subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
timezone = EET
utc_offset = +2
timezone_DST = EEST
utc_offset_DST = +3
map_caption = Location of Bistriţa
official_name = Bistriţa
image_shield = Coa_bistrita_ro.gif
subdivision_type1 = County
subdivision_name1 = Bistriţa-Năsăud County
subdivision_type2 = Status
subdivision_name2 = Autolink|County capital
settlement_type = County capital
leader_name = Ovidiu Creţu
population_as_of = 2002
population_total = 81467
latd = 47
latm = 8
lats = 0
latNS = N
longd = 24
longm = 30
longs = 0
longEW = E
website = http://www.primariabistrita.ro/
Bistriţa ( _de. Bistritz, archaic "Nösen"; [ [http://www.genealogienetz.de/reg/ESE/7burg_ac.html#bistritz Siebenbürgen Village List] . Accessed
11 January 2007.] _hu. Beszterce) is the capital cityof Bistriţa-Năsăud County, Transylvania, Romania. It is situated on the Bistriţa River. The city has a population of approximately 80,000 inhabitants.
The earliest indication of settlement in the area of Bistriţa is from
Neolithicremains. Pechenegssettled the area in 12th century due to attack from Cumansand were given name of Beszterce's district as Besenyő (Hungarian of them) which was centered by Beszterce. Transylvanian Saxonssettled the area in 1206 and dubbed the region " Nösnerland". The destruction of "Markt Nosa" ("Market Nösen") by Mongols heading toward central Europe was described by a document from 1241. Being situated on several trade routes, Bistriţa became a flourishing medievaltrading post. The town was named after the Bistriţa River, whose name comes from the Slavic word "bystrica" meaning "the limpid water".
Bistriţa became a free royal town in 1330. In 1353 it gained the right to organize an annual 15-day
fair, as well as a seal containing the coat of armsof an ostrichwith a horseshoe in its beak. In 1465, the city's fortifications had 18 defensive towers and bastions defended by the local guilds. It was also defended by a "Kirchenburg", or fortified church.
It became part of
Romaniaafter 1919, except during its reversion to Hungarybetween 1940 and 1944.
The main attraction of Bistriţa's central square is the Lutheran church, which was built by the
Transylvanian Saxonsand originally constructed in the 14th century in Gothic style but later remodeled between 1559–1563 by Petrus Italuswith Renaissance features. It was re-renovated in 1998.
On June 11, 2008, the tower and roof of the church caught fire for reasons that are yet unknown. The main part of the church suffered just a little damage and is not in much danger, the interior being intact. It is speculated that both bells residing in the tower (one dating from the 15th century,the other from the 17th) might have melted. See the following [http://www.acri.ro/bistritamedievala.ro/incendiul.html pictures]
The church suffered from fire in 1857, when the tower's roof and the bells were destroyed. The roof was rebuilt after several years.
The Bistriţa-Năsăud County Museum, located in a former
barracks, contains Thracian, Celtic, and German artifacts. 19th century fires destroyed much of the city's medieval citadel.
Bram Stoker's novel " Dracula," the character Jonathan Harker visits Bistriţa and stays at the Golden Krone Hotel ( _ro. Coroana de Aur). Although no such hotel existed when the novel was written, a hotel of the same name has since been constructed for tourists.
The major cities directly linked by trains to this city are
Bucharestvia a night train, and Cluj-Napocavia several trains.
Bistriţa also serves as a midway point for C&I, a transport service, and is a changing point for people traveling between
Suceava, Satu Mare, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Sighişoara, Târgu Mureş, and Braşov.
Arnold Graffi(1910-2006), doctor
Andrei Mureşanu(1816-1863), writer of the Romanian national anthem
George Coşbuc(1866-1918), writer
Liviu Rebreanu(1885-1944), writer
Gloria Bistriţaplays in Romanian first league.
L'Aquila, Italy(since unknown)
Besançon, France(since 1997)
Zielona Góra, Poland(since 2001)
Columbus, Georgia, United States(since 2003)
Herzogenrath, Germany(since 2005)
* [http://www.bistrita.info.ro/ Info Bistrita]
* [http://www.bistrita.info.ro/istoric/ History of Bistrita]
* [http://www.bistrita.info.ro/artgalery/index.htm ArtGallery Bistrita]
* [http://www.bn.ro/bol/index.htm BistritaOnline.ro]
* [http://www.labistrita.ro/portal/nunta-zamfirei/ International Folk Festival "Nunta Zamfirei"]
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