- Little League Baseball
Little League Baseball is the name of a
non-profitorganization in the United Stateswhich organizes local children's leagues of baseball and softballthroughout the USA and the rest of the world.
The Little League was founded by
Carl Stotzin 1939as a three-team league in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. The Little League Museumis also located on the Little League International Complex in South Williamsport. It provides a history of Little League Baseball and interactive exhibits for children.
The organization now has its headquarters in South Williamsport, directly across the
Susquehanna Riverfrom the site of the original league; however, it continues to have a Williamsport postal address. South Williamsport also hosts the Little League World Series at Howard J. Lamade Stadiumand Little League Volunteer Stadium. Little League Baseball encourages volunteers to run Little League programs.
The group holds a
congressional charterunder Title 36 of the United States Code. [36 U.S.C. [http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/usc_sup_01_36_06_II_08_B_10_1305.html §§ 130501-130513] , Chapter 1305—Little League Baseball, Incorporated]
A provision of the official national Little League rules holds that “ [a] t no time should payment of any fee be a prerequisite for participation in any level of the Little League program.” This stipulation stems from Stotz's personal experience of poverty in the Great Depression [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/16/opinion/16mathews.html?th&emc=th Op-ed piece by Joe Mathews in the 16 August 2008 "New Yourk Times", quoting p. 39 of the 2008 rule book. Mathews notes that in fact most local leagues violate or bend this rule.] .
The official rules of Little League Baseball are not made available to the general public, though copies are provided to each team.cite news
first = Ted
last = Gub
title = Who's on First? Who Wants to Know, and Why?
url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/28/AR2007072801205.html
work = Washington Post
page = D1
July 29, 2007
accessdate = 2008-07-03
quote = ] The playing rules for the baseball divisions essentially follow the
Official Baseball Rules, especially with respect to the upper divisions (Junior, Senior, and Big League). Some major exceptions are outlined below; these apply to Little League (Minor and Major, ages 7-12) except as otherwise noted.
Length of Game
A regulation game is six
innings. If the game is called prior to the completion of six innings, it is considered an official game if four innings have been completed (three and a half, if the home team leads); otherwise, if at least one inning has been completed, it is a suspended game.
In the Junior, Senior, and Big League levels (ages 13-18), a game is seven innings and is official if five innings have been completed.
Mandatory Play Rule
All members of the team must have at least one plate appearance and play one inning on defense; otherwise, the manager that violates the rule will be suspended for the team's next 2 games. This rule is waived, however, if the game is completed prior to six innings.
The distance between the bases is 60 feet. The distance from the pitcher’s mound to home plate is 46 feet. Outfield fences must be at least 165 feet from
home plate, but are usually 200 feet or more (the fields at the Williamsport complex have fences 225 feet away). The bases and pitching rubber are also slightly smaller than in standard baseball.
The minimum outfield distance in the upper divisions is 300 feet, while the maximum for Big League is 420 feet.
Bats (all levels) may be made from material other than wood (such as
aluminum) and must be approved for use in Little League Baseball. The maximum bat length is thirty-three (33) inches and maximum barrel diameter may not exceed 2 1/4 inches. Beginning in 2009 all Little League bats must be labeled with a Bat Performance Factor (BPF) of 1.15 or lower.
Bats for the Junior League level may have a maximum length of thirty-four (34) inches and a maximum barrel diameter of 2 3/4 inches. Bats for the Big and Senior League levels may have a maximum length of thirty-six (36) inches and a maximum barrel diameter of 2 3/4 inches for wood bats and 2 5/8 inches for non-wood bats. All bats must meet the Ball Exit Speed Ratio (BESR) testing standards that are currently used in the NCAA and NFHS (High School). [ [http://webusers.npl.uiuc.edu/~a-nathan/pob/BESRWhitePaper.pdf The BESR (Ball Exit Speed Ratio)] ]
A base runner may not leave his
time-of-pitchbase until the pitch reaches the batter.
If a fielder is waiting at the base with the ball, an advancing runner must attempt to avoid contact. A runner may not slide head-first except when retreating to a previously held base.
In the upper levels, runners must still make an attempt to avoid contact if possible, and may not maliciously initiate contact with a fielder.
The upper limit of the
strike zoneextends to the batter's armpits. A batter is out after the third strike regardless of whether the pitched ball is held by the catcher.
Players who have been substituted for may return to the game under certain conditions, though a pitcher who has left the game may not return to pitch.
Pitchers in all divisions are limited to a specific pitch count per game and a mandatory rest period between outings. These vary with age and the rest period also depends on the number of pitches thrown. [ [http://www.littleleague.org/Learn_More/rules/pitch_count_resource_page.htm Pitch Count Resource Page] , Little League© "Online"]
Local leagues have a certain amount of flexibility. For example, a league may opt to use the "continuous batting order" rule, under which each player on the team’s roster bats, even when not in the defensive lineup. Leagues may also adopt a "
mercy rule" allowing the game to be called if one team is ahead by ten or more runs after five innings. [ [http://www.scn.org/ncll/rules.html Rules of Little League] , Seattle Community Network (scn.org)] [ [http://www.wmbumpires.com/rules/llinterps.pdf Little League Rules and Interpretations of Note] , Western Maine Board of Baseball Umpires (wmbumpires.com)]
Little League affiliated programs are divided into six divisions based on the ages of the children playing:
Tee Ball(ages 5-8), Minors (7-12), Little (or Majors) (9-12), Junior (13-14), Senior (14-16 baseball, 13-16 softball) and Big (16-18 baseball, 14-18 softball). The age-cutoffs vary between Little League affiliated programs as Little League provides flexibility to the local league to do what best suits their program (For example, while "minor league" covers 7-12 year olds, most leagues have divisions for coach/machine pitch and kid pitch). Coach/machine pitch is typically reserved for 7-8 year olds, while 9-10 year olds tend to play kid-pitch. Little League welcomes both boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18.
Another division of Little League is the "Challenger Division" which is designed for children with disabilities. One of the aims of Little League, other than simply to have fun, is to teach children about
teamwork, sportsmanshipand fair play. Their watchwords are "Character, Courage, Loyalty." Little League has developed many equipment changes over the years to protect young ball players including the introduction of the full batting helmet and the use of the throat guard for catchers. In recent years, Little League has developed rules to assist young ball players. Little League Baseball has instituted a pitch countto protect young pitchers' arms.
Little League World Series
The best-known event in the Little League calendar is the annual Little League Baseball World Series, which is held every August in
South Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Tournaments leading up to the World Series are held throughout the USA, including the territories of the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico, and also across the rest of the world. In 2003for example, there were also tournaments in Canada, Europe( Germanyand Poland), Latin America( Mexico, Panama, Curaçao, Arubaand Venezuela), and in Asia( Japan, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan) and Peru. The Little League Baseball World Series is just one of eight World Series every year. There are series for baseball and softball in Little, Junior, Senior and Big Leagues, each one held in a different location.
Carl Stotz, a resident of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, founded Little League Baseball in 1939. He began experimenting with his idea in the summer of 1938 when he gathered his nephews, Jimmy and Major Gehron and their neighborhood friends. They tried different field dimensions over the course of the summer and played several informal games. The following summer Stotz felt that he was ready to establish what became Little League Baseball. The first league in Williamsport had just three teams, each sponsored by a different business. The first teams, Jumbo Pretzel, Lycoming Dairy and Lundy Lumber were managed by Carl Stotz and two of his friends George and Bert Bebble. The men, joined by their wives and another couple, formed the first-ever Little League Board of Directors. Stotz's dream of establishing a baseball league for boys to teach fair play and
teamworkhad come true. cite web |url = http://www.littleleague.org/about/history.asp |title = History of Little League |accessdate = 2007-06-26 |publisher = Little League ]
The first Little League game took place on
June 6, 1939. Lundy Lumber defeated Lycoming Dairy 23-8. Lycoming Dairy came back to claim the league championship. They, the first-half-season champions, defeated Lundy Lumber, the second-half champs, in a best-of-three season-ending series. The following year a second league was formed in Williamsport and from there Little League Baseball grew from three teams in a small Pennsylvania town to an international organization of nearly 200,000 teams in every U.S. state and over 80 countries all around the world.
According to the Little League Baseball,
as of 2007there were more than 2.3 million players in Little League Baseball worldwide, including 400,000 girls registered in Girl's Softball. For tournament purposes, official Little League is divided into 16 geographic regions; 8 National and 8 international. The National regions are:
*West (including Hawaii).
The international regions are:
*Latin America (Central America and South America)
*MEA (Middle East and Africa)
**Prior to 2008, Europe and the MEA regions consisted of the EMEA (Europe, the Middle East, and Africa) and Transatlantic region, which were made up of the same geographical region but held different rosters (EMEA teams were mostly made up of players native to the league's country, while Transatlantic teams were largely made up of nationals from the US, Canada, and Japan.) [http://www.eteamz.com/llbeurope/]
*Asia-Pacific (all other countries in Asia and the Pacific).
1939 - Little League is established by
Carl Stotz. The first season is played in a lot near Bowman Field. Lycoming Dairy is the first season champion.
1947 - The first league outside of Pennsylvania is founded in Hammonton,
New Jersey. Maynard League of Williamsport defeats a team from Lock Haven, Pennsylvania to win the first Little League World Series. Allen Yearick is the first Little League graduate to play professional baseball when he is signed by the Boston Braves.
1948 - Little League has grown to include 94 leagues. Lock Haven returns to the LLWS and defeats a league from St. Petersburg,
Florida. The first corporate sponsor, U.S. Rubberis announced, who donate Pro-Kedsshoes to teams at the LLWS. cite book
last = Geist | first = Bill | title = Little League Confidential: One Coach's Completely Unauthorized Tale of Survival | origdate = 1999 | accessdate = 2007-08-05 | edition = 1st Edition | publisher = Dell | location = New York, NY | id = ISBN 0440508770 ]
1949 - Little League is featured in the
Saturday Evening Postand on Newsreels. Carl Stotz gets hundreds of requests for information on how to form leagues at the local level from all over the United States. Little League incorporates in New York.
1953 - The Little League World Series is televised for the first time.
Jim McKayprovides the play by play for CBS. Howard Cosellprovided play by play for ABC Radio. Joey Jayof Middletown, Connecticutand the Milwaukee Bravesis the first Little League graduate to play in the Major Leagues.
Boog Powell, who would later play for the Baltimore Oriolesplays in the Little League World Series for Lakeland, Florida. Ken Hubbswho would later play for the Chicago Cubsalso plays in the LLWS for Colton, California. Little League has expanded to more than 3,300 leagues.
1955 - There is a Little League organization in each of the 48 U.S. States.
George W. Bushbegins playing Little League as a catcherfor the Cubs of the Central Little League in Midland, Texas. He is the first Little League grad to be elected President of the United States.
1956 - Carl Stotz severs his ties with Little League Baseball in a dispute over the direction and control of Little League. Stotz remains active in youth baseball with the "Original League" in Williamsport.Fred Shapiro throws a perfect game in the Little League World Series.
1959 - The Little League World Series is moved from Williamsport to the newly built Little League Headquarters in South Williamsport. The protective baseball helmet is developed by Dr. Creighton Hale.
1960 - A team from
West Berlin, West Germanyis the first team from Europeto play in the Little League World Series. The series is broadcast live for the first time on ABC. Little League has grown to 27,400 teams in more than 5,500 leagues.
Brian Sipefuture quarterbackfor the Cleveland Brownsplays for the series champions from El Cajon, California.
1963 - Central Little Leaugue, of Duluth, Minnesota wins the third place game, beating Turkey.
1971 - The aluminum baseball bat is first used. It was partly developed by Little League Baseball.
Lloyd McClendonof Gary, Indianadominates the Little League World Series, hitting five home runs in five at-bats. He would later play in the Major Leagues and become the first Little League grad to manage an MLB club with the Pittsburgh Pirates.
Ed Vosbergplays in the Little League World Series for Tucson, Arizona. He would later play in the College World Seriesfor the University of Arizonain 1980 and the World Seriesin 1997 for the Florida Marlins. Vosberg is the first person to have played in all three world series'.
1980 - A team from Tampa,
Floridarepresenting Belmont Heights Little League is led by two future major leaguers Derek Bell and Gary Sheffield. Bell would return the following year and Belmot Heights again lost in the finals to a team from Taiwan.
1982 - The Peter J. McGovern Little League Museum is opened. Cody Webster leads a team from Kirkland,
Washingtonin an upset victory of a powerful team from Taiwan. It was Taiwan's first loss in 31 games.
Seoul, South Koreawins the first title for a South Korean team. They defeated a team from Altamonte Springs, Floridaled by future Boston Red Soxcatcher, Jason Varitek.
Polandbecomes the first former Warsaw Pactnation to receive a Little League charter. Trumbull, Connecticut, led by future NHLstar Chris Drury, wins the Little League World Series.
1992 - Carl Stotz, the founder of Little League, dies. Lights are installed at Lamade Stadium allowing for the first night games to be played. The series is expanded from single elimination to round robin format.
1994 - Long Beach, California managed by former Major Leaguer
Jeff Burroughsand led by his son future Major Leaguer Sean Burroughsis named series champion after Zamboanga City, Philippinesis forced to forfeit for playing with ineligible players.
ESPN2broadcasts regional play for the first time. Taiwan's baseball association withdraws from Little League Baseball. Bradenton, FL and Pottsville, PA play at Lamade Stadium before the largest crowd ever to attend a non-championship game. The crowd was estimated at over 35,000 fans.
2001 - Volunteer Stadium is opened. George W. Bush becomes the first U.S. President to visit the Little League World Series. Led by phenom
Danny Almonte, pitching the first perfect game since 1957, the Rolando PaulinoAll Stars ( Bronx, NY) finish third in the series. The team's entire postseason, however, is wiped from the books when it is found that Almonte was 14 years old.
2007 - Little League expands into Australia for the first time.
2008 - Hawai'i wins the 2008 Little League World Series beating Mexico in the Final.
Baseball clothing and equipment
*Van Auken, Lance and Robin. "Play Ball: The Story of Little League Baseball", Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-271-02118-7
* [http://www.littleleague.org/ Official Little League web site]
* [http://www.littleleague.org/museum/ Peter J. McGovern Little League Museum]
* [http://www.littleleague.org/series/history/historicalresults.htm Little League World Series Champions]
* [http://www.frontiernet.net/~rochballparks3/littleleague/littleleague.htm Photographs of the Little League stadium complex in South Williamsport, PA -]
* [http://www.linkedin.com/e/gis/104097/03945B04DADA Little League Baseball Supporter Group] - Little League Baseball Group on LinkedIn.
* [http://www.kbsb.com/kbllb/ Little League Baseball World Series Stadium ART PRINT] - by the artist Kathleen B. Bonnell.
* [http://www.kbsb.com/kborg/ Carl E. Stotz Field : The ORIGINAL Birthplace of Little League Baseball ART PRINT] - by the artist Kathleen B. Bonnell.
* [http://www.littleleague.cl Little League Foundation Chile]
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