Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Parti Islam Se-Malaysia
ڤرتي اسلام س-مليسيا
马来西亚伊斯兰党
பான் மலேசிய இஸ்லாமிய கட்சி
Leader Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat (Spiritual Advisor)
Abdul Hadi Awang (President)
Founded April 4, 1956
Headquarters Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Newspaper Harakah
Youth wing Dewan Pemuda PAS
Ideology Islamism
National affiliation Barisan Nasional (1974–78)
Gagasan Rakyat (1989–1996)
Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–present)
Official colors White, Green
Parliament:
23 / 222
Website
http://www.pas.org.my/
Politics of Malaysia
Political parties
Elections
Malaysia

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The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Malay: Parti Islam Se-Malaysia) (Jawi: ڤرتي اسلام س-مليسيا) commonly known as PAS or Pas, is an Islamist political party in Malaysia and is currently headed by Dato' Seri Abdul Hadi Awang. PAS positions itself as a political party that aims to establish Malaysia as a country based on Islamic legal theory derived from the primary sources of Islam, the Quran, Sunnah as well as Hadiths, as opposed to Barisan Nasional's Islam Hadhari, which PAS sees as based on a watered-down understanding of Islam.[1]

The party enjoys strong support from the northern rural and conservative states such as Kelantan and Terengganu. It is also the first opposition party in independent Malaysia's history to defeat the Barisan Nasional coalition in a Malay dominated state. PAS, together with Parti Keadilan Rakyat (known as PKR), and Democratic Action Party (known as DAP) formed part of a coalition called Pakatan Rakyat following the 2008 election. Together, Pakatan Rakyat now controls four states in Malaysia which are Kelantan, Kedah, Selangor and Penang.

Contents

History

The formation of Hizbul Muslimin

In March 1947, the first Pan-Malayan Islamic conference at Madrasah Ma'ahad al-Ehya as-Sharif at Gunung Semanggul, Perak, was held. The conference was sponsored by Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM) under the leadership of Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmy. The conference set out to address the economic problems faced by the Malay-Muslims. It was meant to bring together the more politically active and progressive Islamic movements and thinkers in the country. As a result of this conference, the Majlis Agama Tertinggi (Supreme Religious Council, MATA) of Malaya was formed.

MATA began organising political events and meetings for Malay-Muslim activists to meet and discuss their plans for the future and the need to mobilise the masses. The Council also organised a conference on March 13–16, 1948 which discussed local and international issues which are of concern to the public. The conference participants felt that UMNO was not doing enough to raise important issues in public and that the conservative-nationalists were not doing enough to stand up for Malay-Muslim rights. Needless to say, the UMNO representatives at MATA were not happy with the tone of discussion set by the Islamists, which was too revolutionary and militant for their taste. The UMNO delegates reported their findings and observations to the party leaders. In due course, UMNO leader Dato Onn Jaafar began to issue warnings about the "threat from the mountain" (a reference to Gunung Semanggul).

The Parti Orang Muslimin Malaya (Hizbul Muslimin) was formed on March 17, 1948. Syeikh Abdullah Fahim, the paternal grandfather of former Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, played a major role in its formation. After the second conference it declared that MATA should be reorganised as an Islamic political party. With the formation of Hizbul Muslimin, all political activities were transferred to the organisation. MATA served as the party's religious affairs bureau. However, the first Islamist party in Malaya was not destined to last long, as they were banned by the British authorities anxious to retain control of the territories, alleging that Hizbul Muslimin have ties with the Communist Party of Malaya.

Demise and revival

Many members of Hizbul Muslimin escaped the purge of the British and joined UMNO. When the ulama faction in UMNO broke away from the party, they formed an association called Persatuan Islam Sa-Malaya (Pan-Malayan Islamic Association),[2] abbreviated as PAS. At the time, the association charter allowed for dual membership in PAS and UMNO and thus many PAS members thought of themselves as UMNO members and vice-versa. Eventually, the dual-membership clause in the party charter was revoked and PAS began to emerge as a distinct entity.[3] For the sake of contesting in the general election of 1955, the party was re-registered under the name Pan-Malayan Islamic Party (PMIP). The name was later changed to Parti Islam Se-Malaysia during the Asri Muda era in the 1970s.[4]

Recent development

In 1999, riding a groundswell of popular protest after the arrest and conviction of former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, PAS allied itself with the Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Keadilan (PKR), founded by Anwar Ibrahim's wife Wan Azizah by forming a coalition known as Barisan Alternatif. In the general election, PAS took over Terengganu from the Barisan Nasional.

In the 2004 Malaysian general election, the party's strength was greatly reduced.[2] It won merely seven parliamentary seats, a significant decrease from the 27 parliamentary seats it had won in the 1999 general election. The party leader, Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang even lost his parliamentary seat. PAS also lost control of Terengganu but retained control of Kelantan with a very slim majority of 24 out of 45 seats. [3]. The party's majority in Kelantan's state assembly was further reduced to 23 seats following the Pengkalan Pasir by-election in 2005 which left them with the majority of only one seat in the state assembly.

In the recent 2008 Malaysian general election, the party made a comeback in Kelantan, winning 38 out of 45 seats as well as managing to take control of the west coast state of Kedah, and formed coalition governments with the DAP and PKR in the states of Perak and Selangor. The party also increased its share of MPs in the Malaysian Parliament from seven to 23.

Criticisms towards UMNO-led Barisan National government

PAS often opposed and criticised the Barisan Nasional coalition. However, for a brief period from 1973 to 1978, under the leadership of Asri Muda, PAS was brought into the BN fold.[5] The Islamic opposition party often alleges that the economic and social problems of Malaysians and Malay-Muslims are the fault of the UMNO-dominated Barisan Nasional federal government in Kuala Lumpur. PAS claims that after independence, social problems such as drugs, corruption and promiscuity have increased and blames the UMNO-led government for allowing these problems to arise.

PAS is of the view that its leadership can overcome these perceived problems for the benefit of the Muslim and non-Muslim electorate alike by establishing an Islamic state.

Political Views

Entertainment issues

As an Islamic political party, PAS takes a lead at local level in opposing forms of entertainment that will damage society's morals. It alleges that programmes like Karnival Jomheboh and Akademi Fantasia can damage the morals of Malaysians and Muslims in particular.

PAS strongly condemned a statement by the famous actress, Rosnah Mat Aris in her interview by TV3, a Malaysian television channel.[6]

Sharia law

PAS has publicly stated its intent to instate what it claims to be sharia law onto Muslims which includes two sharia components: hudud and qisas.

Reaching out to non-Muslims

For the most parts of PAS' history, the party has generally only targeted Malay or Muslim supporters. However since the 2004 elections, there has been clear indication of PAS trying to reach out and win the hearts of non-Muslim Malaysians by way of moderation.[7] During the leading up to the 2008 elections, PAS had rarely mentioned about the setting up of an Islamic state, which has been one of the party's main objective throughout the history.[8] The call for an Islamic state to be imposed in Malaysia has been one of the biggest fears of the non-Muslim population.[9] The party had also used the motto Pas For All to woo non-Muslim supporters.[7]

For example, Khalid Abdul Samad, a lawmaker from PAS representing Shah Alam, has made rare visits to a church and temples to reassure non-Muslim minorities on their religious rights after the March election in 2008.[10] In a later interview with online news portal IslamOnline.net, PAS Research Centre head Dr. Dzulkefly Ahmad would come to describe this as a "substantive approach" i.e. by incorporating Islamic elements of justice and fair play in state administration, rather than get embroiled in what he termed "(mere) semantics".[11]

PAS Leaders

List of PAS Mursyidul Am (Spiritual Advisor)

List of PAS Presidents

  • 1951–1953: Ahmad Fuad Hassan
  • 1953–1956: Abbas Alias
  • 1956–1969: Burhanuddin al-Helmy
  • 1969–1982: Asri Muda
  • 1982–1988: Yusof Rawa
  • 1988–2002: Fadzil Noor
  • 2003–present: Abdul Hadi Awang

PAS Members of the 12th Parliament of Malaysia

PAS has 23 MPs in this edition of Parliament.

See also

Notes and references

Other references

External links


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