Lenapehoking is a term ascribed to the American Indians known as
Lenape(called Delaware Indians by Europeans), as the word in their own language describing the region they inhabited along what eventually became the east coast of the United States. Like much of the toponymyinvolving languages in the Algonquianlingustic group, there is some confusion about the meaning and history of the name.
At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th and 17th century, the Lenape homeland generally encompassed the territory adjacent to the Delaware and lower Hudson river valleys, as well the territory between them. It stretched from modern-day
Delawareto western Connecticutand Long Islandand included parts of eastern Pennsylvaniaall of present day New Jersey, New York Bay, and the southern counties of New York State, including New York Harborand the five boroughs of New York City.
According to some people, who have misunderstood the origin of this word, the Lenape called this territory "Lenapehoking", meaning "in the land of the Lenape." This assertion has gained widespread acceptance and is found widely in recent literature on the Lenape, including in the websites of purported Lenape people.
Ray Whritenour, a philologist, says that the term does not appear in any sources from the 18th century, but is a modern name coined by Nora Thompson Dean("Touching Leaves Woman") in 1984, in order to provide the archaeologist/author, Herbert C. Kraft, with a convenient term for the area once inhabited by ancestors of the Lenape people.
Other Lenape place names
Lenape place names within the region included:
** Sapokanikan - habitation site and cultivated area by the cove on the
Hudson Riverat present day Gansevoort Street, Greenwich Village.
** Nechtanc - habitation site along the
East Rivernear the present location of the Manhattan Bridge, in what is now part of Chinatown.
* Staten Island
** Aquehonga - name for Staten Island
** Manacknong - name for Staten Island
** Shawkopoke - habitation site and cultivated area along
Great Kills Harbor
** Nayack or Wichquawanck - habitation in Bay Ridge near the present location of the
Verrazano Narrows Bridge
** Gowanus - habitation site along the south bank of
** Sassian - habitation site in present Red Hook
Rockland County, New York
** Monsey - from the name of the Munsees, northern branch of the Lenapes
** Manalapan - municipality's name is said to have come from Lenape and is said to mean "land of good bread"
** Absecon - meaning: "place of swans" http://www.rootsweb.com/~njmorris/indian.htm]
Assunpink Creek- meaning: "Stony Creek"
** Communipaw (in downtown
Jersey City) - "riverside landing place"
** Hackensack - "stream flowing into another on a plain/ in a swamp/ in a lowland"
** Hoboken - "where pipes are traded"
** Hohokus - "red cedars"
Mahwah- "meeting place"
** Manahawkin - "place where there is good land"
** Mantoloking -
** Mantua - said to have come from the "Munsees", North Jersey Lenapes, but the township is in South Jersey.
** Matawan - "hill on either side"
** Metuchen - "dry firewood"
** Minisink - "from the rocky land", is the old name for the Munsee, and the name of an ancient Lenape trade route that ran along a good part of what is now US Highway 46 in Northern New Jersey
** Passaic - "valley" or "river flowing through a valley"
** Peapack - "place of water roots"
** Raritan - original form was Naraticong - may have meant "river behind the island" or "forked river".
** Scheyichbi. Meaning of name varies. notes two possible meanings: the land that the Lenapes called their country, or "land of the shell money (
** Secaucus - "black snakes".
** Weehawken - "place of gulls".
**Conshohocken, pleasant valley.
** Manayunk - "place where we go to drink"
** Passyunk - a
Philadelphianeighborhood and former township named for a Lenape village
Pennypack Creek- "downward-flowing water" - a creek in and near Philadelphia.
Shackamaxon, on the site of Penn Treaty Parknear Philadelphia.
Wissahickon- "yellow stream" or "catfish stream" - a creek in and near Philadelphia.
Order of the Arrow Lodge IX
Lenapehoking is also the name of an
Order of the Arrowlodge, number IX, in the Northern New Jersey Council of the Boy Scouts of America.
Lenapehoking Lodge IX was chartered in 1999 in the Northern NJ Council. It was born of the merger of Mantowagan Lodge #14, Meechgalanne Lodge #178, Oratam Lodge #286 and Aquaninocke Lodge #359.
Lodge IX can trace its history to co-founder of the Order of the Arrow, Carroll A. Edson. Mr. Edson founded Achtu Lodge #37 during his tenure as Scout Executive of Jersey City, NJ. He was also the first Vigil Honor member of Achtu Lodge #37. Achtu was merged with Chinchewunska Lodge #440 in 1969. Ultimately, Achtu #37 and Chinchewunska #440 merged to form Elauwit #37. As the result of the merge of Hudson Hamilton Council and Bayonne Council, Pamrapaugh Lodge #14 merged with Elauwit #37 in 1994 to form Mantowagan Lodge #14. Pamrapaugh #14 is known to have been represented at the Grand Lodge organizational meeting held on October 7, 1921. However, there is some confusion as to the original date of Pamrapaugh's charter; as of that meeting there were only 10 chartered lodges in operation, yet in 1926, Pamrapaugh was assigned a lodge number of 14. There is some evidence that Pamrapaugh Lodge may have existed prior to Minsi Lodge #5.
Meechgalanne Lodge #178 was chartered in 1976 in the Essex Council located in Newark, New Jersey. In 1976, Meechgalanne Lodge was formed from the merger of Mohican Lodge #178, Ken Etiwa Pec Lodge #362, and Oleleu Lodge #515.
Oratam Lodge #286 was chartered in 1996 in the Bergen Council located in River Edge, New Jersey.
Aquaninocke Lodge #359 was chartered in 1974 in the Passaic Valley Council located in Wayne, New Jersey. In 1974, Aquaninocke Lodge was formed from the merger of Aheka Lodge #359 and Minisi Lodge #449.
History of New York City
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