Class 6P "Patriot" 4-6-0
* LMS Class 7P "Royal Scot" 4-6-0
* LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2
* LMS 6399 "Fury"

Stock taken in from the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway

The Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway was jointly owned by the LMS and the Southern with the LMS responsible for locomotive affairs. However, its locomotives were kept separate until 1928 when they were taken into LMS stock. These mostly consisted of standard Midland types constructed by the Midland and the LMS. The S&DJR 7F 2-8-0 however was specific to the line.

* S&DJR 7F 2-8-0
* S&DJR Sentinels
* and other Midland types.

tanier (1932–1944)

William Stanier arrived in 1932 from the Great Western Railway and with the backing of Josiah Stamp, reversed the small engine policy and saved the LMS.

* LMS Class 2P 0-4-4T
* LMS Class 3MT 2-6-2T
* LMS Class 4MT 2-6-4T
* LMS Class 5MT 2-6-0
* LMS Class 5MT "Black Five" 4-6-0
* LMS Class 6P "Jubilee" 4-6-0
* LMS Class 8P "Princess Coronation" 4-6-2
* LMS Class 8P "Princess Royal" 4-6-2
* LMS Class 8F 2-8-0
* LMS Turbomotive

Fairburn (1944–1945)

Fairburn was somewhat restricted by the rules applied to the railway companies by the war situation (not to mention the fact that Stanier had left things in a state that required little or no new design). He was responsible for the construction of a number of locomotives to Stanier designs (mainly the 8F 2-8-0 and 5MT 4-6-0) and some detailed design variations on the latter.
* LMS Class 4MT 2-6-4T

Ivatt (1945–1947)

George Ivatt, son of the former GNR CME Henry Ivatt became CME in 1946. He continued building some Stanier types, but introduced some low-powered class 2 engines and a medium-powered class 4 mixed traffic design. A pair of main line diesels were also produced.

* LMS Class 2MT 2-6-0
* LMS Class 2MT 2-6-2T
* LMS Class 4MT 2-6-0
* LMS Class 8P "Princess Coronation" 4-6-2 (modified version)

Modern Traction

The LMS experimented with various forms of non-steam locomotives, and pioneered the use of diesel locomotives in Great Britain.
* LMS diesel locomotives
* LMS diesel shunters
** LMS diesel shunter 1831
* LMS petrol shunters
* LMS railcars


LMS locomotive design should have ended in 1948 at Nationalisation, but had enormous influence over the design of British Rail's 'Standard' steam locomotives by former LMS man R.A. Riddles. Some of the designs were little changed from the comparable designs by Ivatt.

Riddles built quite a few examples of designs from the 'Big Four', including most of the Fairburn/Ivatt tankers. These were distributed around the system, with quite a few of the 2-6-2 designs going to the Southern Region.


Pre-grouping types were withdrawn early for being non-standard, and locomotives were routinely withdrawn after their lives expired.

Withdrawal of locomotives generally did not take place until the great locomotive cull of British Railways in the period 1962-1966. A pair of "Black Fives" were the last steam locomotives to be run on British Railways in 1968, although since then there have been almost weekly charter runs for the enthusiast and tourist markets and the occasional timetabled service (for instance at Dawlish and Stratford-upon-Avon).


A significant number of LMS locomotives have been preserved:

*Three LMS Hughes Crabs
*Ten LMS Class 3F "Jinty" 0-6-0T
*Three LMS Class 4F 0-6-0
*Two LMS Royal Scot Class
*One LMS 3-Cylindered Stanier 2-6-4T
*One LMS Stanier Mogul
*Eighteen Black Fives
*Four LMS Jubilee Class
*Two LMS Princess Royal Class
*Three LMS Princess Coronation Class
*Eleven LMS Stanier Class 8F
*Two LMS Fairburn 2-6-4T
*Seven LMS Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0
*Four LMS Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T
*One LMS Ivatt Class 4


* David Jenkinson and Bob Essery "An Illustrated History of L.M.S. Locomotives Vol. 1: General Review and Locomotive Liveries". 1981
* David Jenkinson and Bob Essery "An Illustrated History of L.M.S. Locomotives Vol. 2: Absorbed Pre-group Classes Western and Central Divisions." OPC 1985
* David Jenkinson and Bob Essery "An Illustrated History of L.M.S. Locomotives Vol. 3: Absorbed Pre-group Classes Northern Division"
* David Jenkinson and Bob Essery "An Illustrated History of L.M.S. Locomotives Vol. 4: Absorbed Pre-Group Classes, Midland Division."
* David Jenkinson and Bob Essery "An Illustrated History of L.M.S. Locomotives Vol. 5: Volume Five: The Post-Grouping Standard Designs"

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