Infobox Ethnic group
group = ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ ("Kannadiga")ಕನ್ನಡತಿ ("Kannadati")
poptime = 44 million cite web |url= http://www.vistawide.com/languages/top_30_languages.htm|title= Top 30 Languages by Number of Native Speakers: sourced from Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. (2005)|accessdate=2007-05-21|format= |work= Vistawide - World Languages & Cultures]
popplace = flagcountry|India flagcountry|USA
langs = Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ)
Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism
Kannadiga (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ |masculine|), or Kannadati (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡತಿ |feminine|) refers to populations who natively speak the
Kannada language. Kannadigas are mainly located in the state of Karnatakain India, and in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goaand Maharashtra. The plural form 'Kannadigas', used frequently, is an English plural.
Kannadigas are people who speak
Kannada, its variants or its various dialects. The variations of dialects are several. Janapadas of Soliga, Badagaand other tribes of Karnataka having rich contribution to Kannada literature have their own style.
Various districts of Kannada have mixed variations of dialects like Dharwad Kannada, Sankethi,
Havyaka, Are Bhashe, Mysooru Kannada,Mangalooru Kannada Kundagannada etc., based on place. Both Tulu and Kodava are written in Kannada script. Many Kannadigas have emigrated to countries like United States of America, United Kingdom, Australiaand United Arab Emirates.
Kannadigas have built powerful empires and kingdoms with Kannada as the official language. The language was once popular from Kaveri to Godavari as mentioned in
Kavirajamargaof 850 CE. Sastri (1955), pp355-356] Archeological evidences prove Kannada inscriptions found as far north as Madhya Pradesh(Inscription of Krishna III).Kamath (2001), p84, p90] The great Karnataka Expansionprovides insights to various kingdoms of northern India whose originators were from Kannada country.The major empires and kingdoms, their regal capital and most distinguished kings are
Western Ganga Dynasty- Talakadu - Durvinita
Kadamba Dynasty- Banavasi- Mayurasharma
* Badami Chalukya -
Badami- Pulakesi II
Rashtrakuta- Manyakheta- Amoghavarsha I
Hoysala- Belurand Halebidu- Veera Ballala II
* Kalyani Chalukya -
Kalyanior Basavakalyana - Vikramaditya VI
* Southern Kalachuri - Kalyani -
Vijayanagara- Hampi- Hakka, Bukka, Krishnadevaraya
Keladi Nayaka- Ikkeri- Shivappa Nayaka
Kingdom of Mysore- Mysooru- Nalvadi Krishnaraja Odeyar
* Alupas of Canara -
Udupi- Aluvarasa II
Minor dynasties that have played an important role in the development of Kannada language, culture and polity were,
Chutus of Banavasi (feudatory to Satavahana Empire),Moraes (1931), p4] Purava HaleGannada or Pre-old Kannada was the language of Banavasi in the early Christian era, the Satavahana and Kadamba eras (Wilks in Rice, B.L. (1897), p490] Tuluva Dynastyof Canara, Narasimhacharya (1988), p68] Rattas of Saundatti (Belgaum), Guttas of Guttal (Dharwad region),Cousens (1996), p15] Banas of Kolar,Mahalingam in Adiga (2006), p130] Nolambas of Nolambavadi,Adiga (2006), p134] Their territory included modern Tumkur, Chitradurga, Kolar, Bellary and Bangalore districts - Chopra et al. (2003), part1, p163] Vaidumbas,Adiga (2006), p142] They were an Andhra dynasty who ruled over Kurnool, Cuddappah in the 10th century. There inscriptions are in Telugu and Kannada - Chopra et al. (2003), part1, p163] Chengalvas, Kongalvas, Sendrakas of Nagarkhanda (Banavasi province), Yalahanka Nadaprabhu,Also known as the Kempegowda family, builders of modern Bangalore-Kamath (2001), p240-241] Sindas of Yelburga (Bijapur-Gulbarga), Kadambas of Hangal.Two coins of the Hangal Kadambas exist, one with the Kannada inscription "Saarvadhari" and other with "Nakara". They are preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society and Indian Historical Research Institute, Mumbai - Moraes (1931), p385]
In addition, other well known kingdoms that patronized Kannadiga poets and Kannada language were,
Eastern ChalukyasNarasimhacharya (1988), p68]
Seuna Yadavas of DevagiriKamath (2001), p143-144]
* Silharas of Karad (Konkan)
* Kadambas of GoaThe coins of the Kadambas of Goa are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada and Devanagari in triplicate. This shows that the native vernacular of the Goa Kadambas was Kannada - Moraes (1931), p384]
Other brave warriors include
* Kittur Rani Chennamma - Against
* Rani Abbakka - Against Portuguese
Onake Obavva- Against Hyder Ali
Keladi Chennamma- Against Aurangzeb
Sangolli Rayanna- Against British Raj
Tippu Sultan- Against British Raj
Chikka Vira Rajendra- Against British Raj
Kempe Gowda- Founder of modern Bengaluru
Immigrants from Karnataka
In addition to those empires that ruled from the Karnataka region, based on inscriptions and literary evidence historians have discussed the possibility that kingdoms of Kannada origin were established in other parts of India as well. The Karnatak Kshatriyas of
Bihar,Thapar (2003), p433] the Chalukyas of Gujarat,Altekar in Kamath (2001), p73] Altekar 1934, p21–22] the Chalukyas of Vengi ( Eastern Chalukya), Keay (2000), p170] The Eastern Chalukyas were originally of Kannada stock who later encouraged Telugu—cite web|title=APOnline-History of Andhra Pradesh-ancient period-Eastern Chalukyas|url=http://www.aponline.gov.in/quick%20links/hist-cult/history_ancient.html#ChalukyasPart|author=Dr. K.S.S. Seshan, University of Hyderabad|publisher=Tata Consultancy Services|work=Revenue Department (Gazetteers), Government of Andhra Pradesh|accessdate=2006-11-12] the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri,Shrinivas Ritti and A.V. Narasimha Murthy in Kamath 2001, p137] Seuna coins carry Kannada legends from the beginning of their rule (O.P. Varma in Kamath 2001, p137)] cite book
last = Masica
first = Colin P.
title = The Indo-Aryan Languages
year = 1991
publisher = Cambridge University Press
isbn = 0521299446
pages = 45
chapter = Subsequent Spread of Indo-Aryan
chapterurl = http://www.books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521299446&id=Itp2twGR6tsC&pg=RA1-PA45&lpg=RA1-PA45&ots=U0gTw3t3Ke&dq=yadavas+kannada&sig=1XTDt5DPA9UDr0cgmDK7Z4WmSLg] Majority of the Seuna inscriptions are in Kannada and during the formation of the kingdom, the Nasik-Ahamadnagar region (Seuna Desa) was a Kannada territory (Kamath 2001, p137)] the Rashtrakuta family ruling from
Berar(modern Amravati district, Maharashtra),A Kannada dynasty may have been created in Berar under the rule of Badami Chalukyas (Altekar 1934, p21–22)] the Rashtrakutas branch of Gujarat (Lata branch),The Gujarat Rashtrakutas signed even their Sanskrit records in Kannada because that was the language of the place of their origin (D.R. Bhandarkar in Kamath 2001, p73)] The Gujarat Rashtrakutas would not have signed their inscriptions in Kannada language in far away Gujarat unless they were Kannadigas (Altekar 1934, pp21–22 )] the Sena Dynastyof Bengal, the Chindaka Nagas of Central India and the Gangas of Kalinga, were all kingdoms created by immigrants from the Karnataka region.Kamath (2001), p8] . Shivaji's ancestors were originally Kannada speaking community in Bijapur sultanate.
Sculpture has been the epitome of art in Karnataka. Be it the musical pillars of
Hampe, the ekashila (monolithic) statue of Bahubali, the well crafted ELu Suttina Kotey of Chitradurga(The Fort of seven lappings) cutting across hill or be it the wholesomeness of carvings of temples which bared down all desires to be left out of it and formless (above all forms) all encompassing - the inner garbhagrihas. The temples of Karnataka had in them many shaili or varieties to credit. The majestic genius of sculptors can be seen in minute details of these structures. Majority of the temples were built using the locally available stones.
Places of interest are
Pioneer sculptors include
Modern day contemporaries include visionary architects
* Mokshagundam Vishveshwaraiah - Kannambadi Katte or KRS dam
Kengal Hanumanthaiah- Vidhana Soudha
One of the oldest forms of music Karnataka Shastreeya Sangeetha which evolved over ages has been the cultural peak of Kannadiga creativity.
Purandara Dasais regarded as "Karnataka Sangeetha Pithamaha" or the Father of Karnataka Sangeetha.Almost all Kingdoms have seen musical glory throughout.Both Hindustani and Karnataka variations are respected and nurtured in Karnataka. Bhavageeteand Sugama Sangeethaare some innovations. The music has a very useful innovation in Karnataka which provides a beautiful balancing act between the lyrics and the music provided with the wordings and pallavi being important parts known as Gamaka. Every letter/swara denotes a music form and how it's sung with a music enhances its artistic impression on the audience.Contemporary musical thespians are
P. Kalinga Rao
Pt Puttaraj Gawai
Musicians of Mysore kingdom
Divya B Sridhar
Rangabhoomi or the theatre culture is a timeless tradition with Kannadigas. While lots of the literature or gadya are written in praise of the heroic characters of the epics and puranas there are major works depicting the Kings and their power. These are called Nataka-plays having wide ranging stages for performance like Rangamancha -staged in theatres or Beedhinataka -staged on roads or Bayalata which is one of oldest and performed open-theatre.
Hari-kathe which cover entire night is another form where one (or more) person tells a story in an outstanding manner accompanied by music at background. Its a common feature to narrate battles, stories, devotions, pratha or vratha in front of temples on auspicious days.
Some famous Theatrical, Cinematic, Television personalities like
Gubbi Veeranna, G V Iyer, Rajkumar, V. Shantaram, Puttanna Kanagal,Kalpana , Sri Ranga,B V Karanth , Girish Kasaravalli, Girish Karnad, Guru Dutt, Shankar Nag, T N Seetharamhave contributed for this richness. Bengalooru Habba-festival of Bengalooru- a congregation of art performances at different places of the city has been initiated recently and is very successfully celebrated every year. Vasanta Habba- spring festival is a popular one too. In 2006 government of Karnataka tried to bring the folk lore and art into the city blues of Bangalore by initiating Jaanapada Jatre which was hugely successful and received well by art lovers is held on weekends in Lalbaghand other parts of the city.
The heroic, mystic, fierce, spirited reliving of various legends of epics are the major depictions and the theatre of battle scenes of heroism, loyalty and treachery, colour and pageantry are the main subjects.More adapted with the course of nature and seasons adding colour to the harvesting seasons make dances of Karnataka an unparalleled
Jaanapadakale or Common People's art.Some of the folk dances and classical dance forms include
The tribal forms of dance can also be found limitedly in the regions inhabited by
Soligas and forests of Kodaguand Western Ghats.
Some socially harmful practices like devadasi had encroached the land which was imitating the courtesan artist performing in King's court of older times, but was demeaning the life the artist in the contemporary society wasn't allowed extensively to grow. Now the government of Karnataka is taking measures to curb it which prevails in parts bordering Maharashtra.
Kalaa Kshetras (The abode of Art)
are some of the favourite places of art lovers in Karnataka and have produced some of the finest artists.
The martial arts more prevalent in parts of North Karnataka with
Garadi Manepresent in every village and a head to train the youngsters into fit individuals. Kusthi , Malla Yuddha , Kaththi Varase(which can be seen depicted in Veeragase), Malla Kambha (gymnastics on a pole structure with/without rope) are some of the prominent arts practised.
Odeyars arrange kaalaga or fights like Vajra Mushtiduring Dasarafestival which is made less frightening these days as they are publicly staged. Rock lifting, Bull race, Kusthi , Kabaddi, are popular sports. Yogasana, Praanayama and health related camps are very popular throughout the state and some of the best Yogapractitioners can be found here. Art of Livingis one such organization immensely popular all over the world.
There is no limit for festivals to celebrate. They occur throughout the year presenting the diverse culture and belief of the ethnicity. Festivals have varied reasons to celebrate.
* Agriculture : Upon Onset of Monsoon or Sowing or Harvest there are festivals celebrated like Chaandramana Ugaadi(marking new year),
Makara Sankranthiand Huttari.
* Monsoon :
* Puraana : Maha Shivarathri, Varamahalakshmi Vratha, Bheemana Amavasye, Swarna Gowri Vratha , Ganesha Chaturthi, Naagara Panchami, Ratha Sapthami, Krishna Janmashtami, Rama Navami, Vijaya Dashami, Vaikunta Ekadashi, Naraka Chaturdashi, Bali Padyami and the list goes on and on.
In countryside there will be convenient dana (cattlehood - the most sacred friend of agriculturists) gala jaatre with conglomeration of people with a local demigod worshipped and a ratha or theru moved by the Bhakthas and arranged Daasoha.
North Karnataka has a unique blend of Hindu and Muslim brotherhood with people celebrating festivals in unison and exchanging goodwills thanks to great revolutionary Guru Govinda Bhatta and Shishunala Shareefa who had displayed their religious tolerance and spiritual unity of all religions.
Christmasis celebrated at large in Bengalooru and Mangalooru which host some of the oldest churches and educational institutions of the country.
Mavalli Tiffin Room
Male costumes mainly include
Panchey(often tied as Kachche) or Lungi(wearing/wrapping of which depends on the region) and a shirt. Many use Khadiin their clothing till date of which politicians are prominent ones. Kodavahave a unique set of costumes showing valour and bravery. After the era of Kingdoms the crowns available mainly were Mysuru Petaand Dharwad Peta. Shawls are also commonplace worn in cooler seasons. Shalyais a piece of long cloth which is put on shoulder commonly seen in countryside. Karnataka also has the only village in India which produces authentic national flags .
Female costumes mainly include Seerey of which Ilakal Seerey and Mysore Silk(Government owned) are famous. Even it has different variations of draping depending on regions like Kodagu , North and South Karnataka and
Karavali. Gold is the most popular metal for use in jewellery. Kasutiis a form of embroidery work which is very popularly sought after art on dress and costumes.
Kannada literature is filled with literary figures and pioneers all through.
Pampa says :
ಆರಂಕುಶಮಿಟ್ಟೊಡಂ ನೆನೆವುದೆನ್ನ ಮನಂ ಬನವಾಸಿ ದೇಶಮಂ ("Aar-ankusha-mittodam nenevu-denna-manam Banavaasi desha mum")
transliterated as - No matter who tries to stop me, my mind will always think of my country Banavaasi. (Ankusha = sabotage; literally, it’s a sharp knife-like thing they use to control an elephant which has gone haywire).
Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, Madhvacharya, Vidyaranya, Harihara, Raghavanka, Kumara Vyasa, Sarvajna, Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Shishunala Shareefa, Raghavendra Swamietc were pioneers of Nadugannada. All these have been inviolved with social and cultural movements and hence this was the golden era of literature which brought about a renaissance in Kannada literature . They all had a characteristic naamankita - insignia - which would denote a power equalling a God in popular comparison. The literature saw the Vachana-said, Tattva-thatness, Sharana-saviour (of God), and Dasa-slave (to God) padas (short poetries) - reach the common man's ignorance into great depths leading to Siddhanta- philosophies. Kuvempusays :
ಓ ನನ್ನ ಚೇತನ ಆಗು ನೀ ಅನಿಕೇತನ ("O nanna Chetana Aagu nee Aniketana")
transliterated as O my spirit/consciousness, thou transcending all boundaries shalth render thyself homeless.
Kuvempu, D. V. Gundappa, Da Ra Bendre, B. M. Srikantaiah, Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, Shivaram Karanth, V K Gokak, U R Ananthamurthy, P. Lankesh, Girish Karnad, G S Shivarudrappa, Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar, Pu thi Narasimhachar, Chennavira Kanavi, Gopalakrishna Adiga, TaRaSu, A N Krishna Rao, Govinda Pai, S.L. Bhyrappa, Poornachandra Tejaswi, Thriveni, K. S. Nissar Ahmed, K.S. Narasimhaswamy, Chandrashekhara Kambara, Siddhaiah Puranik, G P Rajarathnam, T P Kailasam, Anupama Niranjana, M. K. Indira, Dodda Rangegowdaetc are popular literary figures. This period was amalgamation of literature works which crossed across boundaries under a vast roof encompassed by art and theatre fields. The literature works of Kannada in Navodaya is crowned with 7 Jnanpithawards.Kannada Thantramsha or software is developed under Kuvempu university. There is also a sizeable Open-source community in Bengalooru.
Some of the contemporary active institutions of Kannada literature are
Kannada Sahitya Parishat.
* Academies operating as its wings include the dialects of
Tulu, Konkani , Kodava, and Urdu. A Byariacademy is the latest academy opened in Karnataka [ [http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/25/stories/2007082552750400.htm The Hindu : Karnataka / Bangalore News : Government establishes Beary Academy ] ]
Contemporary Popular Kannadigas
Some of the greatest serving spiritual leaders include
* Sree Sree Shivakumara Swami
Sree Sree Jagadguru Shivarathri Desikendra Mahaswami
* Sri Sri Ganapathi Sachchidananda Swami
Bala Gangadhara Swamy Sri Aadi Chunchanagiri Mutt
Sri Sri Ravi Shankar
H. Narasimhaiah- Unparalleled Rationalist.
B D Jatti
* Shri. Siddeshwar Swami Jnan yogashram Bijapur
* Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya
Modern Science and Technology
Some of the distinguished scientists are
Raja Ramanna- Indian Nuclear Scientist.
* Dr. M.C. Modi - One of the greatest Ophthalmologist of the world and an unparalleled Humanist.
C. N. R. Rao- One of the foremost Solid state scientists of world. Also Chairman of Science Advisory Council of GOI. More prominently leading example of one who studied in Kannada Medium and reached such heights.
Roddam Narasimha[http://www.hindu.com/2005/09/16/stories/2005091604650500.htm "Science centres planned at taluk and district levels"] ] - Senior Scientist IISc, Chairman JNCASR.
Krishnaswami Kasturirangan- Senior Scientist ISRO
U R Rao- Scientist and Former Director Chairman of ISRO.
Devi Prasad Shetty- Acclaimed Caardiac Surgeon, Narayana Hrudayalayaand Humanist.
C.R. Rao- Statistics, Mathematician.Some indigenous technological advances include
Nudi- meaning Spoken Word in Kannada.
Baraha- meaning Written Inscription in Kannada.
Simputer- A simple computer.
Karnataka is one of the few states which even being leading contributor for GDP of the country [http://www.kar.nic.in/finance/bud2007/bsp07.htm "GDP contribution"] ] and home for industries, has preserved its forests and wildlife. The evergreen Sahyadri and Western Ghats are home to protected
Wildlife of Karnataka. The Kannadiga culture protects and balances Kaadu and Naadu as can be seen . Even with lucrative Iron ore mining( Kudremukh) and gold fields( KGF) people have come strongly at times to preserve this culture as the industrialization has failed even to provide the basic amenities like electricity to villages and has remained under hands of corrupt capitalists. Although seen scantly still the state enjoys the diversity owing to tribal sects of Soliga, Badaga, Jenu Kuruba, Hakki Pikki, Lambaniand other inhabitants of forests.Some noted environmentalists include
The Kannadiga Culture
The Puranas describe the region as Kishkindha in the ages of Ramayana. There are also literary evidences for the region of Mysore called as Mahisha Mandala after demon named Mahishasura. Parashurama and Hanumantha are some epic characters to be cited relating to place.
One of the most prominently popular and acknowledged
Jaanapadasong is "Dharani mandala madhyadolage" which narrates an incidence between mother cow and an aggressive tiger in a country called Karnata.
*Srimad Raghaveshwara Bharathi Swami of
Karnataka as now can be viewed as a multi cultural state with almost all the religions that can be found in India can be found here and there has been lot emigration as well due to which
multi-ethnicdiaspora can be seen . As the Kingdoms provided a safe centres for development of all cultures we can see a huge diversities from region to region. Even the language and dialects varies from place to place. The language has evolved distinctly in both the backyard(folk/basic/prakrutha) and frontyard (refined and related to Samskrutha/Sankrit) of the culture. It can be said that the major works of Sanskrit have originated and continues to evolve here. Shringeri, Udupi are some of nerve centres. One of the leading examples include a village near Shivamoggawhere people speak only Sanskrit till date. Bengaluru has almost all language speakers of India.
One of the most acknowledged concept is to be a "Vishwa Maanava" or universal being. In Kuvempu's ideology this has a renowned explanation "Every Child is born as a Vishwa Maanava or a Universal Human . It is the we who make him Alpa Maanava or Little Human by putting various constrictions of borders rituals and castes. It hence becomes responsibility of our culture to again make him a Universal Being unbound and free". The Kannadiga culture is known to provide shelter and self respect to people by owning them and their culture. During independence due to reorganisation of states there was a danger of Konkani
Tuluand Kodavagetting separated from Kannadadiaspora politically but it never happened as they were all part of culture. Even now Tulu and Konkani speaking parts are referred to as undivided Dakshina Kannadaand Uttara Kannada. Two Tibetan colonies for refugees from Tibet are formed, one near Mundgodand one near Kushalanagarafor protecting them from Chinese atrocities. Karnataka has also sheltered flood victims of North Eastern India like Assam and provided them jobs. One of the easily seen diversity is the surnames which vary from hugely like some may involve names involving a Hindu and Muslim name or having a Hindu Christian name (more found in Mangalore) or even a Muslim Christian name. Hindu is normally considered a misnomer for Sanathana.
Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra are the only two states which have diversity of including both
MalenaduNithyaharidwarna -evergreen ghats and Bayaluseemewhich have different ways of living in the same state. Not only this but it acts as a gateway to North and South Indian cultures. It may come as a surprise that Karnataka is next only to Rajasthanin India when it comes to area under arid land but still Southern Karnataka is referred to as Gandhada Gudi - temple of sandalwood found in its protected forests.
After the Odeyar era who already had established democracy by naming elected representative called Saamantha in southern regions as early as 1800s , the 1947 partition brought a centre into being under democracy and Karnataka accepted a
bicamerallegislature. But this was a functionally a failure as there always has been a tug of war from centre and states to an extent that from 1990s to 2010 there have always been different political parties operating at centre and state. North Karnataka had other problems of getting independence more from Nizams. So there were two different spheres. Lack of will and coordination and constant fights have been hallmark of politics which has prevented a regional party/media from arising in the land. Keralabeing a neighbour where hugely successful communist ideology in bringing up literacy levels has also a backing here and a few naxaliteoutfits do function in Karnataka. Also functional failure of all pillars of democracy even being upper riparian state can be clearly seen in the Kaveri River Water Disputeissue. The failure extended to bureaucracy and Karnataka reached the position of being fourth most corrupt state of India [ [http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/may/29kgovt1.htm "Bureaucratic Corruption"] ] due to political and bureaucratic lobby due to which Lokayukta (see N. Venkatachala) was formed but could not get the required powers to deal with the powerful. It is further fuelled by government employing people from other states in Karnataka - a common feature which will be seen in next section. In the field of press and journalism P. Lankeshand S. Gurumurthy[ [http://gurumurthy.net/index.php?value=interview "S Gurumurthy of The New Indian Express"] ] are some of the noted ones famous for their leftist affiliations.
The Dravidian leader and social reformer Periyar, is a third generation Kannada emigrant from Mysore.
Periyar E. V. Ramasamysingle handedly changed the essence of Tamil Naduand Indian politics to a very great extent. He also used to declare proudly of his Kannada ancestry. The present Tamil Nadu polity is descended from Periyar and his movemnent.Fact|date=April 2008.He is quoted as saying "Many people say I am not a Tamilian myself. They are saying this because my mother tongue is Kannada. Many think that I am a Telugu - Naidu. I am a Kannadiga of the Kannada Balijawar caste." [Periyar E.V.R's speeches, Dravidar Kazhakam publication, 1990, Chennai] M. P. Veerendra Kumar, a similar Kannadiga in Kerala is a multi faceted personality having a prominent hand in making Mathrubhumia leading Malayalam journal, besides being an active politician and a noted new genre Malayalam Litterateur.
The failure in political arena has also reflected in the cultural isolation of emigrants. Some of the unsuccessfully functional bodies include Dehali Kannadiga and AKKA (American Kannada Koota Association) who try being culturally involved.
Culture of Mysore
Kannada Kannadiga Karnataka
The essence of the term Kannadiga is quite interesting. During the period of British rule, state of Karnataka as it stands today did not exist. Areas that today comprise Karnataka were under as many as 20 different administrative units with the princely state of Mysore, Nizam's Hyderabad, the
Bombay Presidency, the Madras Presidencyand the territory of Kodagubeing the most important ones. In effect, nearly two-thirds of what is "now" Karnataka fell outside the rule of the Wodeyar kings of Mysore. In addition the proposed state was having 6 neighbours Goa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Keralaand Lakshadweepand all had Kannadigas in them.
What this meant for the Kannadigas in these regions was that they were reduced to linguistic minorities wherever they were. Kannadigas in the Hubli-Karnataka region for example, came under the rule of the Bombay Presidency where Marathi was the official language. Those in the Hyderabad-Karnataka region came under the Nizam's rule where
Urduruled. Kannadigas in Dakshina Kannadacame under the rule from Madras Presidency which used Tamil for all purposes.
Under these conditions, a feeling of discontent had started brewing among Kannadigas outside Mysore. They felt that their interests and their language was being mortgaged to the interests of the higher ups.
It was in this backdrop that the movement that first started as a protest against linguistic oppression, soon morphed into one that began demanding a separate state be created consolidating all Kannada speaking regions. This was essentially a movement that was spearheaded by the poets, journalists and writers and was called the "Ekikarana" or 'Unification' movement.India gained independence in 1947. The joy of independence soon gave way to disappointment as the new government started dragging its feet on "Karnataka Ekikarana" movement. Kannada speaking areas now got grouped under five administrative units of the Bombay and Madras provinces, Kodagu, and the princely states of Mysore and Hyderabad. The "Akhila Karnataka Ekikarana Parishat" met in
Kasargodand reiterated the demand for a separate state for Kannadigas.The ratification in parliament of the recommendations of the Fazal Ali Committeebrought unbounded joy to the entire Kannadiga population that now was merged under the state of Mysore. Along with all the joy, came the acute disappointment at the non inclusion of certain parts in the Mysore state. The biggest disappointment lay in the non inclusion of Kasargodin the newly formed state. The irony also lay in the fact that Kasargod was one of the bastions from which the "Ekikarana movement" had launched its agitation. This is an issue that continues to rankle those who fought for the unification of Karnataka. Some like literary giant and nonagenarian Kayyara Kiyyanna Raiwho was part of the movement since its earliest days still continues to fight for Kasargod's merger with Karnataka albeit peacefully. Belgaum border disputeis another controversial issue which has led to huge turmoil in border of Karnataka and Maharashtra.On 1 November 1973, under Devaraj Ursas Chief Minister, Mysore state was renamed as "Karnataka" since it was felt that Karnataka was more 'inclusive' of all the other regions of Karnataka than the name "Mysore".
Some of the active Kannada pro organisations include
Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha
Karnataka Ekikarana Samithi
Karnataka Rakshana Vedike
Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha
Some of the contemporary issues for which every Kanndiga is fighting today are
Nanjundappa- (Chairman of Committee for Redressal of Regional imbalances) Report [http://www.kar.nic.in/finance/bud2006/budsp06.htm "Nanjundappa Report"] ] is still pending to be implemented.
Sarojini MahishiReport [http://ellakavi.wordpress.com/tag/sarojini-mahishi-report/report "Sarojini Mahishi"] ] which mandated jobs for Kannadigas in centre was not important for the centre.The much disputed Kaveri River water sharing issue Kaveri River Water Disputeis a grave injustice done from even the Supreme Court which asked to release water from IO report( highly unscientific asking water for 10 years [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1919/19190170.htm "Kaveri Dispute"] ] when people are getting scant water in upper riparian state- rightfully thrashed down by Karnataka). Also the Union Government adopted delaying tactics in according the similar classical status to Kannada due to DMK lobby against it. A Tamil fanatic also awarded doctorate by Karnataka Open University, Kulandaiswamy known as scientist in Tamil Nadu has vowed to make Tamil at the top of every hierarchy engrossing all languages under Dravidian and naming them to have descended from Tamil. [http://www.starofmysore.com/searchinfo.asp?search1=17032&search2=newsheadlines "Tamil Hosility"] ] shows the hold Tamils have in all the walks of Indian democracy. Due to this backstabbing hostility the old Mysuru region(which borders hostile state in a way betrayed by rule of Odeyars by signing treaties and retaining them giving Tamil lobby a upper hand) is the most victimised and has become the most backward in the state( the Chamarajnagar and Gundlupet region [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/2006/09/05/stories/2006090520750100.htm "Backwardness"] ] ) which once held the crown of being princely state due to the backwardness in agriculture and irrigation.
Kannada ethnic flag
ethnic flagis a banner with two horizontal stripes, yellow on top and red on the bottom [ [http://flagspot.net/flags/in-ka.html#yr Kannada ethnic flag:] ] . The flag although niether officially declared nor represents any legendary empire but something which is accepted in recent times unofficially representing a symbol of welfare as ಅರಿಶಿಣ and ಕುಂಕುಮ.
List of people from Karnataka
List of people from Bangalore
Kodandera Madappa Cariappa
* Cinema of Karnataka
* [http://www.kn.wikipedia.org Kannada Wikipedia]
* John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0
* Suryanath U. Kamat, A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041
* Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4
* Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934), The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C. 750 AD to C. 1000 A.D, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, OCLC 3793499
* K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002), ISBN 019560686-8
* R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras,1988 ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
* Malini Adiga (2006), The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the early medieval period, AD 400-1030, Orient Longman, Chennai, ISBN 81 250 2912 5
* George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1990 ISBN 81-206-0595-0
* Rice, B.L.  (2001). Mysore Gazatteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8.
* Chopra P.N., Ravindran T.K., Subrahmanian N. (2003), History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern), Chand publications, New Delhi ISBN 81-219-0153-7
*Cousens, Henry, (1926), The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Distrcits, Archeological Survey of India, New Delhi, OCLC 37526233
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