- London, Midland and Scottish Railway
see also|London Midland for the new (2007) railway company
The London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS [It has been argued that the initials LMSR should be used to be consistent with LNER, GWR and SR. However the London, Midland and Scottish Railway's
corporate imageused LMS, and this is what is generally used in historical circles. The LMS occasionally also used the initials LM&SR. For consistency, Wikipediauses the initials LMS.] ) was a British railwaycompany. It was formed on 1 January 1923as part of the forced Grouping of more than 300 railway companies into just four. It was an unwieldy construction, claiming to be the world's largest joint stock organisation, the largest transport organisation, and the largest commercial undertaking in Europe(although it did not say on what basis), including the largest chain of hotels. In 1938, the LMS operated 6,870 route miles (11,056km) (excluding its lines in Northern Ireland), but it was not very profitable with a rate of return of 2.7%. Along with other British railway companies, the LMS was nationalised in 1948.
The LMS was formed from:
Caledonian Railway1114.4 miles (1793km) route length
Furness Railway158 miles (254 km)
Glasgow and South Western Railway498.5 miles (802km)
Highland Railway506 miles (814km)
London and North Western Railway(including Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, amalgamated 1 January 1922) 2667.5 miles (4292.9 km)
Midland Railway2170.75 miles (3493km)
North Staffordshire Railway220.75 miles (355km)
In Ireland there were three railways:
* "Dundalk, Newry and Greenore Railway" 26.5 miles (42km)
Northern Counties Committee265.25 miles (426km)
* "Joint Midland and Great Northern of Ireland Railway" 91 miles (146km), with interests in Ireland Most of the above operated in what became
The total route mileage of the LMSR in 1923 was 7790 miles (12,537km).
For all railways see "
List of constituents of the LMS".
The principal LMS trunk routes were the
West Coast Main Lineand the Midland Main Line, which linked London, the industrial Midlands and North-West of England, and Scotland.
The main business was
freightbetween these centres. Particularly notable were the Toton–Brent coaltrains, which took coal from the Nottinghamshire coalfieldto London.
The early history of the LMS is dominated by infighting between its two largest constituents and previously rivals, the Midland and the North Western, each of which believed their company's way was the right – and only – way of doing business. Generally, the Midland prevailed, with the adoption of many Midland practices such as the livery of
crimson lakefor passenger locomotives and rolling stock. Perhaps most notable was the continuation of the Midland Railway's small-engine policy.
Suburban electrification of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway
The Stanier revolution
The arrival of the new chief mechanical engineer,
William Stanier, who was head-hunted from the Great Western Railwayby Josiah Stampin 1933, heralded a change. Stanier introduced new ideas rather than continuing the company's internal conflict.
The war-damaged LMS was
nationalisedin 1948 by the Transport Act 1947, becoming part of British Railways. It formed the London Midland Regionand part of the Scottish Region. British Railways transferred the lines in Northern Irelandto the Ulster Transport Authorityin 1949. The lines in Great Britain were rationalised through closure in the 1950s to 70s but the main routes survive and some have been developed for 125mph inter-city services.
Locomotives of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway
Coaches of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway
Wagons of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway
Named trains of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway- see discussion
Locomotives of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway
The LMS owned many canals, including the
Montgomeryshire Canal, Ellesmere Canaland Chester Canal. Many were abandoned by Act of Parliament, instigated by LMS. [cite book |title=The Times newspaper: Notice of a Special General Meeting of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway | url = http://archive.timesonline.co.uk/tol/viewArticle.arc?toDate=1946-12-31&fromDate=1910-01-01¤tPageNumber=1&resultsPerPage=10&sortBy=default&offset=0&viewName=&addFilters=&removeFilters=&addCat=&queryKeywords=bolton+canal§ionId=1040&currPgSmartSet=1&pageId=ARCHIVE-The_Times-1937-02-11-26&articleId=ARCHIVE-The_Times-1937-02-11-26-008&xmlpath=&pubId=17&totalResults=1265&addRefineFilters=&removeRefineFilters=&addRefineCat=&next_Page=false&prev_Page=false&date_dd_From=1&date_mm_From=01&date_yyyy_From=1910&date_dd_to_range=31&date_mm_to_range=12&date_yyyy_to_range=1946&date_dd_from_precise=1&date_mm_from_precise=01&date_yyyy_from_precise=1910&isDateSearch=false&dateSearchType=range&refineQuerykeywordText= |date= February 11 1937 Retrieved on 2008-06-29"(Requires login/subscription)"] Those not abandoned passed to the British Transport Commission, at nationalisation; and ownership subsequently transferred to the British Waterways Board.
* Gammell, C.J., (1980), "LMS Branch Lines, 1945 - 1965", Oxford Publishing Company, ISBN 0-86093-062-9
* Hendry, R.P. and Hendry, R.P., (1982), "An Historical Survey of selected LMS Stations, Layouts and Illustrations", Volume 1, Oxford Publishing Company, ISBN 0-86093-168-4
* Nock, O.S., (1982), "A History of the LMS. Vol. 1: The First Years, 1923-1930", George Allen & Unwin, ISBN 0-04-385087-1
* Nock, O.S., (1982), "A History of the LMS. Vol. 2: The Record Breaking 'Thirties, 1931-1939", George Allen & Unwin, ISBN 0-04-385093-6
* Welbourn, N., (1994), "Lost Lines: LMR", Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-2277-1
* Whitehouse, P. and Thomas, D.St J., (1995), "LMS 150: the London, Midland & Scottish Railway: a century and a half of progress", Greenwich Editions, ISBN 0-86288-071-8 [Recommended for general overview]
* [http://lms-society.org.uk/ The LMS Society]
* [http://www.freewebs.com/lmsforum/ The LMS Forum]
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/lmsreg LMS discussion group on Yahoo!]
* [http://viewfinder.english-heritage.org.uk/ LMS images of tourist attractions along their routes] Use Advanced Search/Collections/LMS to view these images held by the
National Monuments Record, the public archive of English Heritage
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