baseballor softball, a strikeout or strike out (denoted by SO or K) occurs when a batter receives three strikes during his time at bat. Strikeouts are associated with dominance on the part of the pitcher, although it is recognized that the style of swing that generates home runs also leaves the batter somewhat susceptible to striking out.
A pitcher receives credit for (and a batter is charged with) a strikeout on any third strike, but a batter is out only if any of the following is true:
# the third strike is pitched and caught in flight by the catcher (including
# on any third strike, if a
baserunneris on first and there are fewer than two outs;
# the third strike is bunted foul and is not caught by a fielder
If the third strike is not caught and there are two outs, or fewer than two outs and no baserunner on first, the batter becomes a runner. Thus, it is possible for a batter to strike out, but still reach base safely if the
catcherfails or is unable to catch the third strike cleanly and cannot tag out the batter or force him out at first base (in Japan this is called "furinige"（ _ja. 振り逃げ）, i.e. swing and escape). As a result, pitchers have occasionally been able to record four strikeouts in one half- inning.
In scoring, a swinging strikeout is recorded as a K, or a K-S. A strikeout looking (where the batter does not swing at a pitch that the umpire then calls strike three) is sometimes scored with a backwards K.
The use of "K" for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist who is widely credited as the originator of the
box scoreand the baseball scorecard. Both the box score and scorecard persist largely unchanged to this day, as the game itself is largely unchanged except for the number of balls and strikes allowed to the pitcher and batter. The letter "S" was used to coin "sacrifice" so Chadwick decided to use "K", with "K" being the last letter in "struck." Chadwick also invented many other baseball scoring abbreviations, such as using numbers to designate player positions (progressing from the battery, pitcher  and catcher  , through the infield, with the shortstop counted after the basemen, at number 6, to the right fielder  ). [cite web | title=In baseball scoring, why is a strikeout marked with a K? | work=The Straight Dope | url=http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mstrike.html | accessdate= 20 Dec | accessyear= 2005]
That Chadwick first established the convention of using the "K" abbreviation is well-founded, with reliable and authentic primary materials surviving (see citation above). Those unaware of Chadwick's contributions have speculated that "K" was derived from the 19th century pitcher
Matt Kilroy's last name. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwick's earlier use of "K", this speculation would be reasonable: Kilroy did much to raise the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted. Kilroy's record, however, is forever confined to its era: the pitcher's mound during his record-setting season was only convert|50|ft|m from the batter; it was moved to its current distance of 60'6" in 1893. The modern record (1901-) is 383 strikeouts, held by Nolan Ryan, one better than Sandy Koufax's 382.
Although some people use "K" to record pitchers' strikeouts, "SO" is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball [ [http://mlb.mlb.com/mlb/official_info/baseball_basics/abbreviations.jsp The Official Site of Major League Baseball: Official info: Baseball Basics: Abbreviations ] ] .
In addition, "K" is still commonly used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. In one baseball ritual, fans at the ballpark who are seated in view of the batter (and the television cameras) attach a succession of small "K" signs to the nearest railing, one added for every strikeout notched by the home team's pitcher. As is traditional for those who keep a record of the game on paper, the "K" is placed backwards in cases where the batter strikes out looking. Virtually every televised display of a major league game in which a pitcher registers a high number of strikeouts (7 or 8) will include a shot of a fan's strikeout display, and if the pitcher continues to strike out batters, the display often will be shown following every strikeout. In the event that a known "strikeout pitcher" is on the mound, the strikeout display will be televised on from the beginning.
The strikeout is as old as baseball itself.
Alexander Cartwright's Knickerbocker Rules, drawn up in 1845 and considered the foundation of the modern game, define the strikeout as follows:
"Three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is a hand-out; if not caught is considered fair, and the striker bound to run." (Rule #11)
This is essentially the same rule in use today, with the addition of the called strike (1858) and the provision that the batter is automatically out if there are fewer than two out and a runner on first. In 1880, the rules were changed to specify that a third strike had to be caught on the fly. In 1887, the number of strikes for an out was changed to four, but promptly changed back to three the next season. A foul bunt was classified as a strike in 1894, and a foul tip in 1895.
Jargon and slang
A swinging strikeout is often called a "whiff" and a batter who is struck out by a
fastballis often said to have been "blown away". A batter who strikes out on a swung third strike is said to have been "fanned". When a batter takes a called third strike it is called a "punchout", describing the plate umpire's punching motion on a called third strike, which resembles the motion most umpires use to call a baserunner out, but is usually more vigorous, perhaps reflecting an unspoken belief that looking at a third strike is somewhat more blameworthy than making any other out. On a called third strike, it is said that the batter was "caught looking" or that he looked at a strike. Typically, a called third strike can be somewhat more embarrassing for a batter, as it shows that he was either fooled by the pitcher, or even worse, had a moment of hesitation. Sports commentators have also been known to refer to it as " browsing" if the batter did not move his bat at all.
A pitcher is said to "strike out the side" when he retires all three batters in a half inning by striking them out. A batter that takes the third strike looking, especially on a breaking pitch, such as a slider or a curveball, that appears to be out of the strike zone but drops in before the batter can get the bat off his shoulders, can be said to have been "frozen".
In slang, when a batter strikes out three times in a game, he is said to have completed a "hat trick" or a "silver sombrero." If he strikes out four times, it is a "
Golden sombrero". He receives the "Olympic Rings" or a "Texas Star" for striking out five times and the "horn" for striking out six times in a game - a rare occurrence, which in the history of major league play has only been accomplished in extra inningsgames.
Some pitchers who specialize in strikeouts have acquired nicknames including the letter "K".
Cincinnati Reds closer Francisco Corderois known as "Koko", Dwight Goodenwas known as "Doctor K". Francisco Rodriguez is known as "K-Rod" [ [http://www.fannation.com/truth_and_rumors/view/44990 FanNation | Truth&Rumors | K-Rod expects to leave Angels ] ] . Roger Clemenshas taken the "K" name to an extreme, naming his four sons Koby, Kory, Kacy, and Kody.
Four strikeouts in an inning
If a third strike is not caught by the catcher (and is not tipped), it is a strikeout, and the at-bat is over. However, with first base open or with two outs, the batter is not out until tagged out or forced out. On a
wild pitchor passed ballthe batter can often advance to first base safely. If a runner is at first base and there are less than two outs, the batter is automatically out, as with the infield fly rule. If there are two outs, another runner may be forced out as with any other ball in play. If the runner reaches first base safely, there is no out, but the pitcher is still credited with a strikeout.
It is thus possible for a pitcher to throw four (or more) strikeouts in an inning. The first major leaguer to be credited with the feat was Jon Andre of the New York Giants on
October 4, 1888. Chuck Finleydid it on May 12and August 15, 1999with the Anaheim Angels, and then for a third time on April 16, 2000with the Cleveland Indians. Finley is the only player to pitch four strikeouts in an inning more than once. [ [http://www.baseball-almanac.com/feats/feats19.shtml 4 Strikeouts In 1 Inning : A Baseball Almanac Fabulous Feat ] ]
The feat was once quite rare, occurring only five times before 1956, but it has become less rare in recent years, occurring six times during the 1999 season alone. This increase in frequency may be due somewhat to increased use of the
split-finger fastballand forkball, both pitches that end up in the dirt at the plate when effective and often are difficult to handle for catchers. In addition, individual strikeouts are simply far more common, now generally occurring in about one out of eight plate appearances, rather than in about one out of six as in the 1950s, and the total number of innings pitched in a season has doubled as well, due to an expanded schedule and more than a dozen extra teams. The combined effects of the higher strikeout rate and expanded schedule would be expected to make the four-strikeout inning about seven times more frequent than it was fifty years ago.
With any runners advancing to leave first base open if there are less than two outs, the process can repeat, leading to a fifth strikeout (or more) in the inning. A fifth strikeout has not happened in a regulation game in the major leagues, but has occurred three times in the minor leagues, most recently by
Garrett Bauerof the Rockford RiverHawksagainst the Windy City Thunderboltson July 1 2008. [ [http://www.rockfordriverhawks.com/news/?id=7895 "http://www.rockfordriverhawks.com/news/?id=7895", available at rockfordriverhawks.com] ] In the major leagues, knuckleballer Joe Niekroalso struck out five men in an inning during a spring exhibition game when Niekro was with the Houston Astros. [Schlossberg (2007). "Baseball Gold: Mining Nuggets from Our National Pastime", pp302-3.]
The top 16
Major League Baseballcareer strikeout leaders (active players in bold): [cite web | title=All-Time Career Strikeout Leaders | work=ESPN.com | url=http://sports.espn.go.com/mlbhist/alltime/leaders?breakdown=2&type=1&sort=10&year=0 | accessdate=3 Aug | accessyear=2006 ]
* "(since 1901)"
September 30, 2008
Nolan Ryan- 5,714
# Randy Johnson - 4,789
Roger Clemens- 4,672
Steve Carlton- 4,136
Bert Blyleven- 3,701
Tom Seaver- 3,640
Don Sutton- 3,574
Gaylord Perry- 3,534
Walter Johnson- 3,509
Greg Maddux- 3,371
Phil Niekro- 3,342
Ferguson Jenkins- 3,192
Bob Gibson- 3,117
Pedro Martínez- 3,117
Curt Schilling- 3,116
John Smoltz- 3,011
The top five
Major League Baseballcareer strikeout-per-nine innings leaders (since 1900): [http://mlb.mlb.com/stats/historical/leaders.jsp?c_id=mlb&baseballScope=mlb&statType=2&sortByStat=K9&timeFrame=3&timeSubFrame2=0 Historical Leaders, K/9] at mlb.com, retrieved 30 September 2008] (through 2008 season, minimum 2000 IP)
Randy Johnson- 10.67
Pedro Martínez- 10.08
Nolan Ryan- 9.55
Sandy Koufax- 9.28
Sam McDowell- 8.86
The top 5
Major League Baseballsingle season strikeout-per-nine innings leaders (since 1900):(through 2008 season, minimum 1.0 IP per team game)
Randy Johnson, 2001 - 13.41
Pedro Martínez, 1999 - 13.20
Kerry Wood, 1998 - 12.58
Randy Johnson, 2000 - 12.56
Randy Johnson, 1995 - 12.35
The Top 10
Major League Baseballsingle season strikeout totals (since 1900) [ [http://www.baseball-almanac.com/pitching/pistrik3.shtml Strikeouts Single Season Leaders by Baseball Almanac ] ]
Active pitchers in top 50 (as of
September 30, 2008):
Randy Johnson- 4,789
Greg Maddux- 3,371
Pedro Martínez- 3,117
Curt Schilling- 3,116
John Smoltz- 3,011
Mike Mussina- 2,813
Tom Glavine- 2,607
Jamie Moyer- 2,248
The top ten
Major League Baseballcareer strikeout leaders (as of 2008 season):
Reggie Jackson- 2,597
Sammy Sosa- 2,306
Jim Thome- 2,190
Andrés Galarraga- 2,003
José Canseco- 1,942
Willie Stargell- 1,936
Mike Schmidt- 1,883
Fred McGriff- 1,882
Tony Perez- 1,867
Dave Kingman- 1,816
Active batters in the top 50 (as of
September 30, 2008):
Jim Thome- 2,190:15. Carlos Delgado- 1,725:22. Ken Griffey, Jr.- 1,682:23. Jim Edmonds- 1,669:24. Manny Ramírez- 1,667:25. Mike Cameron- 1,642:26. Alex Rodriguez- 1,641:41. Jeff Kent- 1,522:49. Andruw Jones- 1,470
Single season strikeout records (batters):
ee also related lists
List of Major League Baseball strikeout champions
List of pitchers who have struck out 18 or more batters in a nine-inning baseball game
Pitchers who have struck out three batters on nine pitches
Top 100 Major League Baseball strikeout pitchers
3000 strikeout club
* [http://www.baseball-almanac.com/feats/feats19.shtml Four Strikeouts in 1 Inning]
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