- Philip Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker
Philip Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker
Born 1 November 1889 Died 8 October 1982 Olympic medal record Men's athletics Competitor for United Kingdom Silver 1920 Antwerp 1500 metres
Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker (1 November 1889 – 8 October 1982) was a British politician, diplomat, academic, an outstanding amateur athlete, and renowned campaigner for disarmament who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1959.
Early life and athletic career
Philip John Baker was born in Hendon, to a Canadian-born Quaker father, Joseph Allen Baker, who moved to England to set up a manufacturing business and himself served on the London County Council and in the House of Commons. Educated at Bootham School and Ackworth School, York and then in the US at the Quaker-associated Haverford College in Pennsylvania, he attended King's College, Cambridge from 1910 to 1912. As well as being an excellent student, he became President of the Cambridge Union Society and the Cambridge University Athletic Club.
He was selected and ran for Britain at the Stockholm Olympic Games in 1912, and was team manager as well as a competitor for the British track team for the 1920 and 1924 Olympics. In 1920 at Antwerp he won a silver medal in the 1500 metres. The exploits of the British team at the 1924 Games in Paris were later made famous in the 1982 film Chariots of Fire, though Noel-Baker's part in such was not portrayed in that film.
During World War I, Noel-Baker organised and led the Friends' Ambulance Unit attached to the fighting front in France (1914–1915), and was then, as a conscientious objector from 1916, adjutant of the First British Ambulance Unit for Italy (1915–1918), for which he received military medals from France and Italy as well as his own country.
After the war, Noel-Baker was heavily involved in the formation of the League of Nations, serving as assistant to Lord Robert Cecil, then assistant to Sir Eric Drummond, the league's first secretary-general. He was also an academic early in his career, as the first Sir Ernest Cassel Professor of International Relations at the University of London from 1924 to 1929 and as a lecturer at Yale University from 1933 to 1934.
His political career with the Labour Party began in 1924 when he stood, unsuccessfully, for Parliament. He was elected as the member for Coventry in 1929, but lost his seat in 1931. In 1936 Noel-Baker won a by-election in Derby after the sitting Member of Parliament (MP) J. H. Thomas resigned; when that seat was divided in 1950, he transferred to Derby South and continued until 1970. In 1977, he was made a life peer as Baron Noel-Baker, of the City of Derby.
As well as a Parliamentary Secretary role during World War II under Winston Churchill, he served in a succession of junior ministries in the Attlee Labour Government. He was also prominent within Labour, serving as Chairman of the Labour Party in 1946. In the mid-1940s, Noel-Baker served on the British delegation to what became the United Nations, helping to draft its charter and other rules for operation as a British delegate.
In 1915 Philip Baker married Irene Noel, a field hospital nurse in East Grinstead subsequently adopting the hyphenated name Noel-Baker. Their only son, Francis Noel-Baker, also became a parliamentarian and served together with his father in the Commons. Philip Noel-Baker's mistress from 1936 to 1956 was Lady Megan Lloyd George, daughter of the former Liberal Party leader David Lloyd George, herself a Liberal and later Labour MP. Following Noel-Baker's death in Westminster at the age of 92, he was buried alongside his wife Irene in Heyshott in West Sussex.
by Philip Noel-Baker
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1925). The Geneva Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. London: P. S. King & Son Ltd.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1926). Disarmament. London: The Hogarth Press. (Reprint 1970, New York: Kennicat Press)
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1926). The League of Nations at Work. London: Nisbet.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1927). Disarmament and the Coolidge Conference. London: Leonard & Virginia Woolf.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1929). The Present Juridical Status of the British Dominions in International Law. London: Longmans.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1934). Disarmament. London: League of Nations Union.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1934). Hawkers of Death: The Private Manufacture and Trade in Arms. London: Labour Party. (28pp pamphlet)
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1936). The Private Manufacture of Armaments. London: Victor Gollancz. (Reprint 1972, New York: Dover Publications)
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1944). Before we go back: a pictorial record of Norway's fight against Nazism. London: H.M.S.O..
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1946). U.N., the Atom, the Veto (speech at the Plenary Assembly of the United Nations 25 October 1946). London: The Labour Party.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1958). The Arms Race : A Programme for World Disarmament. London: Stevens & Sons. ASIN: B0000CJZPN.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1962). Nansen's Place in History. Oslo: Universitetsförlaget. (26pp pamphlet)
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1963). The Way to World Disarmament-Now!. London: Union of Democratic Control.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1979). The first World Disarmament Conference, 1932-1933 and why it failed. Oxford: Pergamon. ISBN 0080233651.
by Philip Noel-Baker with other authors
- Buzzard, Rear-Admiral Sir Anthony; Noel-Baker, Philip (1959). Disarmament and Defence. United Nations [Peacefinder Pamphlet. no. 28].
- Mountbatten, Louis; Noel-Baker, Philip, and Zuckerman, Solly (1980). Apocalypse now?. Nottingham: Spokesman Books. ISBN 0851242979.
- Noel-Baker, Philip (1934). Challenge To Death. London: Constable.
- Ferguson, John (1983). Philip Noel-Baker : the man and his message. London: United Nations Association. ASIN: B0000EF3NF.
- Lloyd, Lorna: Philip Noel-Baker and the Peace Through Law in Long, David; Wilson, Peter (eds) (1995). Thinkers of the Twenty Years’ Crisis. Inter-War Idealism reassessed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198278551
- Russell, Bertrand; Russell, B. (1960). "Philip Noel-Baker: A Tribute". International Relations 2: 1–2. doi:10.1177/004711786000200101.
- Whittaker, David J. (1989). Fighter for peace : Philip Noel-Baker 1889-1982. York: Sessions. ISBN 1850720568.
- ^ "Philip Noel-Baker; The Nobel Peace Prize 1959". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1959/noel-baker-bio.html. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- ^ "Lord Philip Noel-Baker, Nobel Prize Winner". London School of Economics. http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/pressAndInformationOffice/aboutLSE/nobelPrizeWinners/noelBaker.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Philip Noel-Baker
- Nobel Committee information on Noel-Baker.
- Archival material relating to Philip Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker listed at the UK National Register of Archives
- "Papers of Philip Noel-Baker (Churchill/NBKR)". Churchill Archives Centre. http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0014%2FNBKR. Retrieved 2007-06-02. (timeline of Noel-Baker's life, and index to his papers held at Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge)
Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Coventry
Capt WF Strickland
J. H. Thomas and
William Allan Reid
Member of Parliament for Derby
With: William Allan Reid to 1945
Clifford Wilcock from 1945
constituency divided New constituency Member of Parliament for Derby South
Political offices Preceded by
Chair of the Labour Party
The Viscount Stansgate
Secretary of State for Air
The Viscount Addison
Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
Patrick Gordon Walker
Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize (1951–1975)
- Léon Jouhaux (1951)
- Albert Schweitzer (1952)
- George Marshall (1953)
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1954)
- Lester B. Pearson (1957)
- Georges Pire (1958)
- Philip Noel-Baker (1959)
- Albert Lutuli (1960)
- Dag Hammarskjöld (1961)
- Linus Pauling (1962)
- International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies (1963)
- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964)
- UNICEF (1965)
- René Cassin (1968)
- International Labour Organization (1969)
- Norman Borlaug (1970)
- Willy Brandt (1971)
- Henry Kissinger / Le Duc Tho (declined award) (1973)
- Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō (1974)
- Andrei Sakharov (1975)
- Complete list
- 1889 births
- 1982 deaths
- People from Hendon
- English Quakers
- Labour Party (UK) MPs
- Labour Party (UK) life peers
- British sportsperson–politicians
- Athletes (track and field) at the 1912 Summer Olympics
- Athletes (track and field) at the 1920 Summer Olympics
- Athletes (track and field) at the 1924 Summer Olympics
- Bootham Old Scholars
- British anti-war activists
- British Secretaries of State
- English Christian pacifists
- Nobel Peace Prize laureates
- British Nobel laureates
- Members of the United Kingdom Parliament for English constituencies
- Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom
- Presidents of the Cambridge Union Society
- Alumni of King's College, Cambridge
- Fellows of King's College, Cambridge
- Academics of the London School of Economics
- British conscientious objectors
- English athletes
- English middle distance runners
- Olympic athletes of Great Britain
- Olympic silver medalists for Great Britain
- Haverford College alumni
- Derbyshire MPs
- UK MPs 1929–1931
- UK MPs 1935–1945
- UK MPs 1945–1950
- UK MPs 1950–1951
- UK MPs 1951–1955
- UK MPs 1955–1959
- UK MPs 1959–1964
- UK MPs 1964–1966
- UK MPs 1966–1970
- Olympic medalists in athletics (track and field)
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